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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535614/elucidating-bottlenecks-of-the-efficient-preparation-of-an-ab5-hexamer-mucosal-adjuvant-protein-ltm-by-genetic-engineering
#1
Di Liu, Fabiao Hu, Wenpeng Wang, Dong Wu, Xiujuan He, Wenyun Zheng, Haipeng Liu, Xingyuan Ma
Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and its non-toxic mutant (LTm) are well-known powerful mucosal adjuvants and immunogens. However, the yields of these adjuvants from genetically engineered strains remain at extremely low levels, thereby hindering their extensive application in fundamental and clinical research. Therefore, efficient production of these adjuvant proteins from genetically engineered microbes is a huge challenge in the field of molecular biology. In order to explore expression bottlenecks of LTm in E...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535424/ethnic-inequalities-in-psychological-distress-among-urban-residents-in-the-netherlands-a-moderating-role-of-neighborhood-ethnic-diversity
#2
Özcan Erdem, Alex Burdorf, Frank J Van Lenthe
The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether neighborhood ethnic diversity moderated the association between ethnicity and psychological distress in the four largest cities of Netherlands. Multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess whether the association between ethnicity and psychological distress differed by levels of neighborhood ethnic diversity. Results showed that the Turkish and Moroccan residents reported significantly higher psychological distress than native Dutch and Surinamese residents...
May 20, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535299/analysis-of-bacterial-metagenomes-from-the-southwestern-gulf-of-mexico-for-pathogens-detection
#3
Wendy Escobedo-Hinojosa, Liliana Pardo-López
Little is known about the diversity of bacteria in the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico. The aim of the study illustrated in this perspective was to search for the presence of bacterial pathogens in this ecosystem, using metagenomic data recently generated by the Mexican research group known as the Gulf of Mexico Research Consortium. Several genera of bacteria annotated as pathogens were detected in water and sediment marine samples. As expected, native and ubiquitous pathogenic bacteria genera such as Burkolderia, Halomonas, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, and Vibrio were highly represented...
May 23, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535143/intercultural-communication-through-the-eyes-of-patients-experiences-and-preferences
#4
Emma Paternotte, Sandra van Dulmen, Lindsay Bank, Conny Seeleman, Albert Scherpbier, Fedde Scheele
Objectives: To explore patients' preferences and experiences regarding intercultural communication which could influence the development of intercultural patient-centred communication training. Methods: This qualitative study is based on interviews with non-native patients. Thirty non-native patients were interviewed between September and December 2015 about their preferences and experiences regarding communication with a native Dutch doctor. Fourteen interviews were established with an interpreter...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535034/p450-mediated-non-natural-cyclopropanation-of-dehydro-alanine-containing-thiopeptides
#5
Joshua G Gober, Swapnil V Ghodge, Jonathan W Bogart, Walter J Wever, Richard R Watkins, Eric M Brustad, Albert A Bowers
Thiopeptides are a growing class of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide (RiPP) natural products. Many biosynthetic enzymes for RiPPs, especially thiopeptides, are promiscuous and can accept a wide range of peptide substrates with different amino acid sequence; thus, these enzymes have been used as tools to generate new natural product derivatives. Here, we explore an alternative route to molecular complexity by engineering thiopeptide tailoring enzymes to do new or non-native chemistry...
May 23, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534925/osmotin-loaded-magnetic-nanoparticles-with-electromagnetic-guidance-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Faiz Ul Amin, Ali Kafash Hoshiar, Ton Duc Do, Yeongil Noh, Shahid Ali Shah, Muhammad Sohail Khan, Jungwon Yoon, Myeong Ok Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative disease, pathologically characterized by the accumulation of aggregated amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain. Here, we describe for the first time the development of a new, pioneering nanotechnology-based drug delivery approach for potential therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, particularly AD. We demonstrated the delivery of fluorescent carboxyl magnetic Nile Red particles (FMNPs) to the brains of normal mice using a functionalized magnetic field (FMF) composed of positive- and negative-pulsed magnetic fields generated by electromagnetic coils...
May 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534924/very-large-scale-characterization-of-graphene-mechanical-devices-using-a-colorimetry-technique
#7
Santiago Jose Cartamil-Bueno, Alba Centeno, Amaia Zurutuza, Peter Gerard Steeneken, Herre Sjoerd Jan van der Zant, Samer Houri
We use a scalable optical technique to characterize more than 21 000 circular nanomechanical devices made of suspended single- and double-layer graphene on cavities with different diameters (D) and depths (g). To maximize the contrast between suspended and broken membranes we used a model for selecting the optimal color filter. The method enables parallel and automatized image processing for yield statistics. We find the survival probability to be correlated with a structural mechanics scaling parameter given by D(4)/g(3)...
