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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245102/random-responses-inflate-statistical-estimates-in-heavily-skewed-addictions-data
#1
Kevin M King, Dale S Kim, Connor J McCabe
BACKGROUND: Some respondents may respond at random to self-report surveys, rather than responding conscientiously (Meade and Craig, 2012), and this has only recently come to the attention of researchers in the addictions field (Godinho et al., 2016). Almost no research in the published addictions literature has reported screening for random responses. We illustrate how random responses can bias statistical estimates using simulated and real data, and how this is especially problematic in skewed data, as is common with substance use outcomes...
December 9, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245082/adolescent-mental-health-and-behavioural-problems-and-intergenerational-social-mobility-a-decomposition-of-health-selection-effects
#2
Lewis Robert Anderson
According to the health selection hypothesis, poor mental health and behavioural problems in adolescence limit socioeconomic attainment. But to what extent is health selection driven by prior social causation? This paper quantifies the extent to which health selection - here, restricted or downward intergenerational social class mobility due to poor mental health or behavioural problems - can be attributed to the influence of modifiable childhood risk factors. The UK National Child Development Study provides measures of socioeconomic deprivation and childhood adversities, as well as multiple-informant ratings of adolescents' mental health and behavioural problems, for which confirmatory factor analysis supports a three-factor model...
November 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243537/migration-and-health-at-older-age-in-rural-malawi
#3
Jacob Kendall, Philip Anglewicz
The connection between migration and health has long been established, but relatively little is known about this relationship for older persons, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In this paper, we examine migration selection with regards to health status among older individuals in Malawi, by testing whether older migrants differ from non-migrants in health status before migration. To do so, we use data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health, a longitudinal panel dataset that includes a relatively large number of individuals at older ages...
December 15, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243461/physicians-working-conditions-health-and-working-capacity
#4
Marko Elovainio, Marianna Virtanen, Tuula Oksanen
Changes in the working environment will also influence the work of physicians. The greatest of these changes on the Finnish scale, the SOTE reform (the reform in social welfare and public health services), still lies ahead. Labor shortage, on-call duties and patient record systems providing little support to work add to the burden. In surveys related to psychosocial working conditions, physicians' greatest work load factors have been rush, forced working pace and poor communication despite the fact that, on average, they consider their working conditions to be good, frequently better than those of other professional groups, and are committed to carry on with their work until retirement age...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242178/deciding-how-to-stay-independent-at-home-in-later-years-development-and-acceptability-testing-of-an-informative-web-based-module
#5
Mirjam Marjolein Garvelink, C Allyson Jones, Patrick M Archambault, Noémie Roy, Louisa Blair, France Légaré
BACKGROUND: Seniors with loss of autonomy may face decisions about whether they should stay at home or move elsewhere. Most seniors would prefer to stay home and be independent for as long as possible, but most are unaware of options that would make this possible. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to develop and test the acceptability of an interactive website for seniors, their caregivers, and health professionals with short interlinked videos presenting information about options for staying independent at home...
December 14, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242155/a-quantitative-comparison-of-points-of-departure-between-28-day-and-90-day-repeated-dose-studies-with-a-proposed-extrapolation-factor
#6
Bradley J Lampe, Emily Fuller, Senthilkumar P Kuppusamy
The influence of exposure duration on chemical toxicity has important implications for risk assessment. Although a default 10-fold extrapolation factor is commonly applied when the toxicological dataset includes a subchronic (90-day) study but lacks studies of chronic duration, little consensus has been reached on an appropriate extrapolation factor to apply when the dataset includes a 28-day study but lacks studies of longer durations. The goal of the present assessment was to identify a 28-day to 90-day extrapolation factor by analyzing distributions of ratios of No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Levels (NOAELs) and Benchmark Doses (BMDs) derived from 28-day and 90-day studies...
