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Ketamine and morphine

Kam Lun Hon, Michael Ho Ming Chan, Ming Him James Ng, Chi Cheung Ho, Yin Ching Kathy Tsang, Wing Hung Tam, Chung Shun Ho
OBJECTIVE: Maternal drug abuse may influence neonatal outcomes. We compared neonatal outcomes of patients with urine screened positive for commonly abused drugs (CAD) versus those who were screened negative, and reviewed the pattern of drugs detected at a university teaching hospital. METHODS: Urine samples collected from babies with suspected illicit drug exposure who were admitted to the neonatal unit were sent for comprehensive drug screen (CDS) performed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS)...
October 10, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Maria Jenelyn M Alviar, Tom Hale, Monalisa Dungca
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 12, 2011. Phantom limb pain (PLP) is pain that arises in the missing limb after amputation and can be severe, intractable, and disabling. Various medications have been studied in the treatment of phantom pain. There is currently uncertainty in the optimal pharmacologic management of PLP. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to summarise the evidence of effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions in treating PLP...
October 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mohammad Reza Khajavi, Seyed Mehdi Sabouri, Reza Shariat Moharari, Pejman Pourfakhr, Atabak Najafi, Farhad Etezadi, Farsad Imani
BACKGROUND: Opioids are generally the preferred analgesic agents during the early postoperative period. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to assess and compare the multimodal analgesic effects of ketamine and tramadol in combination with intravenous acetaminophen after renal surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial was conducted on 80 consecutive patients undergoing various types of kidney surgeries in Sina hospital in Tehran in 2014 - 2016...
July 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
Sung Kwan Choi, Myung Ha Yoon, Jung Il Choi, Woong Mo Kim, Bong Ha Heo, Keun Seok Park, Ji A Song
BACKGROUND: Although intraoperative opioids provide more comfortable anesthesia and reduce the use of postoperative analgesics, it may cause opioid induced hyperalgesia (OIH). OIH is an increased pain response to opioids and it may be associated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. This study aimed to determine whether intraoperative nefopam or ketamine, known being related on NMDA receptor, affects postoperative pain and OIH after continuous infusion of intraoperative remifentanil...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Ahmed H Othman, Ahmad M Abd El-Rahman, Fatma El Sherif
BACKGROUND: Breast surgery is an exceedingly common procedure with an increased incidence of acute and chronic pain. Pectoral nerve block is a novel peripheral nerve block alternative to neuro-axial and paravertebral blocks for ambulatory breast surgeries. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the analgesic efficacy and safety of modified Pecs block with ketamine plus bupivacaine versus bupivacaine in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, prospective study...
September 2016: Pain Physician
Saul Martinez, Sherrin Alexander
The objective of this systematic review is to determine if adding low-dose ketamine to a morphine patient-controlled analgesic pump will have an impact on the total consumption of morphine during the first 72 hours postoperative in patients over the age of 15 undergoing surgery involving thoracotomy. In addition, secondary outcomes assessing the impact on pain, nausea and vomiting will be evaluated for any alteration with ketamine co-administration.
August 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Daphnée Michelet, Juliette Andreu-Gallien, Alia Skhiri, Arnaud Bonnard, Yves Nivoche, Souhayl Dahmani
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Laparoscopic pediatric surgery allows a rapid postoperative rehabilitation and hospital discharge. However, the optimal postoperative pain management preserving advantages of this surgical technique remains to be determined. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the postoperative recovery of bowel function after laparoscopic surgery in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of factors affecting recovery of bowel function in children and infants undergoing laparoscopic surgery between January 1, 2009 and September 30, 2009, was performed...
July 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Stacy L Reynolds, Jonathan R Studnek, Kathleen Bryant, Kelly VanderHave, Eric Grossman, Charity G Moore, James Young, Melanie Hogg, Michael S Runyon
INTRODUCTION: Fentanyl is the most widely studied intranasal (IN) analgesic in children. IN subdissociative (INSD) ketamine may offer a safe and efficacious alternative to IN fentanyl and may decrease overall opioid use during the emergency department (ED) stay. This study examines the feasibility of a larger, multicentre clinical trial comparing the safety and efficacy of INSD ketamine to IN fentanyl and the potential role for INSD ketamine in reducing total opioid medication usage. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This double-blind, randomised controlled, pilot trial will compare INSD ketamine (1 mg/kg) to IN fentanyl (1...
2016: BMJ Open
Rachel Myers, Jeanette Lozenski, Matthew Wyatt, Maria Peña, Kayla Northrop, Dhaval Bhavsar, Anthony Kovac
Pain and sedation management for patients undergoing burn dressing change can be challenging. Variations appear to exist in the selection of medications before and during burn dressing change. To determine if institutional variations exist in pain and sedation management for burn dressing change, an online survey was sent to ABA Burn Center nurses and physicians. Three hundred seventy-eight anonymous responses were received from nurses (72%), nurse practitioners (10%), and physicians (18%). Burn centers had adult (22%), pediatric (12%), or pediatric and adult (66%) patients...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Justin L Poklis, Amanda J Mohs, Carl E Wolf, Alphonse Poklis, Michelle R Peace
In healthcare settings drug diversion and impairment of physicians are major concerns requiring a rapid and efficient method for surveillance and detection. A Direct Analysis in Real Time ion source coupled to a JEOL AccuTOF(TM) time-of-flight mass spectrometer (DART-MS) method was developed to screen parenteral pharmaceutical formulations for potential drug diversion. Parenteral pharmaceutical formulations are also known as injectable formulations and are used with intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular and intra-articular administration...
