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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826896/blood-brain-barrier-impairment-in-hiv-positive-na%C3%A3-ve-and-effectively-treated-patients-immune-activation-versus-astrocytosis
#1
A Calcagno, A Romito, C Atzori, V Ghisetti, C Cardellino, S Audagnotto, E Scarvaglieri, F Lipani, D Imperiale, G Di Perri, S Bonora
Blood brain barrier (BBB) damage is a common feature in central nervous system infections by HIV and it may persist despite effective antiretroviral therapy. Astrocyte involvement has not been studied in this setting. Patients were enrolled in an ongoing prospective study and subjects with central nervous system-affecting disorders were excluded. Patients were divided into two groups: treated subjects with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV RNA <50 copies/mL (CSF-controllers) and in late-presenters CD4+ T lymphocytes <100/uL...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629991/serum-s100%C3%AE-as-a-prognostic-marker-in-patients-with-non-traumatic-intracranial-hemorrhage
#2
Eija K Junttila, Juha Koskenkari, Pasi P Ohtonen, Ari Karttunen, Tero I Ala-Kokko
BACKGROUND: The serum concentration of S100β protein reportedly predicts outcome after brain injury. We examined the prognostic accuracy of S100Beta in patients with non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study of patients with non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage treated in the intensive care unit at our university hospital. Computed tomography imaging findings and the level of consciousness on admission were recorded...
September 15, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25658758/synergistic-deleterious-effect-of-chronic-stress-and-sodium-azide-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#3
María José Delgado-Cortés, Ana M Espinosa-Oliva, Manuel Sarmiento, Sandro Argüelles, Antonio J Herrera, Raquel Mauriño, Ruth F Villarán, José L Venero, Alberto Machado, Rocío M de Pablos
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Although the primary cause of the disease is presently unknown, to date several risk factors have been described. Evidence suggests that one of these risk factors could be chronic stress. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that chronic stress is able to induce Alzheimer's disease features after the administration of nontoxic doses of sodium azide. We found that chronic stress increases the levels of several proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, such as presenilin 1, presenilin 2, and S100β, besides inducing the aggregation of Tau, ubiquitin, and β-amyloid proteins in the hippocampus...
April 20, 2015: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25506789/in-vivo-tracking-and-fate-of-intra-articularly-injected-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-particle-labeled-multipotent-stromal-cells-in-an-ovine-model-of-osteoarthritis
#4
Uta Delling, Walter Brehm, Marco Metzger, Eberhard Ludewig, Karsten Winter, Henriette Jülke
In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particle-labeled mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were injected intra-articularly into osteoarthritic knee joints. Their fate and distribution were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and macroscopic and histologic postmortem examination. Osteoarthritis was induced in 12 sheep by bilateral meniscectomy. After 6 weeks, one knee joint received 10 × 10(6) SPIO-labeled MSCs (Molday Ion Rhodamine B). Contralateral knees received a control injection of a) PBS, b) SPIO in PBS, c) 10 × 10(6) nonvital SPIO-labeled MSCs in PBS, or d) no injection...
2015: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24955068/epilepsy-and-inflammation-in-the-brain-overview-and-pathophysiology
#5
Annamaria Vezzani
The possibility that inflammatory processes in the brain contribute to the etiopathogenesis of seizures and the establishment of a chronic epileptic focus is increasingly recognized as a result of supportive evidence in experimental models and in the clinical setting. Prototypical inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-1beta) and "danger signals" (such as HMGB1 and S100beta) are overexpressed in human and experimental epileptogenic tissue, prominently by glia. Neurons and endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier contribute to inflammatory processes...
