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Manru Zhou, Jingkai Wu, Yongjie Yu, Yajun Yang, Jin Li, Liao Cui, Weimin Yao, Yuyu Liu
It is known that long‑term excessive administration of glucocorticoid (GC) results in osteoporosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Polygonum multiflorm (PM) on the bone tissue of rats with GC‑induced osteoporosis (GIO). A total of 90 6‑month‑old female Sprague Dawley rats (weight range, 190‑210 g) were randomly divided into nine groups: Control (normal saline); prednisone (GC; 6 mg·kg‑1·d‑1; Model); GC plus PMR30 (the 30% ethanol eluent fraction of PM) (H) (400 mg·kg‑1·d‑1); GC plus PMR30 (M) (200 mg·kg‑1·d‑1); GC plus PMR30 (L) (100 mg·kg‑1·d‑1); GC plus PMRF (fat‑soluble fraction of PM) (H) (400 mg·kg‑1·d‑1); GC plus PMRF (M) (200 mg·kg‑1·d‑1); GC plus PMRF (L) (100 mg·kg‑1·d‑1); GC plus calcitriol (CAL; 0...
January 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jamie Murphy, Orla McBride, Eiko Fried, Mark Shevlin
It has been proposed that subclinical psychotic experiences (PEs) may causally impact on each other over time and engage with one another in patterns of mutual reinforcement and feedback. This subclinical network of experiences in turn may facilitate the onset of psychotic disorder. PEs, however, are not inherently distressing, nor do they inevitably lead to impairment. The question arises therefore, whether nondistressing PEs, distressing PEs, or both, meaningfully inform an extended psychosis phenotype. The current study first aimed to exploit valuable ordinal data that captured the absence, occurrence and associated impairment of PEs in the general population to construct a general population based severity network of PEs...
September 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Talita Perciano, Daniela Ushizima, Harinarayan Krishnan, Dilworth Parkinson, Natalie Larson, Daniël M Pelt, Wes Bethel, Frank Zok, James Sethian
Three-dimensional (3D) micro-tomography (µ-CT) has proven to be an important imaging modality in industry and scientific domains. Understanding the properties of material structure and behavior has produced many scientific advances. An important component of the 3D µ-CT pipeline is image partitioning (or image segmentation), a step that is used to separate various phases or components in an image. Image partitioning schemes require specific rules for different scientific fields, but a common strategy consists of devising metrics to quantify performance and accuracy...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
F Daniel Ramirez, Yue Chen, Pietro Di Santo, Trevor Simard, Pouya Motazedian, Benjamin Hibbert
BACKGROUND: An individual's perceived need to improve their physical health (PNIPH) is an essential precursor to adopting healthy behaviors. Nine potentially modifiable risk factors (PMRFs) for myocardial infarction collectively account for ≥90% of the population attributable risk. Though widely recognized, their impact on individuals' health perceptions is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Residents from 6 provinces were administered a module on changes to improve health as part of the 2011-2012 Canadian Community Health Survey, yielding relevant data for 8 of the 9 PMRFs sought...
May 3, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
Michela Fregosi, Alessandro Contestabile, Adjia Hamadjida, Eric M Rouiller
Corticospinal and corticobulbar descending pathways act in parallel with brainstem systems, such as the reticulospinal tract, to ensure the control of voluntary movements via direct or indirect influences onto spinal motoneurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the corticobulbar projections from distinct motor cortical areas onto different nuclei of the reticular formation. Seven adult macaque monkeys were analysed for the location of corticobulbar axonal boutons, and one monkey for reticulospinal neurons' location...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Derek M Miller, William M DeMayo, George H Bourdages, Samuel R Wittman, Bill J Yates, Andrew A McCall
The integration of inputs from vestibular and proprioceptive sensors within the central nervous system is critical to postural regulation. We recently demonstrated in both decerebrate and conscious cats that labyrinthine and hindlimb inputs converge onto vestibular nucleus neurons. The pontomedullary reticular formation (pmRF) also plays a key role in postural control, and additionally participates in regulating locomotion. Thus, we hypothesized that like vestibular nucleus neurons, pmRF neurons integrate inputs from the limb and labyrinth...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Wendy J Herbert, Kimerly Powell, John A Buford
The purposes of this pilot study were to create a model of focal cortical ischemia in Macaca fascicularis and to explore contributions of the reticulospinal system in recovery of reaching. Endothelin-1 was used to create a focal lesion in the shoulder/elbow representation of left primary motor cortex (M1) of two adult female macaques. Repetitive microstimulation was used to map upper limb motor outputs from right and left cortical motor areas and from the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF). In subject 1 with a small lesion and spontaneous recovery, reaching was mildly impaired...
