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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823111/welfare-to-work-interventions-and-their-effects-on-the-mental-and-physical-health-of-lone-parents-and-their-children
#1
REVIEW
Marcia Gibson, Hilary Thomson, Kasia Banas, Vittoria Lutje, Martin J McKee, Susan P Martin, Candida Fenton, Clare Bambra, Lyndal Bond
BACKGROUND: Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811835/mental-health-care-providers-perceptions-of-the-barriers-to-suicide-prevention-amongst-people-with-substance-use-disorders-in-south-africa-a-qualitative-study
#2
Daniel Goldstone, Jason Bantjes
BACKGROUND: Substance use is a well-established, and potentially modifiable, risk factor for suicide. Suicide prevention interventions are typically framed within the biomedical paradigm and focus on addressing individual risk factors, improving access to psychiatric care, and improving the skills of medical personnel to recognise at-risk individuals. Few studies have focused on contextual factors that hinder suicide prevention in people with substance use disorders, particularly in low-resource settings...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810486/effects-of-multidimensional-child-poverty-on-children-s-mental-health-in-mainland-china
#3
Chunkai Li, Xican Yin, Shan Jiang
This study aimed to investigate the effects of multidimensional child poverty on children's mental health in Mainland China. The data were based on a survey of children in 2015 conducted by multi-stage cluster random sampling method in Xiushui, where levels of poverty are very high. Structural equation model was adopted to analyze the data and test the hypothesized model. Results showed that multidimensional child poverty had a significant effect on both negative mental health and positive mental health of children, and the seven indicators of multidimensional child poverty all had slightly different effects on children's mental health...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806964/intervention-now-to-eliminate-repeat-unintended-pregnancy-in-teenagers-interupt-a-systematic-review-of-intervention-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-and-qualitative-and-realist-synthesis-of-implementation-factors-and-user-engagement
#4
Rabeea'h W Aslam, Maggie Hendry, Andrew Booth, Ben Carter, Joanna M Charles, Noel Craine, Rhiannon Tudor Edwards, Jane Noyes, Lupetu Ives Ntambwe, Diana Pasterfield, Jo Rycroft-Malone, Nefyn Williams, Rhiannon Whitaker
BACKGROUND: Unintended repeat conceptions can result in emotional, psychological and educational harm to young women, often with enduring implications for their life chances. This study aimed to identify which young women are at the greatest risk of repeat unintended pregnancies; which interventions are effective and cost-effective; and what are the barriers to and facilitators for the uptake of these interventions. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods systematic review which included meta-analysis, framework synthesis and application of realist principles, with stakeholder input and service user feedback to address this...
August 15, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792412/evolutionary-public-health-introducing-the-concept
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan C K Wells, Randolph M Nesse, Rebecca Sear, Rufus A Johnstone, Stephen C Stearns
The emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine is breaking new ground in understanding why people become ill. However, the value of evolutionary analyses of human physiology and behaviour is only beginning to be recognised in the field of public health. Core principles come from life history theory, which analyses the allocation of finite amounts of energy between four competing functions-maintenance, growth, reproduction, and defence. A central tenet of evolutionary theory is that organisms are selected to allocate energy and time to maximise reproductive success, rather than health or longevity...
July 29, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783318/sustainable-low-carbon-expansion-for-the-power-sector-of-an-emerging-economy-the-case-of-kenya
#6
Juan Pablo Carvallo, Brittany J Shaw, Nkiruka I Avila, Daniel M Kammen
Fast growing and emerging economies face the dual challenge of sustainably expanding and improving their energy supply and reliability while at the same time reducing poverty. Critical to such transformation is to provide affordable and sustainable access to electricity. We use the capacity expansion model SWITCH to explore low carbon development pathways for the Kenyan power sector under a set of plausible scenarios for fast growing economies that include uncertainty in load projections, capital costs, operational performance, and technology and environmental policies...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776835/stress-coping-and-mood-among-latino-adolescents-a-daily-diary-study
#7
Catherine DeCarlo Santiago, Stephanie K Brewer, Anne K Fuller, Stephanie A Torres, Jaclyn Lennon Papadakis, Anna M Ros
The current study examines whether daily coping moderates the effects of daily stress on same-day mood and next-day mood among 58 Latino adolescents (Mage  = 13.31; 53% male). The daily diary design capitalized on repeated measurements, boosting power to detect effects and allowing for a robust understanding of the day-to-day experiences of Latino adolescents. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that on days when youth reported higher levels of peer and academic stress, they also reported more negative moods...