January 2014: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24931568/reduced-intraepidermal-nerve-fiber-density-in-patients-with-chronic-ischemic-pain-in-peripheral-arterial-disease
#6
Eva Gröne, Nurcan Üçeyler, Thomas Abahji, Johannes Fleckenstein, Dominik Irnich, Thomas Mussack, Ulrich Hoffmann, Claudia Sommer, Philip M Lang
Chronic ischemic pain in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a leading cause of pain in the lower extremities. A neuropathic component of chronic ischemic pain has been shown independent of coexisting diabetes. We aimed to identify a morphological correlate potentially associated with pain and sensory deficits in PAD. Forty patients with symptomatic PAD (Fontaine stages II-IV), 20 with intermittent claudication (CI), and 20 with critical limb ischemia (CLI) were enrolled; 12 volunteers served as healthy controls...
September 2014: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24640767/-brain-functional-state-and-cytoprotective-potential-in-model-of-acute-cerebral-hypoxia-experimental-research
#7
N V Tsygan, A P Trashkov
The functional state of the brain and the potential of pharmacologic cytoprotection after an acute cerebral hypoxia were studied. The experiment involved 186 adult male rats. The rats in experimental groups underwent acute thromboembolism of the right carotid artery. The functional state of the brain and the efficacy and safety of the Cytoflavin complex cytoprotective drug treatment had been analyzed over the 10 days following the thromboembolism. A neurological examination was accomplished daily, the serum levels of NSE, GFAP, S100beta and brain cytolysate levels of NSE were measured on the 1st, 3rd, 10th day...
October 2013: Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia i èksperimental'naia Terapiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23905375/-protective-effect-of-shenfu-injection-pretreatment-on-brain-of-patients-receiving-aortic-valve-replacement-undergoing-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Chao Deng, Zhi-Gang Dai, Yong-Jin Chen, Xi-wei Dong
OBJECTIVE: To observe the protective effect of Shenfu Injection (SFI) pretreatment on brain of patients receiving aortic valve replacement (AVR) undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS: Thirty AVR patients undergoing CPB were randomly assigned to 2 groups, the control group and the experimental group, 15 cases in each group. SFI at 1.5 mL/kg (dissolved in 250 mL 5% glucose solution) was intravenously dripped to those in the experimental group 5 days before operation, once daily for 5 successive days...
May 2013: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23595285/object-based-analysis-of-astroglial-reaction-and-astrocyte-subtype-morphology-after-ischemic-brain-injury
#9
Wagner Daniel-Christoph, Johanna Scheibe, Isabelle Glocke, Gesa Weise, Alexander Deten, Johannes Boltze, Alexander Kranz
The astrocytic response to ischemic brain injury is characterized by specific alterations of glial cell morphology and function. Various studies described both beneficial and detrimental aspects of activated astrocytes, suggesting the existence of different subtypes. We investigated this issue using a novel object-based approach to study characteristics of astrogliosis after stroke. Spontaneously hypertensive rats received permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. After 96 h, brain specimens were removed, fixed and stained for GFAP, glutamine synthetase (GS), S100Beta and Musashi1 (Msh1)...
2013: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23391666/brain-biomarkers-and-management-of-uncertainty-in-predicting-outcome-of-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-nomogram-paints-a-thousand-words
#10
Sharon Einav, Nechama Kaufman, Nurit Algur, Nurith Strauss-Liviatan, Jeremy D Kark
AIM: Use of brain biomarkers for predicting death after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is limited by a research focus on the discriminative ability of each biomarker and ethical/cultural controversy concerning the likelihood of misclassification of potential survivors. We illustrate an approach to address these limitations by creating a dynamic nomogram with four levels of sensitivity (0.8, 0.9, 0.95 and 1.0) selected to represent different degrees of certainty in correct identification of survivors...
