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poverty effects

Mohammad Siahpush, Paraskevi A Farazi, Shannon I Maloney, Danae Dinkel, Minh N Nguyen, Gopal K Singh
OBJECTIVES: To examine (1) the association between household socioeconomic status (SES) and whether a household spends money on cigarettes and (2) socioeconomic variations in proportion of total household expenditure spent on cigarettes among smoking households. METHODS: We pooled data from six consecutive years, 2010-2015, of the Consumer Expenditure Interview Survey. The interviews involved a structured questionnaire about household income, demographics and expenditures including expenditure on cigarettes...
June 15, 2018: BMJ Open
Andrea K Newman, Shweta Kapoor, Beverly E Thorn
Background: Chronic pain is a serious health problem with high rates of health care utilization (HCU). Many patients become stymied in a perpetual cycle of unsuccessful attempts to find relief from suffering through frequent health care visits. Especially within low-income populations, the burdens of health care services are especially unpleasant due to significant financial costs, barriers to transportation, and high levels of stress. This study aimed to examine factors associated with HCU for chronic pain in low-income settings...
June 13, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Vendhan Gajalakshmi, Ben Lacey, Vendhan Kanimozhi, Paul Sherliker, Richard Peto, Sarah Lewington
BACKGROUND: The association between cause-specific mortality and body-mass index (BMI) has been studied mainly in high-income countries. We investigated the relations between BMI, systolic blood pressure, and mortality in India. METHODS: Men and women aged 35 years or older were recruited into a prospective study from the general population in Chennai, India between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2001. Participants were interviewed (data collected included age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, medical history, tobacco smoking, and alcohol intake) and measured (height, weight, and blood pressure)...
July 2018: Lancet Global Health
Chenyue Zhao, Feng Wang, Xudong Zhou, Minmin Jiang, Therese Hesketh
BACKGROUND: Tens of millions of rural "left-behind children (LBC)" in China grow up experiencing prolonged separation from their migrant worker parents. This study aimed to explore how children are affected by parental migration, from the perspectives of children, parents, and grandparents, focusing on the experiences of prolonged parent-child separation and relationship dynamics in the extended family. METHODS: Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted in a migrant-sending rural area of eastern China...
June 15, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Denise Bradford, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Michelle Leon, Nancy Brener, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States. In addition, significant health disparities exist among demographic subgroups of youth defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. Population-based data on the most important health-related behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can be used to help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth at the national, state, and local levels...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Abhishek Mehta
Background: The economic liberalization which was started 25 years back in India has led to a rising gross domestic product and per capita income and a decline in poverty. There has been an improvement in various health status indicators in the Indian population. As oral health is an integral part of general health, a retrospective study was designed to assess the effect of economic liberalization on dental caries experience in Indian children. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted to find studies done on dental caries prevalence in children in India from the year 1992-2016...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Ram B Jain, Alan Ducatman
Cross-sectional data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 1999-2012 for those aged ≥20 years, fasting for at least 8 h, and classified as smokers and nonsmokers on the basis of observed serum cotinine levels were used to evaluate the impact of smoking on the adjusted and unadjusted concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG). Adjustments were made for the effects of gender; race/ethnicity; survey year; dietary intake of alcohol; caffeine; cholesterol; saturated, unsaturated, and total fatty acids; fasting time; body mass index; and poverty income ratio...
January 2018: Journal of Circulating Biomarkers
Zhaohua Zhang, Yuxi Luo, Derrick Robinson
Vulnerability to food poverty is the probability of an individual falling below the food poverty line in the near future, which provides a forward-looking welfare analysis. Applying a nationally representative survey dataset, this study investigates the role of the New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS) in reducing food poverty and vulnerability among the rural elderly with chronic diseases. By designing province-specific food poverty lines to account for variations in the elderly’s needs, as well as the prices across provinces using a least-cost linear programming approach, the food poverty incidences among the elderly with chronic diseases are calculated...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Annabelle Jade Bladon, Essam Yassin Mohammed, Belayet Hossain, Golam Kibria, Liaquat Ali, E J Milner-Gulland
Conservation payments are increasingly advocated as a way to meet both social and ecological objectives, particularly in developing countries, but these payments often fail to reach the 'right' individuals. The Government of Bangladesh runs a food compensation scheme that aims to contribute to hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) conservation by improving the socioeconomic situation of households affected by hilsa sanctuary fishing bans. Analysing data from a household survey of compensation recipients and non-recipients, we identify the current correlates of compensation distribution and explore perceptions of fairness in this distribution...
2018: PloS One
Pasqualina M Coffey, Anna P Ralph, Vicki L Krause
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) poses a major disease burden among disadvantaged populations globally. It results from acute rheumatic fever (ARF), a complication of Group A Streptococcal (GAS) infection. These conditions are acknowledged as diseases of poverty, however the role of specific social and environmental factors in GAS infection and progression to ARF/RHD is not well understood. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the association between social determinants of health and GAS infection, ARF and RHD, and the effect of interventions targeting these...
June 13, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Shervin Assari, Maryam Moghani Lankarani
Background: Living above the poverty line reduces the risk of physical illnesses, including childhood asthma (CA). Minorities’ Diminished Return theory, however, suggests that the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on health are weaker for racial minorities than White families. It is unknown whether the association between SES and CA differs for White and Black families. Aims: Using a national sample, the current study compared Black and White families for the association between living above the poverty line and CA...
