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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26231990/evidence-for-a-role-of-the-reticulospinal-system-in-recovery-of-skilled-reaching-after-cortical-stroke-initial-results-from-a-model-of-ischemic-cortical-injury
#1
Wendy J Herbert, Kimerly Powell, John A Buford
The purposes of this pilot study were to create a model of focal cortical ischemia in Macaca fascicularis and to explore contributions of the reticulospinal system in recovery of reaching. Endothelin-1 was used to create a focal lesion in the shoulder/elbow representation of left primary motor cortex (M1) of two adult female macaques. Repetitive microstimulation was used to map upper limb motor outputs from right and left cortical motor areas and from the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF). In subject 1 with a small lesion and spontaneous recovery, reaching was mildly impaired...
November 2015: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25744890/cerebellar-control-of-saccade-dynamics-contribution-of-the-fastigial-oculomotor-region
#2
Julie Quinet, Laurent Goffart
The fastigial oculomotor region is the output by which the medioposterior cerebellum influences the generation of saccades. Recent inactivation studies reported observations suggesting an involvement in their dynamics (velocity and duration). In this work, we tested this hypothesis in the head-restrained monkey with the electrical microstimulation technique. More specifically, we studied the influence of duration, frequency, and current on the saccades elicited by fastigial stimulation and starting from a central (straight ahead) position...
May 1, 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25652926/bilateral-force-transients-in-the-upper-limbs-evoked-by-single-pulse-microstimulation-in-the-pontomedullary-reticular-formation
#3
Thomas J Hirschauer, John A Buford
Neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) give rise to the reticulospinal tract. The motor output of the PMRF was investigated using stimulus-triggered averaging of electromyography (EMG) and force recordings in two monkeys (M. fascicularis). EMG was recorded from 12 pairs of upper limb muscles, and forces were detected using two isometric force-sensitive handles. Of 150 stimulation sites, 105 (70.0%) produced significant force responses, and 139 (92.5%) produced significant EMG responses. Based on the average flexor EMG onset latency of 8...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25235864/acoustic-detection-localization-and-tracking-of-vocalizing-humpback-whales-on-the-u-s-navy-s-pacific-missile-range-facility
#4
Tyler A Helble
A subset of the 41 deep water broadband hydrophones on the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) to the northwest of Kauai, Hawaii was used to acoustically detect, localize, and track vocalizing humpback whales as they transited through this offshore range. The focus study area covers 960 square kilometers of water (water depths greater than 300 m and more than 20 km offshore). Because multiple animals vocalize simultaneously, novel techniques were developed for performing call association in order to localize and track individual animals...
April 2014: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25143539/differential-modulation-of-descending-signals-from-the-reticulospinal-system-during-reaching-and-locomotion
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kenneth S Dyson, Jean-Philippe Miron, Trevor Drew
We tested the hypothesis that the same spinal interneuronal pathways are activated by the reticulospinal system during locomotion and reaching. If such were the case, we expected that microstimulation within the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) would evoke qualitatively similar responses in muscles active during both behaviors. To test this, we stimulated in 47 sites within the PMRF during both tasks. Stimulation during locomotion always produced a strongly phase-dependent, bilateral pattern of activity in which activity in muscles was generally facilitated or suppressed during one phase of activity (swing or stance) and was unaffected in the other...
November 15, 2014: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25097892/effect-of-damping-and-yielding-on-the-seismic-response-of-3d-steel-buildings-with-pmrf
#6
Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Achintya Haldar, Ramon Eduardo Rodelo-López, Eden Bojórquez
The effect of viscous damping and yielding, on the reduction of the seismic responses of steel buildings modeled as three-dimensional (3D) complex multidegree of freedom (MDOF) systems, is studied. The reduction produced by damping may be larger or smaller than that of yielding. This reduction can significantly vary from one structural idealization to another and is smaller for global than for local response parameters, which in turn depends on the particular local response parameter. The uncertainty in the estimation is significantly larger for local response parameter and decreases as damping increases...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24995357/seismic-response-of-3d-steel-buildings-considering-the-effect-of-pr-connections-and-gravity-frames
#7
Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Edén Bojórquez, Achintya Haldar, Arturo López-Barraza, J Luz Rivera-Salas
The nonlinear seismic responses of 3D steel buildings with perimeter moment resisting frames (PMRF) and interior gravity frames (IGF) are studied explicitly considering the contribution of the IGF. The effect on the structural response of the stiffness of the beam-to-column connections of the IGF, which is usually neglected, is also studied. It is commonly believed that the flexibility of shear connections is negligible and that 2D models can be used to properly represent 3D real structures. The results of the study indicate, however, that the moments developed on columns of IGF can be considerable and that modeling buildings as plane frames may result in very conservative designs...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24609973/reduced-startreact-effect-and-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-two-of-a-kind
#8
Jorik Nonnekes, Alexander C H Geurts, Lars B Oude Nijhuis, Karin van Geel, Anke H Snijders, Bastiaan R Bloem, Vivian Weerdesteyn
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a disabling feature of Parkinson's disease. Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and pontomedullary reticular formation (pmRF) plays a role in the causation of FOG. These brainstem structures can be examined by the StartReact paradigm, which utilizes a startling stimulus to accelerate reaction times (StartReact). Here, we examined gait initiation in PD patients with and without FOG using this paradigm. Twenty-six patients with Parkinson's disease (12 freezers and 14 non-freezers) and 15 controls performed two tasks: rapid gait initiation in response to an imperative 'go' signal; and a control condition, involving a simple reaction-time task involving ankle dorsiflexion...
