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Hypotonic child

Sinead Keane, Eileen Butler
AIMS: To determine the effect, if any, that hyper-hydration with hypotonic fluids has on sodium balance in paediatric haematology/oncology patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy treatment for malignancies. METHODS: A literature review was carried out and a snapshot of current practice across paediatric haematology/oncology centres in the UK was obtained. A prospective study was carried out in a tertiary paediatric haematology/oncology centre. A total of 98 patient episodes involved hyper-hydration with isotonic 0...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Efrat Ben-Shalom, Ori Toker, Shepard Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremic dehydration is a common and potentially life-threatening condition in children. There is currently no consensus as to the optimal strategy for fluid management. OBJECTIVES: To describe the relationship between the type, route and rate of fluids administered and the rate of decline in serum sodium (Na+) concentration. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all children under the age of 2 years who were hospitalized with hypernatremic dehydration (serum Na+ ≥ 155 mEq/L) in Shaare Zedek Medical Center during the period 2001-2010...
February 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
R Masson, S Guerra, R Cerini, V Pensato, C Gellera, F Taroni, A Simonati
We describe the clinical findings and MRI features observed in a child who presented a two-step disease course: he was hypotonic at birth and soon afterwards developed seizures, which were partially responsive to treatment; he subsequently showed developmental delay and a progressive neurological deterioration with the onset of severe seizures at around three years of age. Head MRI at age 20 days was unremarkable, whereas at 25 months it showed bilateral hyperintensity of the deep cerebellar nuclei; five months later, the signal hyperintensity was also present in the cerebellar white matter and ventral pontine fibre tracts...
May 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Rami S Alazab, Rola S Saqan, Faris Abu Shamma
Underactive bladder in children is characterized by low voiding frequency; straining, hypotonic high capacity bladder, and significant residual urine. The usual presentation is recurrent urinary tract infections. Accurate evidence-based diagnosis and treatment is crucial. Subjective and objective improvement and regain of normal voiding can be achieved in response to bladder rehabilitation program and correction of serious complications.
March 2015: Urology Case Reports
Shantiranjan Sanyal, Sharmila Duraisamy, Umesh Chandra Garga
Objective Hypotonia is a common clinical entity well recognized in pediatric age group, which demands experienced clinical assessment and an extensive array of investigations to establish the underlying disease process. Neuroimaging comes as great help in diagnosing the disease process in rare cases of central hypotonia due to structural malformations of brain and metabolic disorders and should always be included as an important investigation in the assessment of a floppy child. In this article, we discuss the MRI features of eight cases of central and two cases of combined hypotonia and the importance of neuroimaging in understanding the underlying disease in a hypotonic child...
2015: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
S Koirala, A Poudel, R Basnet, K Subedi
Infantile hypotonia or floppy infant is a diagnostic challenge when it presents with other presenting complaints such as fever, cough or diarrhea. Many times the hypotonia goes unnoticed when other symptom covers the hypotonia and child continues to receive the treatment for other symptoms. We report a rare case from Nepal of infantile Pompe disease who presented with the history of fever and cough in the recent earthquake disaster camp at remote part of Sindhupalchowk, Nepal. He was being treated as a case of pneumonia...
April 2015: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
Sun-Joung Leigh An
[Purpose] The purpose of this case report is to present the effects of vestibular stimulation on a child with hypotonic cerebral palsy through the use of swings. [Case Description] The subject was a 19-month-old boy with a diagnosis of hypotonic cerebral palsy (CP) and oscillating nystagmus. The subject had received both physical therapy and occupational therapy two times per week since he was 5 months old but showed little to no improvement. [Methods] Pre and post-intervention tests were completed by the researcher using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development II...
April 2015: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Amy Armstrong-Javors, Catherine J Chu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2014: Neurology
Mercedes Cemeli-Cano, José Luis Peña-Segura, Ruth Fernando-Martínez, Silvia Izquierdo-Álvarez, Lorena Monge-Galindo, Javier López-Pisón
INTRODUCTION: Legius syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by the mutation in the SPRED1 gene involving a negative regulator of the RAS-MAPK pathway, similar to neurofibromin and therefore shows some clinical similarities to neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) but less severe. These patients have multiple cafe-au-lait spots, sometimes associated with skin fold freckling, dysmorphic features, lipomas, and mild learning disabilities. However, this syndrome is not associated with neurofibromas, optic gliomas, Lisch nodules or tumor predisposition...
September 1, 2014: Revista de Neurologia
Min A Joo, Eun Young Kim
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder that requires careful management. Water intoxication with hyponatremia is rare condition that originated from overhydration. Water intoxication, also known as dilutional hyponatremia, develops only because the intake of water exceeds the kidney's ability to eliminate water. Causes of this water intoxication include psychiatric disorder, forced water intake as a form of child abuse and iatrogenic infusion of excessive hypotonic fluid. We experienced and reported a case of symptomatic hyponatremia by forced water intake as a form of child abuse...
June 2013: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Jingjing Wang, Erdi Xu, Yanfeng Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To assess evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the safety of isotonic versus hypotonic intravenous (IV) maintenance fluids in hospitalized children. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and (up to April 11, 2013) for RCTs that compared isotonic to hypotonic maintenance IV fluid therapy in hospitalized children. Relative risk (RR), weighted mean differences, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated based on the effects on plasma sodium (pNa)...