December 11, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241900/a-latent-class-of-their-own-response-patterns-in-trading-off-quantity-and-quality-of-life-in-time-trade-off-exercises
#7
F E van Nooten, K Houghton, J van Exel, M van Agthoven, W B F Brouwer, D E Stull
BACKGROUND: Conflicting results regarding associations of time trade-off (TTO) valuations with respondent characteristics have been reported, mostly on the basis of regression analyses. Alternative approaches, such as the latent class analysis (LCA), may add to the further understanding of variations in TTO responses. OBJECTIVES: To identify whether subgroups of respondents can be identified on the basis of their responses to TTO exercises and to investigate which respondent characteristics are associated with membership of the identified subgroups...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240798/the-cost-of-comorbidities-in-treatment-for-hiv-aids-in-california
#8
David S Zingmond, Kodi B Arfer, Jennifer L Gildner, Arleen A Leibowitz
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy has increased longevity for people living with HIV (PLWH). As a result, PLWH increasingly experience the common diseases of aging and the resources needed to manage these comorbidities are increasing. This paper characterizes the number and types of comorbidities diagnosed among PLWH covered by Medicare and examines how non-HIV comorbidities relate to outpatient, inpatient, and pharmaceutical expenditures. METHODS: The study examined Medicare expenditures for 9767 HIV-positive Californians enrolled in Medicare in 2010 (7208 persons dually covered by Medicare and Medicaid and 2559 with Medicare only)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238427/hiv-associated-nephropathy-in-africa-pathology-clinical-presentation-and-strategy-for-prevention
#9
REVIEW
Nazik Elmalaika Husain, Mohamed H Ahmed, Ahmed O Almobarak, Sufian K Noor, Wadie M Elmadhoun, Heitham Awadalla, Clare L Woodward, Dushyant Mital
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can lead to progressive decline in renal function known as HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Importantly, individuals of African ancestry are more at risk of developing HIVAN than their European descent counterparts. An in-depth search on Google Scholar, Medline and PubMed was conducted using the terms "HIVAN" and "pathology and clinical presentation", in addition to "prevalence and risk factors for HIVAN", with special emphasis on African countries for any articles published between 1990 and 2017...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237560/beyond-the-trigger-the-mental-health-consequences-of-in-home-firearm-access-among-children-of-gun-owners
#10
Jinho Kim
RATIONALE: The high prevalence of household firearms in the U.S. has ignited a growing body of research seeking to understand its health consequences. While a large number of studies examine the impact of firearm availability on health risks of gun owners in the household, relatively little attention is given to whether and how in-home firearm access may shape psychological outcomes among children of gun owners. OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether and how in-home firearm access is associated with adolescents' depressive symptoms...
December 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237435/clinical-safety-of-combined-therapy-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-viscum-album-l-therapy-in-patients-with-advanced-or-metastatic-cancer
#11
Anja Thronicke, Megan L Steele, Christian Grah, Burkhard Matthes, Friedemann Schad
BACKGROUND: Despite improvement of tumour response rates in patients with progressive and metastatic cancer, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICM) induce toxicities in cancer patients. Viscum album L. (VA, mistletoe) extracts are applied as add-on cancer therapy especially in German speaking countries and within integrative and anthroposophical concepts with the goal to improve quality of life. The primary objective of this pilot observational cohort study was to determine the rate of adverse events (AE) related to ICM therapy with and without VA in patients with advanced or metastatic cancer in a certified Cancer Center...
December 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236377/xpey-relational-environments-an-analytic-framework-for-conceptualizing-indigenous-health-equity
#12
Alexandra Kent, Charlotte Loppie, Jeannine Carriere, Marjorie MacDonald, Bernie Pauly
INTRODUCTION: Both health equity research and Indigenous health research are driven by the goal of promoting equitable health outcomes among marginalized and underserved populations. However, the two fields often operate independently, without collaboration. As a result, Indigenous populations are underrepresented in health equity research relative to the disproportionate burden of health inequities they experience. In this methodological article, we present Xpey' Relational Environments, an analytic framework that maps some of the barriers and facilitators to health equity for Indigenous peoples...