May 2014: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24459927/-analysis-and-management-of-postoperative-hemorrhage-in-surgery-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome-in-children-using-plasma-mediated-radio-frequency-ablation-at-low-temperature
#9
Jun Wang, Jie Chen, Jun Yang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze retrospectively cause, prevention and management of postoperative hemorrhage in surgery of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in children using plasma-mediated radio-frequency (pmRF) ablation at low temperature. METHOD: Tonsil and adenoid ablation were carried out in 4028 cases diagnosed with OSAHS, using ENTColator lI plasma system of Arthocare company under general anesthesia. RESULT: Postoperative hemorrhage occurred in 37 cases of 4028 cases, among which 1 case occurred after tonsil ablation and other 36 cases occurred after adenoid ablation...
September 2013: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23166721/an-altered-immune-response-but-not-individual-cationic-antimicrobial-peptides-is-associated-with-the-oral-attenuation-of-ara4n-deficient-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-in-mice
#10
Kristi L Strandberg, Susan M Richards, Rita Tamayo, Linh T Reeves, John S Gunn
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) uses two-component regulatory systems (TCRS) to respond to stimuli in the local microenvironment. Upon infection, the Salmonella TCRSs PhoP-PhoQ (PhoPQ) and PmrA-PmrB (PmrAB) are activated by environmental signals in the intestinal lumen and within host cells. TCRS-mediated gene expression results in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification and cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance. The PmrA-regulated pmrHFIJKLM operon mediates 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (Ara4N) production and attachment to the lipid A of LPS...
2012: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22946186/-factors-influencing-ammonia-volatilization-in-a-winter-wheat-field-with-plastic-film-mulched-ridges-and-unmulched-furrows
#11
Yu-Xian Shangguan, Ri-Peng Shi, Na Li, Kun Han, Hui-Ke Li, Lin-Quan Wang
The objective of this experiment was to quantify ammonia volatilization from a winter wheat field with plastic film mulched-ridges and unmulched-furrows (PMRF). The trial was conducted during the 2010-2011 winter wheat growing season at Yangling, Shaanxi Province. Ammonia volatilization from the soil was measured using the closed-chamber method. The results indicated that NH3 emission losses ranged between (1.66 +/- 0.3) and (3.28 +/- 0.51) kg x hm(-2) in the PMRF treatment. In comparison, the NH3 emission loss was (4...
June 2012: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22641776/cells-in-the-monkey-ponto-medullary-reticular-formation-modulate-their-activity-with-slow-finger-movements
#12
Demetris S Soteropoulos, Elizabeth R Williams, Stuart N Baker
Recent work has shown that the primate reticulospinal tract can influence spinal interneurons and motoneurons involved in control of the hand. However, demonstrating connectivity does not reveal whether reticular outputs are modulated during the control of different types of hand movement. Here, we investigated how single unit discharge in the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) modulated during performance of a slow finger movement task in macaque monkeys. Two animals performed an index finger flexion–extension task to track a target presented on a computer screen; single units were recorded both from ipsilateral PMRF (115 cells) and contralateral primary motor cortex (M1, 210 cells)...
August 15, 2012: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22139502/a-transposon-site-hybridization-screen-identifies-galu-and-wecbc-as-important-for-survival-of-yersinia-pestis-in-murine-macrophages
#13
Kathryn A Klein, Hana S Fukuto, Mark Pelletier, Galina Romanov, Jens P Grabenstein, Lance E Palmer, Robert Ernst, James B Bliska
Yersinia pestis is able to survive and replicate within murine macrophages. However, the mechanism by which Y. pestis promotes its intracellular survival is not well understood. To identify genes that are important for Y. pestis survival in macrophages, a library comprised of ∼31,500 Y. pestis KIM6+ transposon insertion mutants (input pool) was subjected to negative selection in primary murine macrophages. Genes underrepresented in the output pool of surviving bacteria were identified by transposon site hybridization to DNA oligonucleotide microarrays...