September 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774355/funding-quality-pre-kindergarten-slots-with-philadelphia-s-new-sugary-drink-tax-simulating-effects-of-using-an-excise-tax-to-address-a-social-determinant-of-health
#8
Brent A Langellier, Félice Lê-Scherban, Jonathan Purtle
OBJECTIVE: Philadelphia passed a 1·5-cent-per-ounce sweetened beverage tax (SBT). Revenue will fund 10 000 quality pre-kindergarten slots for poor children. It is imperative to understand how revenue from SBT can be used to fund programmes to address education and other social determinants of health. The objective of the present study was to simulate quality pre-kindergarten attendance, educational achievement and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among Philadelphia children and adolescents under six intervention scenarios: (i) no intervention; (ii) 10 000 additional quality pre-kindergarten slots; (iii) a 1·5-cent-per-ounce SBT; (iv) expanded pre-kindergarten and 1·5-cent-per-ounce SBT; (v) a 3-cent-per-ounce SBT; and (vi) expanded pre-kindergarten and 3-cent-per-ounce SBT...
August 4, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766846/managing-conflicts-between-economic-activities-and-threatened-migratory-marine-species-toward-creating-a-multiobjective-blue-economy
#9
Linda R Harris, Ronel Nel, Herman Oosthuizen, Mike Meyer, Deon Kotze, Darrell Anders, Steven McCue, Santosh Bachoo
Harnessing the economic potential of the oceans is key to combating poverty, enhancing food security, and strengthening economies. But the concomitant risk of intensified resource extraction to migratory species is worrying given that these species contribute to important ecological processes, often underpin alternatively livelihoods, and many are already threatened. We thus sought to quantify the potential conflict between key economic activities (five fisheries and hydrocarbon exploitation) and sea turtle migration corridors in a region with rapid economic development: Southern and East Africa...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766317/chronic-childhood-trauma-mental-health-academic-achievement-and-school-based-health-center-mental-health-services
#10
Satu Larson, Susan Chapman, Joanne Spetz, Claire D Brindis
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities. METHODS: Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if research was related to childhood trauma's effects, mental health care disparities, SBHC mental health services, or SBHC impact on academic achievement...
September 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764678/the-specific-and-combined-role-of-domestic-violence-and-mental-health-disorders-during-pregnancy-on-new-born-health
#11
Alexandre Archanjo Ferraro, Luis Augusto Rohde, Guilherme Vanoni Polanczyk, Adriana Argeu, Euripides Constantino Miguel, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero Grisi, Bacy Fleitlich-Bilyk
BACKGROUND: Addressing impaired foetal growth is recognized as a public health priority. Certain risk factors for this condition, such as poor nutritional status at birth, have been found to be highly correlated with poverty. However, the role of psychosocial factors, specifically the mother's mental health and exposure to violence during pregnancy, have yet to be further explored. Our objective was to determine if there is a measurable association between combined psychosocial factors, specifically domestic violence and mental disorders, and birth outcomes, specifically birth nutritional status and preterm delivery...
August 1, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763386/estimating-the-public-health-impact-of-air-pollution-for-informing-policy-in-the-twin-cities-a-minnesota-tracking-collaboration
#12
Jean E Johnson, David L Bael, Jeannette M Sample, Paula G Lindgren, Dorian L Kvale
OBJECTIVE: The Minnesota Department of Health and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency used local air pollution and public health data to estimate the impacts of particulate matter and ozone on population health, to identify disparities, and to inform decisions that will improve health. SETTING: While air quality in Minnesota currently meets federal standards, urban communities are concerned about the impact of air pollution on their health. The Twin Cities (Minneapolis-St Paul) metropolitan area includes 7 counties where fine particulate levels and rates of asthma exacerbations are elevated in some communities...
September 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760187/demographic-factors-predict-disparities-in-number-of-assets-youth-possess
#13
Roy F Oman, Sara K Vesely, Lindsay M Boeckman, Eleni L Tolma, Cheryl B Aspy
OBJECTIVES: This study's purpose was to determine if youth race/ethnicity, youth age and sex, parent income and education, household wealth, family poverty, and family structure were prospectively associated with youth assets in a community-based sample of racially/ethnically and economically-diverse youth and their parents. METHODS: Five waves of data were collected annually (2003 to 2008) from youth (N = 1111; Mean age = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6) and their parents using in-person, computer-assisted interviewing methods...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759402/access-to-emergency-contraception-after-removal-of-age-restrictions
#14
Tracey A Wilkinson, Porsche Clark, Sally Rafie, Aaron E Carroll, Elizabeth Miller
BACKGROUND: Levonorgestrel emergency contraception (EC) is safe and effective for postcoital pregnancy prevention. Starting in 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration removed age restrictions, enabling EC to be sold over the counter to all consumers. We sought to compare the availability and access for female adolescents with the 2012 study, using the same study design. METHODS: Female mystery callers posing as 17-year-old adolescents in need of EC used standardized scripts to telephone 979 pharmacies in 5 US cities...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756678/a-comparative-analysis-of-policies-addressing-rural-oral-health-in-eight-english-speaking-oecd-countries
#15
Leonard A Crocombe, Lynette R Goldberg, Erica Bell, Bastian Seidel
INTRODUCTON: Oral health is fundamental to overall health. Poor oral health is largely preventable but unacceptable inequalities exist, particularly for people in rural areas. The issues are complex. Rural populations are characterised by lower rates of health insurance, higher rates of poverty, less water fluoridation, fewer dentists and oral health specialists, and greater distances to access care. These factors inter-relate with educational, attitudinal, and system-level issues. An important area of enquiry is whether and how national oral health policies address causes and solutions for poor rural oral health...