May 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534731/speech-recognition-in-nonnative-versus-native-english-speaking-college-students-in-a-virtual-classroom
#8
Dorothy Neave-DiToro, Adrienne Rubinstein, Arlene C Neuman
BACKGROUND: Limited attention has been given to the effects of classroom acoustics at the college level. Many studies have reported that nonnative speakers of English are more likely to be affected by poor room acoustics than native speakers. An important question is how classroom acoustics affect speech perception of nonnative college students. PURPOSE: The combined effect of noise and reverberation on the speech recognition performance of college students who differ in age of English acquisition was evaluated under conditions simulating classrooms with reverberation times (RTs) close to ANSI recommended RTs...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534629/synthetic-posttranslational-modifications-chemical-catalyst-driven-regioselective-histone-acylation-of-native-chromatin
#9
Yoshifumi Amamoto, Yuki Aoi, Nozomu Nagashima, Hiroki Suto, Daisuke Yoshidome, Yasuhiro Arimura, Akihisa Osakabe, Daiki Kato, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Shigehiro A Kawashima, Kenzo Yamatsugu, Motomu Kanai
Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of histones play an important role in the complex regulatory mechanisms governing gene transcription, and their dysregulation can cause diseases such as cancer. The lack of methods for site-selectively modifying native chromatin, however, limits our understanding of the functional roles of a specific histone PTM, not as a single mark, but in the intertwined PTM network. Here, we report a synthetic catalyst DMAP-SH (DSH), which activates chemically stable thioesters (including acetyl-CoA) under physiological conditions and transfers various acyl groups to the proximate amino groups...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534178/effects-of-foliage-litter-of-a-pioneer-shrub-artemisia-halodendron-on-germination-from-the-soil-seedbank-in-a-semi-arid-sandy-grassland-in-china
#10
Yongqing Luo, Xueyong Zhao, Yuqiang Li, Tao Wang
Vegetation recovery during succession is an important process for ecological restoration of the soil, especially in degraded sandy land. However, the driving mechanisms, such as how a pioneer species competes with other species, is uncertain. In China's Horqin Sandy Land, Artemisia halodendron is an important shrub that is common on semi-fixed dunes, where it replaces Agriophyllum squarrosum during succession, and is an important indicator species of the second stage of dune stabilization. However, how it outcompetes other species is still unclear...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533982/lid-opening-and-conformational-stability-of-t1-lipase-is-mediated-by-increasing-chain-length-polar-solvents
#11
Jonathan Maiangwa, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad Ali, Abu Bakar Salleh, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd Rahman, Yahaya M Normi, Fairolniza Mohd Shariff, Thean Chor Leow
The dynamics and conformational landscape of proteins in organic solvents are events of potential interest in nonaqueous process catalysis. Conformational changes, folding transitions, and stability often correspond to structural rearrangements that alter contacts between solvent molecules and amino acid residues. However, in nonaqueous enzymology, organic solvents limit stability and further application of proteins. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) of a thermostable Geobacillus zalihae T1 lipase was performed in different chain length polar organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol) and water mixture systems to a concentration of 50%...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533958/from-effective-biocontrol-agent-to-successful-invader-the-harlequin-ladybird-harmonia-axyridis-as-an-example-of-good-ideas-that-could-go-wrong
#12
Morelia Camacho-Cervantes, Adrián Ortega-Iturriaga, Ek Del-Val
The use of biological control agents to control pests is an alternative to pesticides and a tool to manage invasive alien species. However, biocontrol agents can themselves become invasive species under certain conditions. The harlequin ladybird (Harmonia axyridis) is a native Asian biocontrol agent that has become a successful invader. We reviewed articles containing "Harmonia axyridis" to gather information on its presence and surveyed entomologists researching Coccinellidae around the world to investigate further insights about the current distribution, vectors of introduction, habitat use and threats this species pose...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533950/are-invasive-populations-characterized-by-a-broader-diet-than-native-populations
#13
Julien Courant, Solveig Vogt, Raquel Marques, John Measey, Jean Secondi, Rui Rebelo, André De Villiers, Flora Ihlow, Charlotte De Busschere, Thierry Backeljau, Dennis Rödder, Anthony Herrel
BACKGROUND: Invasive species are among the most significant threats to biodiversity. The diet of invasive animal populations is a crucial factor that must be considered in the context of biological invasions. A broad dietary spectrum is a frequently cited characteristic of invasive species, allowing them to thrive in a wide range of environments. Therefore, empirical studies comparing diet in invasive and native populations are necessary to understand dietary requirements, dietary flexibility, and the associated impacts of invasive species...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533921/thiol-disulphide-homeostasis-in-celiac-disease
#14
Mustafa Kaplan, Ihsan Ates, Mahmut Yuksel, Yasemin Ozderin Ozin, Murat Alisik, Ozcan Erel, Ertugrul Kayacetin
AIM: To determine dynamic thiol/disulphide homeostasis in celiac disease and to examine the associate with celiac autoantibodies and gluten-free diet. METHODS: Seventy three patients with celiac disease and 73 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. In both groups, thiol/disulphide homeostasis was examined with a new colorimetric method recently developed by Erel and Neselioglu. RESULTS: In patients with celiac disease, native thiol (P = 0...