August 2013: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23328058/troubleshooting-the-rat-model-of-cardiopulmonary-bypass-effects-of-avoiding-blood-transfusion-on-long-term-survival-inflammation-and-organ-damage
#11
Iryna V Samarska, Robert H Henning, Hendrik Buikema, Hjalmar R Bouma, Martin C Houwertjes, Hubert Mungroop, Michel M R F Struys, Anthony R Absalom, Anne H Epema
INTRODUCTION: Rat models of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have been used to examine the mechanisms of associated organ damage and to test intervention strategies. However, these models only partly mimic the clinical situation, because of the use of blood transfusion and arterial inflow via the tail artery. Thus a model using arterial inflow in the aorta and a miniaturized CPB circuit without need of transfusion was validated by examining intra-procedure characteristics, mortality and the effects of CPB on biomarkers of inflammation and cerebral injury during 5days follow-up...
March 2013: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23213940/predictors-of-short-term-neurocognitive-outcome-following-coronary-revascularisation-cabg-depending-on-the-use-of-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ines Lazibat, Zeljko Sutlić, Kristina Brkić, Branimir Nevajda, Jozica Sikić, Ana Havelka Mestrović
The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between perioperative cerebral microembolization, expressed as high-intensity transient signals (HITS) and postoperative dynamics of the neuromarker S100P in patients operated using cardiopulmonary bypass, and to assess their impact upon the neurocognitive function in the early postoperative stage. The study involved 62 consecutive male patients aged 60 or above, alls scheduled for elective aortocoronary bypass. The patients were recruited from two groups with respect to the use of CPB: on-pump group (CPB+, N = 30) and off-pump group (CPB-, N = 32)...
September 2012: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22821367/immunohistochemical-characterization-of-spontaneous-and-acrylonitrile-induced-brain-tumors-in-the-rat
#13
Holly Meredith Kolenda-Roberts, Nancy Harris, Emily Singletary, Jerry F Hardisty
Twenty-eight spontaneously occurring glial tumors (previously diagnosed as astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and gliomas) and eleven granular cell tumors (GCTs) were selected for evaluation using a panel of immunohistochemistry (IHC) stains (Ricinus communis agglutinin type 1 [RCA-1], ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 [Iba-1], OX-6/major immunohistocompatibility complex class II, oligodendrocytes transcription factor 2 [Olig2], glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], S100 beta, glutamine synthetase, neurofilament, proliferating cell nuclear antigen)...
January 2013: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22709718/therapeutic-time-window-of-hypothermia-is-broader-than-cerebral-artery-flushing-in-carotid-saline-infusion-after-transient-focal-ischemic-stroke-in-rats
#14
Yabin Ji, Yafang Hu, Yongming Wu, Zhong Ji, Wei Song, Shengnan Wang, Suyue Pan
OBJECT: Intracarotid cold saline infusion (ICSI) protects against ischemic stroke not only due to the resulting hypothermia, but also as a result of the cerebral artery flushing. To assess the relative benefit of hypothermia and cerebral artery flushing in neuroprotection, hypothermic and normothermic saline infusions were administrated over a serial time points after the initiation of reperfusion in a rat ischemia model. METHODS: Ischemic strokes were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 115) by occluding the middle cerebral artery for 2 hours using an intraluminal filament...
September 2012: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21941777/-involvement-of-excitatory-amino-acid-system-in-astrocytes-activation-caused-by-dimethoate
#15
Hong-Mei Cui, Xiu-Li Chang, Fu Xu, Qing Wu, Zhi-Jun Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To study the involvement of excitatory amino acid system in astrocytes activation caused by dimethoate. METHODS: Pure-cultured astrocytes were gained by three passages from primary cultured rat nerve cells, then treated with 10(-6),10(-5),10(-4) mol/L dimethoate for 48 h, 50 micromol/L and 100 micromol/L MK801, a NMDA receptor blocker, was used to intervene the effects induced by 10(-4) mol/L dimethoate. HPLC-FLD was utilized to measure the concentrations of excitatory amino acid (EAA), RT-PCR was used to detect the expression levels of NR2B, GLT-1, GLAST, GFAP and S100beta mRNA, and immunofluorescence staining method was applied to measure the expression levels of GFAP and S100beta proteins...