July 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756294/vitamin-d-cod-liver-oil-sunshine-and-phototherapy-safe-effective-and-forgotten-tools-for-treating-and-curing-tuberculosis-infections-a-comprehensive-review
#16
REVIEW
Patrick J McCullough, Douglas S Lehrer
Tuberculosis remains an epidemic throughout the world, with over 2 billion people, or more than one third of the world's population, infected with TB. In 2015, there were an estimated 10.4 million new cases of tuberculosis, and 1.8 million deaths, making TB one of the top ten causes of death worldwide. Approximately 95% of new TB cases occur in developing countries, where the costs of treatment force many patients and their families into poverty. The United Nations and the World Health Organization are working to end this global epidemic...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755543/assessing-income-redistributive-effect-of-health-financing-in-zambia
#17
Arnold Mulenga, John Ele-Ojo Ataguba
Ensuring an equitable health financing system is a major concern particularly in many developing countries. Internationally, there is a strong debate to move away from excessive reliance on direct out-of-pocket (OOP) spending towards a system that incorporates a greater element of risk pooling and thus affords greater protection for the poor. This is a major focus of the move towards universal health coverage (UHC). Currently, Zambia with high levels of poverty and income inequality is implementing health sector reforms for UHC through a social health insurance scheme...
July 21, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755275/neighborhoods-schools-and-academic-achievement-a-formal-mediation-analysis-of-contextual-effects-on-reading-and-mathematics-abilities
#18
Geoffrey T Wodtke, Matthew Parbst
Although evidence indicates that neighborhoods affect educational outcomes, relatively little research has explored the mechanisms thought to mediate these effects. This study investigates whether school poverty mediates the effect of neighborhood context on academic achievement. Specifically, it uses longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, counterfactual methods, and a value-added modeling strategy to estimate the total, natural direct, and natural indirect effects of exposure to an advantaged rather than disadvantaged neighborhood on reading and mathematics abilities during childhood and adolescence...
July 28, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752042/designing-cash-transfer-programs-for-an-older-population-the-mexican-case
#19
Emma Aguila, Arie Kapteyn, Caroline Tassot
Aging populations and the prevalence of poverty in old age have led to the introduction of noncontributory pensions in many countries. We consider a number of alternative targeting approaches and simulate their effects in an empirical application in the State of Yucatan, Mexico. We compare the approaches with respect to leakage, under-coverage, and their effects on government budgets. We are also able to compare the simulated effects of one alternative with the observed effect of a recently introduced demogrant and find that the simulation is a close approximation of the empirical outcomes...
June 2017: Journal of the Economics of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749321/design-and-implementation-of-an-affordable-public-sector-electronic-medical-record-in-rural-nepal
#20
Anant Raut, Chase Yarbrough, Vivek Singh, Bikash Gauchan, David Citrin, Varun Verma, Jessica Hawley, Dan Schwarz, Alex Harsha Bangura, Biplav Shrestha, Ryan Schwarz, Mukesh Adhikari, Duncan Maru
INTRODUCTION: Globally, electronic medical records are central to the infrastructure of modern healthcare systems. Yet the vast majority of electronic medical records have been designed for resource-rich environments and are not feasible in settings of poverty. Here we describe the design and implementation of an electronic medical record at a public sector district hospital in rural Nepal, and its subsequent expansion to an additional public sector facility.DevelopmentThe electronic medical record was designed to solve for the following elements of public sector healthcare delivery: 1) integration of the systems across inpatient, surgical, outpatient, emergency, laboratory, radiology, and pharmacy sites of care; 2) effective data extraction for impact evaluation and government regulation; 3) optimization for longitudinal care provision and patient tracking; and 4) effectiveness for quality improvement initiatives...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
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