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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643995/contraception-options-and-provision-to-adolescents
#1
Cynthia L Robbins, Mary A Ott
Adolescent pregnancy is a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality. Adolescents who become pregnancy have lower educational attainment, are more likely to live in poverty, and have lower wellbeing. Increasing access to hormonal contraceptives and long acting reversible contraception is highly effective in reducing adolescent pregnancies. This narrative review covers key aspects of the provision of contraception to adolescents, including confidentiality, counseling, and data supporting expanded access to adolescents...
June 22, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641029/gender-differences-in-the-trajectory-classes-of-depressive-symptoms-in-korean-older-adults
#2
Hyunjoo Lee, Sojung Park
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed (1) to identify gender-specific heterogeneous longitudinal patterns of depressive symptoms, (2) to explore the effects of economic status and various health conditions as risk factors in depressive symptom trajectories. METHOD: Data came from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2012) focuing on older adults aged 65 and older. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify the depressive symptom trajectory groups. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between economic and health status changes and the depresison trajectories...
June 22, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637645/doctors-can-act-as-advocates-on-health-effects-of-poverty-says-bma
#3
Abi Rimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637262/qualitative-exploration-of-a-smoking-cessation-trial-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#4
Nandita Krishnan, Joel Gittelsohn, Alexandra Ross, Jessica Elf, Sandy Chon, Raymond Niaura, Neil Martinson, Jonathan E Golub
Introduction: In South Africa, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a high prevalence of smoking, which undermines the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, little is known about barriers to smoking cessation and what interventions work for PLWH in this setting. Methods: A randomized trial comparing intensive anti-smoking counseling versus counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was recently concluded in Klerksdorp, South Africa. In a post-trial follow-up, 23 in-depth interviews with patients and one focus group discussion with counselors from the trial were conducted...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636445/developing-a-casper-survey-to-assess-the-prevalence-of-risk-factors-for-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-texas
#5
Seth Smitherman, Tracy Hammond, Daniel Goldberg, Jennifer Horney
While more than a billion people live at risk of neglected tropical diseases in areas of Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America, the degree to which such diseases burden countries like the United States is currently unclear. Even though many neglected tropical diseases such as dengue, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease are not endemic to the United States, the possibility of their emergence is noteworthy, especially in states like Texas, which has high levels of poverty, a large immigrant population, and a climate amenable to the vectors for these diseases and is geographically proximate to endemic areas...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635981/patient-perceived-access-to-care-when-actively-seeking-treatment
#6
Zachary Pruitt, Susan Sportsman
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To examine predictors of perceived access to care and reported barriers to care of patients with cancer actively seeking treatment.
. DESIGN: Retrospective secondary data analysis.
. SETTING: U.S. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a national survey with questions about healthcare coverage and access.
. SAMPLE: 1,170 adults with cancer actively seeking treatment.
. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634248/suburban-families-experience-with-food-insecurity-screening-in-primary-care-practices
#7
Deepak Palakshappa, Stephanie Doupnik, Aditi Vasan, Saba Khan, Leah Seifu, Chris Feudtner, Alexander G Fiks
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity (FI) remains a major public health problem. With the rise in suburban poverty, a greater understanding of parents' experiences of FI in suburban settings is needed to effectively screen and address FI in suburban practices. METHODS: We conducted 23 semistructured interviews with parents of children <4 years of age who presented for well-child care in 6 suburban pediatric practices and screened positive for FI. In the interviews, we elicited parents' perceptions of screening for FI, how FI impacted the family, and recommendations for how practices could more effectively address FI...
June 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630291/global-sustainable-development-priorities-500-y-after-luther-sola-schola-et-sanitate
#8
Wolfgang Lutz
Martin Luther succinctly summarized his theology in sola statements, such as sola scriptura, viewing the Bible (scriptura) as the only valid source of information about God rather than what he viewed as the extraneous, corrupting church doctrine of the time. As a secular side effect of this focus on individual reading skills, the Protestant territories were the first to acquire high literacy rates, which subsequently fostered health, economic growth, and good governance. Here I argue that a similar priority focus on empowerment of all segments of all populations through education and health (sola schola et sanitate) is needed today for sustainable development...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624928/a-survey-analysis-of-indigenous-goat-production-in-communal-farming-systems-of-botswana
#9
P I Monau, C Visser, S J Nsoso, E Van Marle-Köster
A total of 153 communal farmers in four agro-ecological regions of Botswana were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The aims of the survey were to characterise existing communal goat production systems, evaluate the importance of goats to farmers and identify breeding practices and constraints encountered in goat production in Botswana. Data was collected on socio-economic parameters, general and breeding management practices and major constraints limiting goat production in Botswana. All respondents were small-scale communal farmers with 63% respondents practising mixed crop-livestock farming and 37% keeping livestock as their primary activity...