November 2015: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Julie Quinet, Laurent Goffart
The fastigial oculomotor region is the output by which the medioposterior cerebellum influences the generation of saccades. Recent inactivation studies reported observations suggesting an involvement in their dynamics (velocity and duration). In this work, we tested this hypothesis in the head-restrained monkey with the electrical microstimulation technique. More specifically, we studied the influence of duration, frequency, and current on the saccades elicited by fastigial stimulation and starting from a central (straight ahead) position...
May 1, 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Thomas J Hirschauer, John A Buford
Neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) give rise to the reticulospinal tract. The motor output of the PMRF was investigated using stimulus-triggered averaging of electromyography (EMG) and force recordings in two monkeys (M. fascicularis). EMG was recorded from 12 pairs of upper limb muscles, and forces were detected using two isometric force-sensitive handles. Of 150 stimulation sites, 105 (70.0%) produced significant force responses, and 139 (92.5%) produced significant EMG responses. Based on the average flexor EMG onset latency of 8...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Tyler A Helble
A subset of the 41 deep water broadband hydrophones on the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) to the northwest of Kauai, Hawaii was used to acoustically detect, localize, and track vocalizing humpback whales as they transited through this offshore range. The focus study area covers 960 square kilometers of water (water depths greater than 300 m and more than 20 km offshore). Because multiple animals vocalize simultaneously, novel techniques were developed for performing call association in order to localize and track individual animals...
April 2014: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Kenneth S Dyson, Jean-Philippe Miron, Trevor Drew
We tested the hypothesis that the same spinal interneuronal pathways are activated by the reticulospinal system during locomotion and reaching. If such were the case, we expected that microstimulation within the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) would evoke qualitatively similar responses in muscles active during both behaviors. To test this, we stimulated in 47 sites within the PMRF during both tasks. Stimulation during locomotion always produced a strongly phase-dependent, bilateral pattern of activity in which activity in muscles was generally facilitated or suppressed during one phase of activity (swing or stance) and was unaffected in the other...
November 15, 2014: Journal of Neurophysiology
Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Achintya Haldar, Ramon Eduardo Rodelo-López, Eden Bojórquez
The effect of viscous damping and yielding, on the reduction of the seismic responses of steel buildings modeled as three-dimensional (3D) complex multidegree of freedom (MDOF) systems, is studied. The reduction produced by damping may be larger or smaller than that of yielding. This reduction can significantly vary from one structural idealization to another and is smaller for global than for local response parameters, which in turn depends on the particular local response parameter. The uncertainty in the estimation is significantly larger for local response parameter and decreases as damping increases...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Edén Bojórquez, Achintya Haldar, Arturo López-Barraza, J Luz Rivera-Salas
The nonlinear seismic responses of 3D steel buildings with perimeter moment resisting frames (PMRF) and interior gravity frames (IGF) are studied explicitly considering the contribution of the IGF. The effect on the structural response of the stiffness of the beam-to-column connections of the IGF, which is usually neglected, is also studied. It is commonly believed that the flexibility of shear connections is negligible and that 2D models can be used to properly represent 3D real structures. The results of the study indicate, however, that the moments developed on columns of IGF can be considerable and that modeling buildings as plane frames may result in very conservative designs...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
Jorik Nonnekes, Alexander C H Geurts, Lars B Oude Nijhuis, Karin van Geel, Anke H Snijders, Bastiaan R Bloem, Vivian Weerdesteyn
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a disabling feature of Parkinson's disease. Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and pontomedullary reticular formation (pmRF) plays a role in the causation of FOG. These brainstem structures can be examined by the StartReact paradigm, which utilizes a startling stimulus to accelerate reaction times (StartReact). Here, we examined gait initiation in PD patients with and without FOG using this paradigm. Twenty-six patients with Parkinson's disease (12 freezers and 14 non-freezers) and 15 controls performed two tasks: rapid gait initiation in response to an imperative 'go' signal; and a control condition, involving a simple reaction-time task involving ankle dorsiflexion...
