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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730066/-these-are-not-luxuries-it-is-essential-for-access-to-life-disability-related-out-of-pocket-costs-as-a-driver-of-economic-vulnerability-in-south-africa
#1
Jill Hanass-Hancock, Siphumelele Nene, Nicola Deghaye, Simmi Pillay
BACKGROUND: With the dawn of the new sustainable development goals, we face not only a world that has seen great successes in alleviating poverty but also a world that has left some groups, such as persons with disabilities, behind. Middle-income countries (MICs) are home to a growing number of persons with disabilities. As these countries strive to achieve the new goals, we have ample opportunity to include persons with disabilities in the emerging poverty alleviation strategies. However, a lack of data and research on the linkages between economic vulnerability and disability in MICs hampers our understanding of the factors increasing economic vulnerability in people with disabilities...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729747/do-more-of-those-in-misery-suffer-from-poverty-unemployment-or-mental-illness
#2
Sarah Flèche, Richard Layard
Studies of deprivation usually ignore mental illness. This paper uses household panel data from the USA, Australia, Britain and Germany to broaden the analysis. We ask first how many of those in the lowest levels of life-satisfaction suffer from unemployment, poverty, physical ill health, and mental illness. The largest proportion suffers from mental illness. Multiple regression shows that mental illness is not highly correlated with poverty or unemployment, and that it contributes more to explaining the presence of misery than is explained by either poverty or unemployment...
February 2017: Kyklos: International Review for Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728002/development-of-an-integrated-generic-model-for-multi-scale-assessment-of-the-impacts-of-agro-ecosystems-on-major-ecosystem-services-in-west-africa
#3
Mahamadou Belem, Mehdi Saqalli
This paper presents an integrated model assessing the impacts of climate change, agro-ecosystem and demographic transition patterns on major ecosystem services in West-Africa along a partial overview of economic aspects (poverty reduction, food self-sufficiency and income generation). The model is based on an agent-based model associated with a soil model and multi-scale spatial model. The resulting Model for West-Africa Agro-Ecosystem Integrated Assessment (MOWASIA) is ecologically generic, meaning it is designed for all sudano-sahelian environments but may then be used as an experimentation facility for testing different scenarios combining ecological and socioeconomic dimensions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725333/a-protective-association-between-snap-participation-and-educational-outcomes-among-children-of-economically-strained-households
#4
Nisha Beharie, Micaela Mercado, Mary McKay
With the recent cuts to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), more information is needed to assess the impact these policies have on vulnerable children. As such, this study assesses the potential moderating effect of SNAP participation on the association between material deprivation and educational outcomes among children living in poverty (n = 10 971, and n = 14 928). SNAP participation was found to moderate the association between material deprivation and grade retention, indicating that SNAP may be contributing to grade retention among children living in poverty, which can have positive lifelong consequences...
2017: Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724457/the-association-between-food-insecurity-and-academic-achievement-in-canadian-school-aged-children
#5
Erin L Faught, Patty L Williams, Noreen D Willows, Mark Asbridge, Paul J Veugelers
OBJECTIVE: Education is a crucial social determinant of health. Food insecurity can be detrimental to children's academic achievement, potentially perpetuating a cycle of poverty and food insecurity. We aimed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of children and parents. Parents completed the short-form Household Food Security Survey Module and questions about income and education level (socio-economic status)...