April 2011: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21909402/pregnancy-and-maternal-behavior-induce-changes-in-glia-glutamate-and-its-metabolism-within-the-cingulate-cortex
#16
Natalina Salmaso, Marie-Pierre Cossette, Barbara Woodside
An upregulation of the astrocytic proteins GFAP and bFGF within area 2 of the cingulate cortex (Cg2) occurs within 3 hours of parturition in rats. These changes are the result of an interaction between hormonal state and maternal experience and are associated with increased dendritic spine density in this area. Here, we examined whether this upregulation of astrocytic proteins generalized to other glial markers and, in particular those associated with glutamate metabolism. We chose glial markers commonly used to reflect different aspects of glial function: vimentin, like GFAP, is a marker of intermediate filaments; glutamine synthetase (GS), and S-100beta, are used as markers for mature astrocytes and GS has also been used as a specific marker for glutamatergic enzymatic activity...
2011: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21857497/human-alzheimer-and-inflammation-biomarkers-after-anesthesia-and-surgery
#17
Junxia X Tang, Dimitry Baranov, Mary Hammond, Leslie M Shaw, Maryellen F Eckenhoff, Roderic G Eckenhoff
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of postoperative cognitive disturbance, coupled with growing in vitro, cell, and animal evidence suggesting anesthetic effects on neurodegeneration, calls for additional study of the interaction between surgical care and Alzheimer neuropathology. The authors studied human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers during surgery. METHODS: Eleven patients undergoing idiopathic nasal CSF leak correction were admitted to this Institutional Review Board-approved study...
October 2011: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21688665/-il-1beta-il-10-inf-gamma-tnf-alpha-s100beta-ama-m2-and-cell-immune-response-in-stroke
#18
S P Sergeeva, L M Erofeeva, M M Gul'tiaev
Clinical data showed a role for stress, inflammatory, innate immune and adaptive immune mechanisms is stroke. Absolute and relative count of lymphocytes decrease, CD3 HLA DR+ and immunoregulatory balance (CD4+/CD8+) increase, concentration of IL-1beta, INF-gamma, TNF-alpha, S100beta, AMA-M2 increase, IL-10 decrease were detected in peripheral blood of 25 patients with stroke. It is explained that the products of brain cell stroke destruction (AMA-M2) play in autoimmune stroke progress mechanisms the same role as neurospecific proteins as S100beta...
January 2011: Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia i èksperimental'naia Terapiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21654685/hoxc11-src-1-regulation-of-s100beta-in-cutaneous-melanoma-new-targets-for-the-kinase-inhibitor-dasatinib
#19
C deBlacam, C Byrne, E Hughes, M McIlroy, F Bane, A D K Hill, L S Young
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive disease. S100beta is an established biomarker of disease progression; however, the mechanism of its regulation in melanoma is undefined. METHODS: Expression of HOXC11 and SRC-1 was examined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Molecular and cellular techniques were used to investigate regulation of S100beta, including, western blot, qPCR, ChIP and migration assays. RESULTS: Expression levels of the transcription factor HOXC11 and its coactivator SRC-1 were significantly elevated in malignant melanoma in comparison with benign nevi (P<0...
June 28, 2011: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21647561/immunohistological-markers-for-proliferative-events-gliogenesis-and-neurogenesis-within-the-adult-hippocampus
#20
REVIEW
Oliver von Bohlen und Halbach
Biologists long believed that, once development is completed, no new neurons are produced in the forebrain. However, as is now firmly established, new neurons can be produced at least in two specific forebrain areas: the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampal formation. Neurogenesis within the adult DG occurs constitutively throughout postnatal life, and the rate of neurogenesis within the DG can be altered under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The process of adult neurogenesis within the DG is a multi-step process (proliferation, differentiation, migration, targeting, and synaptic integration) that ends with the formation of a post-mitotic functionally integrated new neuron...
July 2011: Cell and Tissue Research
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