June 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623451/neighborhood-inequalities-in-hepatitis-c-mortality-spatial-and-temporal-patterns-and-associated-factors
#10
Mary M Ford, Payal S Desai, Gil Maduro, Fabienne Laraque
Deaths attributable to hepatitis C (HCV) infection are increasing in the USA even as highly effective treatments become available. Neighborhood-level inequalities create barriers to care and treatment for many vulnerable populations. We seek to characterize citywide trends in HCV mortality rates over time and identify and describe neighborhoods in New York City (NYC) with disproportionately high rates and associated factors. We used a multiple cause of death (MCOD) definition for HCV mortality. Cases identified between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2014, were geocoded to NYC census tracts (CT)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617870/a-novel-genetic-technique-in-plasmodium-berghei-allows-liver-stage-analysis-of-genes-required-for-mosquito-stage-development-and-demonstrates-that-de-novo-heme-synthesis-is-essential-for-liver-stage-development-in-the-malaria-parasite
#11
Upeksha L Rathnapala, Christopher D Goodman, Geoffrey I McFadden
The combination of drug resistance, lack of an effective vaccine, and ongoing conflict and poverty means that malaria remains a major global health crisis. Understanding metabolic pathways at all parasite life stages is important in prioritising and targeting novel anti-parasitic compounds. The unusual heme synthesis pathway of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, requires eight enzymes distributed across the mitochondrion, apicoplast and cytoplasm. Deletion of the ferrochelatase (FC) gene, the final enzyme in the pathway, confirms that heme synthesis is not essential in the red blood cell stages of the life cycle but is required to complete oocyst development in mosquitoes...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615948/marijuana-use-recent-marijuana-initiation-and-progression-to-marijuana-use-disorder-among-young-male-and-female-adolescents-aged-12-14-living-in-us-households
#12
Valerie L Forman-Hoffman, Cristie Glasheen, Kathryn R Batts
Marijuana initiation during adolescence, and early adolescence in particular, is associated with adverse health consequences. Our study used 2005-2014 data from the annual, cross-sectional National Survey on Drug Use and Health to study the prevalence and correlates of marijuana initiation, use, and marijuana use disorder (MUD; abuse or dependence) among 12- to 14-year olds living in civilian US households (n = 84 954). Examined correlates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty status, metropolitan status, year of survey, depression, tobacco use, alcohol use, and fighting at school...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614554/efficacy-of-a-maternal-depression-prevention-strategy-in-head-start-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Michael Silverstein, Yaminette Diaz-Linhart, Howard Cabral, William Beardslee, Mark Hegel, Winta Haile, Jenna Sander, Gregory Patts, Emily Feinberg
Importance: Low-income and minority mothers experience a disproportionate incidence of depression and lack access to treatment services. Development of prevention strategies in accessible community-based venues is a potentially important public health strategy. Objective: To determine the efficacy of a depression prevention strategy embedded in Head Start. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was performed from February 15, 2011, through May 9, 2016, at 6 Head Start agencies serving families at or below the federal poverty level...
June 14, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613395/clozapine-dose-for-schizophrenia
#14
REVIEW
Selvizhi Subramanian, Birgit A Völlm, Nick Huband
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and related disorders such as schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorder are serious mental illnesses characterised by profound disruptions in thinking and speech, emotional processes, behaviour and sense of self. Clozapine is useful in the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders, particularly when other antipsychotic medications have failed. It improves positive symptoms (such as delusions and hallucinations) and negative symptoms (such as withdrawal and poverty of speech)...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609181/effect-of-the-earned-income-tax-credit-on-hospital-admissions-for-pediatric-abusive-head-trauma-1995-2013
#15
Joanne Klevens, Brian Schmidt, Feijun Luo, Likang Xu, Katie A Ports, Rosalyn D Lee
OBJECTIVES: Policies that increase household income, such as the earned income tax credit (EITC), have shown reductions on risk factors for child maltreatment (ie, poverty, maternal stress, depression), but evidence is lacking on whether the EITC actually reduces child maltreatment. We examined whether states' EITCs are associated with state rates of hospital admissions for abusive head trauma among children aged <2 years. METHODS: We conducted difference-in-difference analyses (ie, pre- and postdifferences in intervention vs control groups) of annual rates of states' hospital admissions attributed to abusive head trauma among children aged <2 years (ie, using aggregate data)...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608437/-we-don-t-do-it-for-the-money-%C3%A2-the-scale-and-reasons-of-poverty-pay-among-frontline-long-term-care-workers-in-england
#16
Shereen Hussein
Demographic trends escalate the demands for formal long-term care (LTC) in the majority of the developed world. The LTC workforce is characterised by its very low wages, the actual scale of which is less well known. This article investigates the scale of poverty-pay in the feminised LTC sector and attempts to understand the perceived reasons behind persisting low wages in the sector. The analysis makes use of large national workforce pay data and a longitudinal survey of care workers, as well as interviews with key stakeholders in the sector...