May 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533898/reconstructing-a-herbivore-s-diet-using-a-novel-rbcl-dna-mini-barcode-for-plants
#15
David L Erickson, Elizabeth Reed, Padmini Ramachandran, Norman A Bourg, William J McShea, Andrea Ottesen
Next Generation Sequencing and the application of metagenomic analyses can be used to answer questions about animal diet choice and study the consequences of selective foraging by herbivores. The quantification of herbivore diet choice with respect to native versus exotic plant species is particularly relevant given concerns of invasive species establishment and their effects on ecosystems. While increased abundance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) appears to correlate with increased incidence of invasive plant species, data supporting a causal link is scarce...
May 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533795/a-kasp-genotyping-method-to-identify-northern-watermilfoil-eurasian-watermilfoil-and-their-interspecific-hybrids
#16
Eric L Patterson, Margaret B Fleming, Kallie C Kessler, Scott J Nissen, Todd A Gaines
The invasive aquatic plant Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) can hybridize with the related North American native species northern watermilfoil (M. sibiricum Kom.). Hybrid watermilfoil (M. spicatum × M. sibiricum) populations have higher fitness and reduced sensitivity to some commonly used aquatic herbicides, making management more difficult. There is growing concern that management practices using herbicides in lakes with mixed populations of watermilfoil species may further select for hybrid individuals due to the difference in herbicide sensitivity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533443/fhr-1-binds-to-c-reactive-protein-and-enhances-rather-than-inhibits-complement-activation
#17
Ádám I Csincsi, Zsóka Szabó, Zsófia Bánlaki, Barbara Uzonyi, Marcell Cserhalmi, Éva Kárpáti, Agustín Tortajada, Joseph J E Caesar, Zoltán Prohászka, T Sakari Jokiranta, Susan M Lea, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Mihály Józsi
Factor H-related protein (FHR) 1 is one of the five human FHRs that share sequence and structural homology with the alternative pathway complement inhibitor FH. Genetic studies on disease associations and functional analyses indicate that FHR-1 enhances complement activation by competitive inhibition of FH binding to some surfaces and immune proteins. We have recently shown that FHR-1 binds to pentraxin 3. In this study, our aim was to investigate whether FHR-1 binds to another pentraxin, C-reactive protein (CRP), analyze the functional relevance of this interaction, and study the role of FHR-1 in complement activation and regulation...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533386/metabolic-basis-to-sherpa-altitude-adaptation
#18
James A Horscroft, Aleksandra O Kotwica, Verena Laner, James A West, Philip J Hennis, Denny Z H Levett, David J Howard, Bernadette O Fernandez, Sarah L Burgess, Zsuzsanna Ament, Edward T Gilbert-Kawai, André Vercueil, Blaine D Landis, Kay Mitchell, Monty G Mythen, Cristina Branco, Randall S Johnson, Martin Feelisch, Hugh E Montgomery, Julian L Griffin, Michael P W Grocott, Erich Gnaiger, Daniel S Martin, Andrew J Murray
The Himalayan Sherpas, a human population of Tibetan descent, are highly adapted to life in the hypobaric hypoxia of high altitude. Mechanisms involving enhanced tissue oxygen delivery in comparison to Lowlander populations have been postulated to play a role in such adaptation. Whether differences in tissue oxygen utilization (i.e., metabolic adaptation) underpin this adaptation is not known, however. We sought to address this issue, applying parallel molecular, biochemical, physiological, and genetic approaches to the study of Sherpas and native Lowlanders, studied before and during exposure to hypobaric hypoxia on a gradual ascent to Mount Everest Base Camp (5,300 m)...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533294/type-2-diabetes-demystifying-the-global-epidemic
#19
Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Rajendra Pradeepa, Shashank R Joshi, Viswanathan Mohan
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has attained the status of a global pandemic, spreading from affluent industrialized nations to the emerging economies of Asia, Latin America, and Africa. There is significant global variation in susceptibility to T2D, with Pacific Islanders, Asian Indians, and Native Americans being considerably more prone to develop the disorder. Although genetic factors may play a part, the rapidity with which diabetes prevalence has risen among these populations reflects the far-ranging and rapid socioeconomic changes to which they have been exposed over the past few decades...
June 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533135/enhanced-local-disorder-in-a-clinically-elusive-von-willebrand-factor-provokes-high-affinity-platelet-clumping
#20
Alexander Tischer, Venkata R Machha, Juan P Frontroth, Maria A Brehm, Tobias Obser, Reinhard Schneppenheim, Leland Mayne, S Walter Englander, Matthew Auton
Mutation of the cysteines forming the disulfide loop of the platelet GPIbα adhesive A1 domain of von Willebrand factor causes quantitative VWF deficiencies in the blood and von Willebrand disease. We report two cases of transient severe thrombocytopenia induced by DDAVP-treatment. Cys1272Trp and Cys1458Tyr mutations identified by genetic sequencing implicate an abnormal gain-of-function phenotype, evidenced by thrombocytopenia, that quickly relapses back to normal platelet counts and deficient plasma VWF. Using surface plasmon resonance, analytical rheology, and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HXMS), we decipher mechanisms of A1-GPIbα mediated platelet adhesion and resolve dynamic secondary structure elements that regulate the binding pathway...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
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