October 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Sahar Abd-Elbaky Mohamed, Ahmad Mohammad Abd El-Rahman, Khaled M Fares
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal ketamine has been studied extensively in animals, but rarely in humans. Intrathecal dexmedetomidine prolongs the duration of spinal anesthesia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of intrathecal dexmedetomidine, ketamine, or both when added to bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in major abdominal cancer surgery. DESIGN: Double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Academic medical center...
July 2016: Pain Physician
Marina Perelló, David Artés, Cristina Pascuets, Elisabeth Esteban, Ana Maria Ey
STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, with a six-month follow-up period. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that a 72-hour dose of subanesthetic ketamine in this surgical procedure reduces postoperative morphine use; To assess if there are fewer adverse effects, if postoperative recovery is faster, if there is less peri-incisional hyperalgesia or if there is lower incidence of persistent postsurgical pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Tissue injury and high opioid requirements following posterior spinal fusion surgery produce central sensitization, which can in turn be associated with hyperalgesia and chronic pain...
July 7, 2016: Spine
Märit Lundblad, Per-Arne Lönnqvist
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews various adjunct drugs used in the context of neuroaxial blocks in children and to provide a literature and evidence-based suggestion for the rational use of such adjuncts. RECENT FINDINGS: Contrary to plain local anaesthetics, preservative-free morphine and clonidine, ketamine in neonatal rodents has been found to enhance apoptosis in the spinal cord. Dexmedetomidine has been shown to be equally effective as clonidine as an adjunct to caudal blocks...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
G L Yang, A D Zhang, Y Yu, H Liu, F Y Long, J Yan
OBJECTIVES: To describe drug use, types of drugs and related factors among money boys in Hunan Province, China. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2012 and January 2013. METHODS: Based on respondent-driven sampling, researchers located seven 'seeds' via a gay-dating website: After three waves of recruitment, 234 money boys were enrolled. They were asked to complete a 23-item questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics, drug use, a history of human immunodeficiency virus infection and family environment...
July 2, 2016: Public Health
Min Hou, Nai-Bao Zhou, Hao Li, Bao-Sheng Wang, Xiu-Qin Wang, Xing-Wu Wang, Kai-Guo Wang, Fu-Shan Xue
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence regarding effects of anesthetic and analgesic drugs on immune function of cancer patients. This study was designed to observe changes of T cell subpopulations in the gastric cancer (GC) patients and to assess effects of morphine and ketamine on the CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) populations obtained from the GC patients in vitro. METHODS: The peripheral blood samples from 20 GC patients and 20 healthy volunteers were obtained...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Rabin Bhandari, Gyanendra Malla, Bijendra Kumar Rai, Chris Curry
OBJECTIVES: Nepal is a least developed country, with limited healthcare resources. An 18 month Fellowship in Emergency Medicine has contributed some improvements to care. This study assessed time to first analgesia in higher and lower acuity patients. METHODS: A prospective observational study of 101 patients in each of the Australasian Triage Scale (ATS) 2, 3 and 100 in ATS 4 was undertaken at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. Convenience sampling was used coinciding with researcher's duty hours...
August 2016: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Marcus D Hayward, Luke Regan, John Glasheen, Brian Burns
OBJECTIVE: There is little current evidence regarding which therapeutic agents are actually used within existing aeromedical services. The Greater Sydney Area Helicopter Emergency Medical Service operates a large, physician-staffed, multimodal, prehospital and interhospital retrieval service. The aim of the present study was to identify the range and frequency of drug, fluid and blood product use within our service. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study...
June 2016: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Ya-Tin Lin, Tzu-Yu Liu, Ching-Yao Yang, Yu-Lian Yu, Ting-Chun Chen, Yuan-Ji Day, Che-Chien Chang, Guo-Jen Huang, Jin-Chung Chen
Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) is a morphine-modulating peptide that regulates the analgesic effect of opioids, and also controls food consumption and cardiovascular function through its interaction with two cognate receptors, NPFFR1 and NPFFR2. In the present study, we explore a novel modulatory role for NPFF-NPFFR2 in stress-related depressive behaviors. In a mouse model of chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depression, the expression of NPFF significantly increased in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala...
September 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
İsmail Kerem Gelir, Sacit Güleç, Dilek Ceyhan
OBJECTIVES: Preventive analgesia has been defined as reduction in noxious stimuli during preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods. The aim of the present study was to prevent central sensitization by administering ketamine infusion throughout the surgical procedure. In addition, possible preventive effects of dexketoprofen when administered before and after incision were evaluated. METHODS: Fifty patients were included. Group I was administered 50 mg intravenous dexketoprofen prior to surgical incision, and Group II received the same amount 10 minutes after the incision had been made...
April 2016: Aǧrı: Ağrı (Algoloji) Derneği'nin Yayın Organıdır, the Journal of the Turkish Society of Algology
Michela Re, Susana Canfrán, Carlota Largo, Ignacioa A Gómez de Segura
Providing lidocaine, ketamine, and an opioid greatly decreases the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of volatile anesthetics in dogs. However, the efficacy of this combination shows marked interspecies variation, and opioids are likely to be less effective in pigs than in other species. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of constant-rate infusion of lidocaine and ketamine combined with either morphine or fentanyl on the MAC of sevoflurane in pigs. In a prospective, randomized, crossover design, 8 healthy crossbred pigs were premedicated with ketamine and midazolam, and anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane...
2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
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