June 12, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607670/emotional-abuse-of-girls-in-swaziland-prevalence-perpetrators-risk-and-protective-factors-and-health-outcomes
#17
Franziska Meinck, Deborah Fry, Choice Ginindza, Kerri Wazny, Aldo Elizalde, Thees F Spreckelsen, M Catherine Maternowska, Michael P Dunne
BACKGROUND: Research on emotional child abuse in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. Few studies thus far have examined prevalence, risk and protective factors for emotional child abuse or the associations between emotional abuse and girls' health. METHODS: A nationally representative two-stage, cluster-sampled, household survey of females aged 13-24 years (n = 1244) on childhood abuse victimisation was conducted. Participants completed interviewer-assisted questionnaires...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604801/high-blood-levels-of-lead-in-children-aged-6-36-months-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal-a-cross-sectional-study-of-associated-factors
#18
Meghnath Dhimal, Khem Bahadur Karki, Krishna Kumar Aryal, Bimala Dhimal, Hari Datt Joshi, Sajan Puri, Achyut Raj Pandey, Purushotam Dhakal, Arun Kumar Sharma, Ganendra Bhakta Raya, Imran Ansari, David A Groneberg, Ruth Müller, Ulrich Kuch
Young children are at greatest risk of exposure to lead and its effects. Although lead is one of the most widely used elements with known health hazard, there is little data on the blood lead level (BLL) of children in the Kathmandu Valley. Thus, this study aimed to assess factors associated with high BLL in children who were 6-36 months of age and resided in the Kathmandu Valley. In this hospital-based cross-sectional study 6-36 month-old children visiting the Paediatrics Outpatient Department of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Patan Hospital, and Siddhi Memorial Hospital were enrolled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604428/hiv-among-msm-and-heterosexual-women-in-the-united-states-an-ecologic-analysis
#19
H Fisher Raymond, Alia Al-Tayyib, Alan Neaigus, Kathleen H Reilly, Sarah Braunstein, Kathleen A Brady, Ekow Sey, Jan Risser, Paige Padget, Marlene Lalota, John-Mark Schacht, David W Forrest, Katie Macomber, Vivian Griffin, Emily Higgins, William T Robinson, Meagan C Zarwell, Jenevieve Opoku, Manya Magnus, Irene Kuo, Richard Burt, Hanne Thiede, Sara Glick, Colin Flynn, Danielle German
BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic studies show links between heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) that are more numerous than from heterosexual men to women suggesting that HIV infections among heterosexual women may stem from MSM. Poor communities have been associated with high rates of HIV among heterosexual women. Our analysis investigates potential transmission of HIV between MSM and female heterosexuals. METHODS: National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data describe transmission risk behaviors of MSM, and HIV case reporting data describe the percentages of cases that are attributed to transmission risk categories...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604252/surrogate-mother-praiseworthy-or-stigmatized-a-qualitative-study-on-perceptions-of-surrogacy-in-assam-india
#20
Anna Arvidsson, Polly Vauquline, Sara Johnsdotter, Birgitta Essén
BACKGROUND: Surrogacy is a reproductive practice that has been strongly marketed in India as a solution for childless couples. As a result, the number of surrogacy clinics is increasing. Meanwhile, a global discourse on surrogacy, originating from a Western perspective, has characterized surrogacy as being exploitative of women in low-income settings, where poverty drives them to become surrogate mothers. OBJECTIVE: This study explored perspectives on surrogacy from men and women in Assam, an Indian state known to be a low-income setting...
2017: Global Health Action
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