January 2014: Pediatrics
Hong-Yun Zhang, Fei Du
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effect of electroacupuncture (EA) combined with sitting training for cerebral palsy (CP) children with parafunctional sitting position. METHODS: A total of 120 parafunctional sitting CP child patients were randomly and equally divided into sitting training (control) group and EA plus sitting training (EA) group. The sitting training included assistant-sitting, legs-crossing-sitting, sitting with one-leg extending, long-term sitting, balancing-sitting, chair-climbing, and pron and hand-supporting, twice daily...
October 2013: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Jordan M Virbalas, John P Bent, Hillel W Cohen, Sanjay R Parikh
IMPORTANCE: Children with poor muscle tone may demonstrate upper airway obstruction due to several mechanisms including obstructive sleep apnea, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and laryngomalacia. Though hypotonia has been shown to compromise the pediatric airway, and some authors suggest that neurologic deficits can compromise the success of laryngotracheal reconstruction (LTR), to our knowledge no studies have evaluated the effect of neurologic diagnoses or hypotonia on outcomes in LTR. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hypotonic children with subglottic stenosis have lower rates of successful decannulation after LTR compared with children without neurologic deficit...
December 2013: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Fabio Pizza, Christian Franceschini, Hanna Peltola, Stefano Vandi, Elena Finotti, Francesca Ingravallo, Lino Nobili, Oliviero Bruni, Ling Lin, Mark J Edwards, Markku Partinen, Yves Dauvilliers, Emmanuel Mignot, Kailash P Bhatia, Giuseppe Plazzi
Our aim was to investigate the natural evolution of cataplexy and polysomnographic features in untreated children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. To this end, clinical, polysomnographic, and cataplexy-video assessments were performed at diagnosis (mean age of 10 ± 3 and disease duration of 1 ± 1 years) and after a median follow-up of 3 years from symptom onset (mean age of 12 ± 4 years) in 21 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy and hypocretin 1 deficiency (tested in 19 subjects). Video assessment was also performed in two control groups matched for age and sex at first evaluation and follow-up and was blindly scored for presence of hypotonic (negative) and active movements...
December 2013: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Deborah Christensen, Kim Van Naarden Braun, Nancy S Doernberg, Matthew J Maenner, Carrie L Arneson, Maureen S Durkin, Ruth E Benedict, Russell S Kirby, Martha S Wingate, Robert Fitzgerald, Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp
AIM: The aim of this study was to report the prevalence and characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: Children with CP (n=451) were ascertained by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, a population-based, record-review surveillance system monitoring CP in four areas of the USA. Prevalence was calculated as the number of children with CP among all 8-year-old children residing in these areas in 2008. Motor function was categorized by Gross Motor Function Classification System level and walking ability...
January 2014: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Yoshie Taniguchi
Perioperative fluid therapy aims to provide water, electrolytes and calorie to maintain metabolic homeostasis. The landmark article in which Holliday and Segar proposed the rate and composition of parenteral maintenance fluids for hospitalized children is used to the fluid management for the pediatric surgical patient. Critically ill patients require meticulous intraoperative fluid management to avoid acidosis, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, and hypocalcemia as well as to maintain adequate intravascular volume...
September 2013: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Francis Carandang, Andrew Anglemyer, Christopher A Longhurst, Gomathi Krishnan, Steven R Alexander, Madelyn Kahana, Scott M Sutherland
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the administration of hypotonic fluids compared with isotonic fluids is associated with a greater risk for hyponatremia in hospitalized children. STUDY DESIGN: Informatics-enabled cohort study of all hospitalizations at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital between April 2009 and March 2011. Extraction and analysis of electronic medical record data identified normonatremic hospitalized children who received either hypotonic or isotonic intravenous maintenance fluids upon admission...
December 2013: Journal of Pediatrics
A Steffen, D Beutner, S Hakim, W Jost, K G Kahl, R Laskawi, R Lencer, V Mall, F-W Mehrhoff, T Meyners, R Schönweiler, S Schröder, H Schröter-Morasch, M Schuster, S Steinlechner, J Winterhoff, J Zenk, O Guntinas-Lichius
Hypersalivation describes a relatively excessive salivary flow, which wets the patient himself and his surroundings. It may result because of insufficient oro-motor function, dysphagia, decreased central control and coordination. This reduces social interaction chances and burdens daily care. Multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment evaluation is recommended already at early stage and focus on dysphagia, and saliva aspiration. Therefore, a multidisciplinary S2k guideline was developed. Diagnostic tools such as fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and videofluoroscopic swallowing studies generate important data on therapy selection and control...
August 2013: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
T Wada, H Ban, M Matsufuji, N Okamoto, K Enomoto, K Kurosawa, N Aida
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: X-linked α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome (Mendelian Inheritance in Man, 301040) is one of the X-linked intellectual disability syndromes caused by mutations of the ATRX gene and characterized by male predominance, central hypotonic facies, severe cognitive dysfunction, hemoglobin H disease (α-thalassemia), genital and skeletal abnormalities, and autistic and peculiar behavior. More than 200 patients in the world, including >70 Japanese patients, have been diagnosed with ATR-X syndrome...
October 2013: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Jochen M Strauß, Robert Sümpelmann
The more than 50 years ago of Holiday and Segar created fundamentals of fluid therapy with sodium hypotonic solutions require revision. Hypotonic electrolyte solutions should not be longer used perioperatively. To maintain the water balance in the perioperative phase stable, children need balanced electrolyte solutions, corresponding to the composition of the extracellular space. Routine glucose supply is not required, only children with an increased risk of hypoglycemia, such as newborns, need a supply of glucose as well as a monitoring of serum glucose...
April 2013: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
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