December 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236222/an-indirect-comparison-of-changes-in-the-impact-of-weight-on-quality-of-life-among-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-treated-with-antihyperglycemic-agents-in-dual-therapy-with-metformin
#13
Shana B Traina, April Slee, Suzy Van Sanden, Joris Diels
INTRODUCTION: It is important to capture the patient experience with a diabetes treatment in clinical trials; however, use of instruments to assess patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in diabetes trials is inconsistent and results may not be reported alongside primary efficacy data. In lieu of head-to-head data, indirect comparisons can be used to compare competing interventions. In this study, we used indirect comparison methods to assess differences in PRO score changes between canagliflozin and other antihyperglycemic agents as add-on to metformin...
December 13, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231697/health-education-assistance-loan-heal-program-final-rule
#14
(no author information available yet)
On July 1, 2014, the HEAL Program was transferred from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to the U.S. Department of Education (the Department). To reflect this transfer and to facilitate the servicing of all HEAL loans that are currently held by the Department, the Secretary adds the HEAL Program regulations to the Department's chapter in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).
November 15, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231073/pelargonium-sidoides-preparation-eps-7630-in-copd-health-related-quality-of-life-and-other-patient-reported-outcomes-in-adults-receiving-add-on-therapy
#15
Heinrich Matthys, Petra Funk
OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) such as health-related quality of life (HRQL) belong to the most important criteria for the evaluation of medical therapies in clinical trials or practice-based benefit assessments. We therefore revisited results of an earlier published clinical trial investigating the effects of the herbal drug preparation from the roots of Pelargonium sidoides EPs 7630, administered as add-on therapy in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with respect to HRQL and other PRO...
December 12, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228510/left-behind-and-left-out-the-impact-of-the-school-environment-on-young-people-with-continence-problems
#16
Katie Whale, Helen Cramer, Carol Joinson
OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of the secondary school environment on young people with continence problems. DESIGN: In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews. METHODS: We interviewed 20 young people aged 11-19 years (11 female and nine male) with continence problems (daytime wetting, bedwetting, and/or soiling). Interviews were conducted by Skype (n = 11) and telephone (n = 9). Transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis...
December 11, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227885/neighbourhood-social-and-physical-environment-and-general-practitioner-assessed-morbidity
#17
Peter P Groenewegen, Jan-Paul Zock, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Marco Helbich, Gerard Hoek, Annemarie Ruijsbroek, Maciej Strak, Robert Verheij, Beate Volker, Geeke Waverijn, Martin Dijst
The aim of our study was to investigate the association between health enhancing and threatening, and social and physical aspects of the neighbourhood environment and general practitioner (GP) assessed morbidity of the people living there, in order to find out whether the effects of environmental characteristics add up or modify each other. We combined GP electronic health records with environmental data on neighbourhoods in the Netherlands. Cross-classified logistic multilevel models show the importance of taking into account several environmental characteristics and confounders, as social capital effects on the prevalence of morbidity disappear when other area characteristics are taken into account...
December 8, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227024/blood-biomarkers-as-predictors-of-long-term-mortality-in-copd
#18
Angelico Mendy, Erick Forno, Theophile Niyonsenga, Janvier Gasana
BACKGROUND: Blood biomarkers are easily accessible and might reflect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) activity. AIM: To determine whether a panel of blood biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP], neutrophils, eosinophils, albumin and vitamin D) could predict mortality in COPD. METHODS: we analyzed data from 431 COPD participants to the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys who were followed for a median time of 36 months...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226949/thrombolysis-for-acute-upper-extremity-deep-vein-thrombosis
#19
REVIEW
Joshua Feinberg, Emil Eik Nielsen, Janus C Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: About 5% to 10% of all deep vein thromboses occur in the upper extremities. Serious complications of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis, such as post-thrombotic syndrome and pulmonary embolism, may in theory be avoided using thrombolysis. No systematic review has assessed the effects of thrombolysis for the treatment of individuals with acute upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of thrombolysis for the treatment of individuals with acute upper extremity deep vein thrombosis...
December 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226701/parental-happiness-and-strain-among-young-adult-parents-diagnosed-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Rhiannon A Kroeger
This study used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine whether young adult parents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder experience less parental happiness and/or more parental strain than their counterparts not diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Results from logistic regression models indicated that young adult parents ever diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have significantly greater odds of feeling overwhelmed as parents and significantly lower odds of feeling close to their children or happy in their role as parents compared to those never diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Illness
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