June 12, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Stephen J Lepore, Bradley N Collins, Donna L Coffman, Jonathan P Winickoff, Uma S Nair, Beth Moughan, Tyra Bryant-Stephens, Daniel Taylor, David Fleece, Melissa Godfrey
BACKGROUND: Pediatricians following clinical practice guidelines for tobacco intervention (“Ask, Advise, and Refer” [AAR]) can motivate parents to reduce child tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). However, brief clinic interventions are unable to provide the more intensive, evidence-based behavioral treatments that facilitate the knowledge, skills, and confidence that parents need to both reduce child TSE and quit smoking. We hypothesized that a multilevel treatment model integrating pediatric clinic-level AAR with individual-level, telephone counseling would promote greater long-term (12-month) child TSE reduction and parent smoking cessation than clinic-level AAR alone...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jean-Francois Trani, Parul Bakhshi, Derek Brown, Dominique Lopez, Fiona Gall
The capability approach pioneered by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum offers a new paradigm to examine disability, poverty and their complex associations. Disability is hence defined as a situation in which a person with an impairment faces various forms of restrictions in functionings and capabilities. Additionally, poverty is not the mere absence of income but a lack of ability to achieve essential functionings; disability is consequently the poverty of capabilities of persons with impairment. It is the lack of opportunities in a given context and agency that leads to persons with disabilities being poorer than other social groups...
May 25, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Kader Tekkas Kerman, Patricia Betrus
Violence against women (VAW) in Turkey is concerning, and to develop and implement effective prevention strategies for addressing it, careful consideration must be given to the factors that influence it. In this review, we synthesized the body of literature on VAW in Turkey according to a social ecological framework, which is a theoretical model considering the complex interplay between individual, relationship, community, and societal factors. Consistent with this framework, we obtained research articles and commentaries in Turkish and English from a variety of national and international databases and websites regarding risk factors, cultural practices violating women's rights, and trends and current practices, including prevention efforts...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Joshua L Warren, Penny Gordon-Larsen
While there is a literature on the distribution of food stores across geographic and social space, much of this research uses cross-sectional data. Analyses attempting to understand whether the availability of stores across neighborhoods is associated with diet and/or health outcomes are limited by a lack of understanding of factors that shape the emergence of new stores and the closure of others. We used quarterly data on supermarket and convenience store locations spanning seven years (2006-2012) and tract-level census data in four US cities: Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; San Francisco, California...
June 2018: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A, (Statistics in Society)
Tim Xu, Eili Y Klein, Mo Zhou, Justin Lowenthal, Joshua M Sharfstein, Susan M Peterson
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the effect of insurance expansion on emergency department (ED) utilization among the uninsured in Maryland, which expanded Medicaid eligibility and created health insurance exchanges in 2014. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of statewide administrative claims for July 2012 to December 2015. We used coarsened exact matching to pair uninsured and insured (Medicaid, Medicare, commercial, and other) adult Maryland residents who visited an ED or were hospitalized at baseline (July 2012 to December 2013)...
June 7, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Allan T Daly, Ashish A Deshmukh, Damon J Vidrine, Alexander V Prokhorov, Summer G Frank, Patricia D Tahay, Maggie E Houchen, Scott B Cantor
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of cigarette smoking is significantly higher among those living at or below the federal poverty level. Cell phone-based interventions among such populations have the potential to reduce smoking rates and be cost-effective. METHODS: We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of three smoking cessation interventions: Standard Care (SC) (brief advice to quit, nicotine replacement therapy and self-help written materials), Enhanced Care (EC) (SC plus cell phone-delivered messaging) and Intensive Care (IC) (EC plus cell phone-delivered counselling)...
June 9, 2018: Tobacco Control
Shayna D Hibbs, Kristin M Rankin, Carla DeSisto, James W Collins
Few studies have examined contributions of paternal factors to birth outcomes. Weathering is a pattern of increasing rates of adverse birth outcome with increasing maternal age. This study evaluates for an association between paternal involvement and weathering in the context of preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks) among non-Hispanic African-American and non-Hispanic White women with and without lifelong exposure to neighborhood poverty. Using the Illinois transgenerational dataset with appended US census income information of infants (1989-1991) and their mothers (1956-1976), we compared infants of women by degree of paternal involvement: married, unmarried with father named on birth certificate, and unnamed father...
May 30, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Judy Wanjiru Mbuthia, Manasi Kumar, Fredrik Falkenström, Mary Wangari Kuria, Caleb Joseph Othieno
Background: Mental illness affects every segment of population including young adults. The beliefs held by young patients regarding the causes of mental illness impact their treatment-seeking behaviour. It is pertinent to know the commonly held attributions around mental illness so as to effectively provide psychological care, especially in a resource constrained context such as Kenya. This helps in targeting services around issues such as stigma and extending youth-friendly services...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Cynthia A Connolly, Janet Golden
In April 1918, President Woodrow Wilson, alarmed at the high draftee rejection rate, proclaimed the second year of American engagement in World War I as "Children's Year." The motto of the nationwide program was to "Save 100,000 Babies." Children's Year represented a multipronged child welfare campaign aimed at gathering data on best practices regarding maternal and child health promotion, documenting the effects of poverty on ill health, reducing the school drop-out rate, ensuring safe play spaces for children, and addressing the unique needs of targeted populations such as orphans and delinquents...
July 2018: American Journal of Public Health
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