May 2014: Journal of Neurology
Jun Wang, Jie Chen, Jun Yang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze retrospectively cause, prevention and management of postoperative hemorrhage in surgery of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in children using plasma-mediated radio-frequency (pmRF) ablation at low temperature. METHOD: Tonsil and adenoid ablation were carried out in 4028 cases diagnosed with OSAHS, using ENTColator lI plasma system of Arthocare company under general anesthesia. RESULT: Postoperative hemorrhage occurred in 37 cases of 4028 cases, among which 1 case occurred after tonsil ablation and other 36 cases occurred after adenoid ablation...
September 2013: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Kristi L Strandberg, Susan M Richards, Rita Tamayo, Linh T Reeves, John S Gunn
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) uses two-component regulatory systems (TCRS) to respond to stimuli in the local microenvironment. Upon infection, the Salmonella TCRSs PhoP-PhoQ (PhoPQ) and PmrA-PmrB (PmrAB) are activated by environmental signals in the intestinal lumen and within host cells. TCRS-mediated gene expression results in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification and cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance. The PmrA-regulated pmrHFIJKLM operon mediates 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (Ara4N) production and attachment to the lipid A of LPS...
2012: PloS One
Yu-Xian Shangguan, Ri-Peng Shi, Na Li, Kun Han, Hui-Ke Li, Lin-Quan Wang
The objective of this experiment was to quantify ammonia volatilization from a winter wheat field with plastic film mulched-ridges and unmulched-furrows (PMRF). The trial was conducted during the 2010-2011 winter wheat growing season at Yangling, Shaanxi Province. Ammonia volatilization from the soil was measured using the closed-chamber method. The results indicated that NH3 emission losses ranged between (1.66 +/- 0.3) and (3.28 +/- 0.51) kg x hm(-2) in the PMRF treatment. In comparison, the NH3 emission loss was (4...
June 2012: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Demetris S Soteropoulos, Elizabeth R Williams, Stuart N Baker
Recent work has shown that the primate reticulospinal tract can influence spinal interneurons and motoneurons involved in control of the hand. However, demonstrating connectivity does not reveal whether reticular outputs are modulated during the control of different types of hand movement. Here, we investigated how single unit discharge in the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) modulated during performance of a slow finger movement task in macaque monkeys. Two animals performed an index finger flexion–extension task to track a target presented on a computer screen; single units were recorded both from ipsilateral PMRF (115 cells) and contralateral primary motor cortex (M1, 210 cells)...
August 15, 2012: Journal of Physiology
Kathryn A Klein, Hana S Fukuto, Mark Pelletier, Galina Romanov, Jens P Grabenstein, Lance E Palmer, Robert Ernst, James B Bliska
Yersinia pestis is able to survive and replicate within murine macrophages. However, the mechanism by which Y. pestis promotes its intracellular survival is not well understood. To identify genes that are important for Y. pestis survival in macrophages, a library comprised of ∼31,500 Y. pestis KIM6+ transposon insertion mutants (input pool) was subjected to negative selection in primary murine macrophages. Genes underrepresented in the output pool of surviving bacteria were identified by transposon site hybridization to DNA oligonucleotide microarrays...
February 2012: Journal of Bacteriology
Hsin-Yao Cheng, Yi-Fong Chen, Hwei-Ling Peng
BACKGROUND: The cationic peptide antibiotic polymyxin has recently been reevaluated in the treatment of severe infections caused by gram negative bacteria. METHODS: In this study, the genetic determinants for capsular polysaccharide level and lipopolysaccharide modification involved in polymyxin B resistance of the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae were characterized. The expressional control of the genes responsible for the resistance was assessed by a LacZ reporter system...
2010: Journal of Biomedical Science
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