July 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722615/assessing-the-short-term-global-health-experience-a-cross-sectional-study-of-demographics-socioeconomic-factors-and-disease-prevalence
#6
Olivia Geen, Allison Pumputis, Cristina Kochi, Andrew Costa, Karl Stobbe
Interest in short-term global health experiences to underserviced populations has grown rapidly in the last few decades. However, there remains very little research on what participants can expect to encounter. At the same time, it has been suggested that in order for physicians and workers to provide safe and effective care, volunteers should have a basic understanding of local culture, health systems, epidemiology, and socioeconomic needs of the community before arriving. Our objective was to add to the limited literature on what short-term global health trips can expect to encounter through a cross-sectional study of patient demographics, socioeconomic markers, and the prevalence of diseases encountered on a short-term medical service trip to Lima, Peru...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718499/-meeting-contraceptive-needs-of-hiv-positive-women-effect-on-elimination-of-vertical-transmission-of-hiv
#7
Marcela Gómez-Suárez
Nearly 38% of unplanned pregnancies occur because of unmet contraceptive needs. In HIV-positive women, these figures triple, a phenomenon explained by social determinants such as poverty, access to health services, violence, and forced displacement, all of which are frequent elements in the lives of these women. Unplanned pregnancies represent a psychological burden related to women's fear of transmitting the infection to their children, orphanhood, and assuming risks during pregnancy, in addition to family and social consequences that are expressed in lack of prenatal care, neglect of their health, and an increased likelihood of vertical transmission...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708245/health-equity-issues-related-to-childhood-obesity-a-scoping-review
#8
Clemencia M Vargas, Elsie M Stines, Herta S Granado
PURPOSE: The purpose of this scoping review was to determine the health-equity issues that relate to childhood obesity. METHODS: Health-equity issues related to childhood obesity were identified by analyzing food environment, natural and built environment, and social environment. The authors searched Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science, using the keywords "children" and "obesity." Specific terms for each environment were added: "food desert," "advertising," "insecurity," "price," "processing," "trade," and "school" for food environment; "urban design," "land use," "transportation mode," "public facilities," and "market access" for natural and built environment; and "financial capacity/poverty," "living conditions," "transport access," "remoteness," "social support," "social cohesion," "working practices," "eating habits," "time," and "social norms" for social environment...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706172/-the-effect-of-health-coaching-programs-on-self-efficacy-health-behaviors-and-quality-of-life-in-hypertensive-people-living-in-poverty
#9
Sun Ok Eom, Insook Lee
PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine the effects of health coaching and mediating variables on quantitative aspect of health in low-income hypertensive people. METHODS: The experimental group for the current study consisted of 21 clients who received health coaching services, and the control group consisted of 22 clients who received home-visiting nursing services. Two groups received health coaching or homevisiting nursing services once a week for 8 weeks...
June 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697372/history-politics-and-vulnerability-explaining-excess-mortality-in-scotland-and-glasgow
#10
D Walsh, G McCartney, C Collins, M Taulbut, G David Batty
OBJECTIVES: High levels of excess mortality (i.e. that not explained by deprivation) have been observed for Scotland compared with England & Wales, and especially for Glasgow in comparison with similar post-industrial cities such as Liverpool and Manchester. Many potential explanations have been suggested. Based on an assessment of these, the aim was to develop an understanding of the most likely underlying causes. Note that this paper distils a larger research report, with the aim of reaching wider audiences beyond Scotland, as the important lessons learnt are relevant to other populations...
July 8, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693402/fix-my-child-the-importance-of-including-siblings-in-clinical-assessments
#11
Steve Farnfield
AIMS: This study examined concordance in the attachment strategies of school-aged siblings with reference to environmental risk in terms of poverty and maltreatment. It also investigated the effect of child maltreatment and maternal mental illness on children's psychosocial functioning in terms of the Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation (DMM) including unresolved trauma and the DMM Depressed modifier. METHODS: The attachment strategies of 30 sibling pairs, aged 5-14 years, were assessed using the School-age Assessment of Attachment (SAA)...
July 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692947/how-services-for-children-with-disabilities-in-serbia-affect-the-quality-of-life-of-their-families
#12
Tamara Dzamonja Ignjatovic, Marko Milanovic, Nevenka Zegarac
BACKGROUND: Families that have children with disabilities face numerous difficulties related to the lack of services support, social isolation and poverty in Serbia. Mostly due to the prolonged effect of social and economic crisis, there are insufficient adequate and diverse community-based services for those families. AIMS: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of newly introduced services on the quality of families' life. METHODS: A pretest/posttest study was conducted at the beginning of service and one year later to evaluate the effect of services measured by Family Quality of Life Scale (Hoffman et al...