February 2012: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20653976/molecular-characterization-of-the-phopq-pmrd-pmrab-mediated-pathway-regulating-polymyxin-b-resistance-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-cg43
#14
Hsin-Yao Cheng, Yi-Fong Chen, Hwei-Ling Peng
BACKGROUND: The cationic peptide antibiotic polymyxin has recently been reevaluated in the treatment of severe infections caused by gram negative bacteria. METHODS: In this study, the genetic determinants for capsular polysaccharide level and lipopolysaccharide modification involved in polymyxin B resistance of the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae were characterized. The expressional control of the genes responsible for the resistance was assessed by a LacZ reporter system...
2010: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20593270/the-role-of-pseudomonas-lipopolysaccharide-in-cystic-fibrosis-airway-infection
#15
Samuel M Moskowitz, Robert K Ernst
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a ubiquitous environmental Gram-negative bacterium found in soil and water. This opportunistic pathogen can cause infections in individuals with impaired phagocytic function, such as those with burns, exposure to chemotherapy, or cystic fibrosis (CF). PA infects the lungs of most individuals with CF, and is associated with severe progressive pulmonary disease that is the major cause of premature death in this disorder. The specific adaptations of PA to the CF airway responsible for bacterial persistence and antibiotic tolerance are not completely understood but may include increased alginate production (i...
2010: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20379705/measuring-the-motor-output-of-the-pontomedullary-reticular-formation-in-the-monkey-do-stimulus-triggered-averaging-and-stimulus-trains-produce-comparable-results-in-the-upper-limbs
#16
Wendy J Herbert, Adam G Davidson, John A Buford
The pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) of the monkey produces motor outputs to both upper limbs. EMG effects evoked from stimulus-triggered averaging (StimulusTA) were compared with effects from stimulus trains to determine whether both stimulation methods produced comparable results. Flexor and extensor muscles of scapulothoracic, shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints were studied bilaterally in two male M. fascicularis monkeys trained to perform a bilateral reaching task. The frequency of facilitation versus suppression responses evoked in the muscles was compared between methods...
June 2010: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20123999/proteus-mirabilis-pmri-an-rppa-regulated-gene-necessary-for-polymyxin-b-resistance-biofilm-formation-and-urothelial-cell-invasion
#17
Sin-Sien Jiang, Ming-Che Liu, Lee-Jene Teng, Won-Bo Wang, Po-Ren Hsueh, Shwu-Jen Liaw
Proteus mirabilis is naturally resistant to polymyxin B (PB). To investigate the underlying mechanisms, Tn5 mutagenesis was performed, and a mutant exhibiting increased PB susceptibility was isolated. The mutant was found to have Tn5 inserted into the PpmrI (Proteus pmrI) gene, a gene which may encode a UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase. In other bacteria, pmrI belongs to the seven-gene pmrF operon, which is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification. While the PpmrI knockout mutant had a wild-type LPS profile and produced amounts of LPS similar to those produced by the wild type, LPS of the knockout mutant had higher PB-binding activity than that of the wild type...
April 2010: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19631726/reticulospinal-neurons-in-the-pontomedullary-reticular-formation-of-the-monkey-macaca-fascicularis
#18
S T Sakai, A G Davidson, J A Buford
Recent neurophysiological studies indicate a role for reticulospinal neurons of the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) in motor preparation and goal-directed reaching in the monkey. Although the macaque monkey is an important model for such investigations, little is known regarding the organization of the PMRF in the monkey. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of reticulospinal neurons in the macaque. Bilateral injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were made into the cervical spinal cord...
November 10, 2009: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19357382/bone-cement-deposition-patterns-with-plasma-mediated-radio-frequency-ablation-and-cement-augmentation-for-advanced-metastatic-spine-lesions
#19
B A Georgy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combining percutaneous plasma-mediated radio-frequency (pmRF) ablation with vertebral body augmentation offers an alternative treatment to surgical intervention options for advanced metastatic spinal lesions and is particularly useful for cases with cortical destruction and/or epidural extension. This study evaluates bone cement deposition patterns and extravasation in treated vertebral bodies in relation to the metastatic lesion after using this combined approach...
June 2009: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19118108/the-pontomedullary-reticular-formation-contributes-to-the-compensatory-postural-responses-observed-following-removal-of-the-support-surface-in-the-standing-cat
#20
Paul J Stapley, Trevor Drew
This study was designed to determine the contribution of reticular neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) to the postural responses produced to compensate for an unexpected perturbation. We recorded the activity of 48 neurons in the PMRF, including 41 reticulospinal neurons, to removal of the support surface under each of the four limbs in four cats. The perturbations produced robust postural responses that were divided into three periods: an initial postural response (P1) that displaced the center of vertical pressure over the two diagonal supporting limbs; a secondary response (P2) during which the cat restored a tripedal support pattern; and a prolonged tertiary response (P3) that maintained a stable posture over all three supporting limbs...
March 2009: Journal of Neurophysiology
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