July 7, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692578/turning-1-year-of-age-in-a-low-socioeconomic-environment-a-portrait-of-disadvantage
#13
Hallam Hurt, Laura M Betancourt
In the United States today, 16 million children are growing up poor. Few studies report multiple environmental factors associated with poverty during the first year of life and effects on infant development. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate maternal, home, and neighborhood environment of low and higher socioeconomic status (SES) infants from birth to 1 year and to evaluate the impact of SES and environment on infant developmental outcome at 1 year. METHODS: Low (n = 30) and higher SES (n = 30) African-American mothers and their healthy term gestation female infants were prospectively compared for environmental characteristics and infant developmental outcome...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690397/pesticide-exposure-and-health-problems-among-female-horticulture-workers-in-tanzania
#14
REVIEW
Ezra Jonathan Mrema, Aiwerasia Vera Ngowi, Stephen Simon Kishinhi, Simon Henry Mamuya
Commercialization of horticulture farming, expansion of farms, and the practice of monoculture favor the proliferation of pests, which in turn increases the need for pesticides. Increased exposure to pesticides is associated with inadequate knowledge on the hazardous nature of pesticides, poor hygiene practices, lack of availability of washing facilities, and insufficient adherence to precautionary instructions on pesticide labels. Mitigating the risks posed by pesticides is considered a less compelling interest than alleviating poverty...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689339/longitudinal-impact-of-a-park-based-afterschool-healthy-weight-program-on-modifiable-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-youth
#15
Sarah E Messiah, Emily M D'Agostino, Eric Hansen, M Sunil Mathew, Deidre Okeke, Maria Nardi, Jack Kardys, Kristopher L Arheart
Community-based programs hold significant potential to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in youth. We describe here the longitudinal change in several modifiable CVD risk factors after participation in up to 3 years of Fit2Play™, a park-based afterschool program. Children ages 6-15 years old (N = 2261, mean age 9.0 years, 50% Hispanic, 47% non-Hispanic black, 54% male) who participated in Fit2Play™ for either 1-3 school years between 2010 and 2016 had height, weight, 4-site skinfold thicknesses, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run test, and health/wellness knowledge and behavior scores collected at the beginning and end of the school year(s)...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686999/school-poverty-effects-on-trajectories-of-child-behaviour-do-they-depend-on-gender-and-ethnicity
#16
Emily Midouhas
This study examined English school poverty effects on trajectories of child behaviour across ages 3, 5, 7 and 11, and the moderating roles of ethnicity and gender. School poverty predicted internalising and externalising problems concurrently, and internalising problems longitudinally. In poor schools, girls had a steeper incline in internalising problems, but made greater reductions in externalising problems. Ethnic differences were also found in the association between school poverty and child adjustment...
July 4, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686787/barriers-and-facilitators-of-colorectal-cancer-screening-for-patients-of-rural-accountable-care-organization-clinics-a-multilevel-analysis
#17
Hongmei Wang, Fang Qiu, Abbey Gregg, Baojiang Chen, Jungyoon Kim, Lufei Young, Neng Wan, Li-Wu Chen
PURPOSE: This study examines multilevel factors related to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a rural Accountable Care Organization (ACO) setting. METHODS: The study used electronic medical record data from 8 rural ACO clinics in Nebraska. The final sample included 15,866 average-risk patients aged 50-75 years who visited participating clinics at least once from June 2014 to May 2015. Logistic regression was conducted to examine simultaneous effects of patient, provider, and county characteristics on CRC screening after accounting for provider-county-level correlation using a generalized estimating equations method...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675874/source-apportionment-of-fine-particulate-matter-and-risk-of-term-low-birth-weight-in-california-exploring-modification-by-region-and-maternal-characteristics
#18
Connie Ng, Brian Malig, Sina Hasheminassab, Constantinos Sioutas, Rupa Basu, Keita Ebisu
Previous studies have demonstrated associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and risk of term low birth weight (TLBW; birth weight<2500g and gestational weeks≥37weeks). However, it remains unclear which PM2.5 sources mainly contribute to these associations, and which subgroups (e.g. by residential region and maternal characteristics) may be more susceptible to these exposures. Using California birth records and PM2.5 data from eight monitoring sites from 2002 to 2009, we examined the relationship between exposures to total PM2...
July 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672216/cumulative-contextual-risk-at-birth-and-adolescent-substance-initiation-peer-mediation-tests
#19
W Alex Mason, Irina Patwardhan, Gail L Smith, Mary B Chmelka, Jukka Savolainen, Stacy-Ann A January, Jouko Miettunen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
BACKGROUND: Children who experience multiple adversities, such as prenatal exposure to drugs and poverty, early in development are at increased risk for the early initiation of alcohol and cigarette use. However, studies that examine potentially malleable processes associated with substance use initiation in the context of exposure to cumulative stressors are scant. This study examined associations between cumulative contextual risk at birth and initiation of alcohol and cigarette use in adolescence, testing childhood peer marginalization and peer aggression and behavior problems as mediating mechanisms...
June 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672200/impact-of-smoking-on-the-observed-levels-of-apolipoprotein-b-data-from-nhanes-2007-2012
#20
Ram B Jain
Impact of smoking on the levels of apolipoprotein B (APOB) was evaluated by analyzing data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2007-2012 for US adolescents aged 12-19 years and adults aged >=20 years. When adjustments were made for the effects of age, gender, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and poverty income ratio, smoking did not influence the observed levels of APOB for either adolescents or adults. Moreover, even the variables that represented intensity of smoking indicated, for example, by the number of days participants smoked during the last five days and/or the number of cigarettes smoked on the days they were smoked did not affect the levels of APOB...
July 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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