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Spinal cord respiratory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775479/acute-intermittent-hypoxia-and-rehabilitative-training-following-cervical-spinal-injury-alters-neuronal-hypoxia-and-plasticity-associated-protein-expression
#1
Atiq Hassan, Breanna M Arnold, Sally Caine, Behzad M Toosi, Valerie M K Verge, Gillian D Muir
One of the most promising approaches to improve recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the augmentation of spontaneously occurring plasticity in uninjured neural pathways. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH, brief exposures to reduced O2 levels alternating with normal O2 levels) initiates plasticity in respiratory systems and has been shown to improve recovery in respiratory and non-respiratory spinal systems after SCI in experimental animals and humans. Although the mechanism by which AIH elicits its effects after SCI are not well understood, AIH is known to alter protein expression in spinal neurons in uninjured animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772344/the-expression-of-galanin-in-the-parafacial-respiratory-group-and-its-effects-on-respiration-in-neonatal-rats
#2
Tara G Bautista, Angelina Y Fong, Paul M Pilowsky, Keiko Ikeda, Kiyoshi Kawakami, Darko Spirovski, Hiroshi Onimaru
The inhibitory peptide galanin is expressed within the retrotrapezoidal nucleus (RTN) - a key central chemoreceptor site that also contains the active expiratory oscillator. It was previously reported that microinjection of galanin into pre-Bötzinger complex - containing the inspiratory oscillator - exerts inhibitory effects on inspiratory motor output and respiratory rhythm. In neonatal rats, the present study aimed to investigate: 1) expression of galanin within the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG), which overlaps anatomically and functionally with the adult RTN, and; 2) effects of galanin on respiratory rhythm using the in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771608/paced-breathing-and-phrenic-nerve-responses-evoked-by-epidural-stimulation-following-complete-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#3
Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Michael A Lane, Vitaliy Marchenko
Spinal cord injury (SCI) at the level of cervical segments often results in life-threatening respiratory complications and requires long-term mechanical ventilator assistance. Thus, restoring diaphragm activity and regaining voluntary control of breathing are the primary clinical goals for patients with respiratory dysfunction following cervical SCI. Epidural stimulation (EDS) is a promising strategy that has been explored extensively for non-respiratory functions, and to a limited extent within the respiratory system...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760552/patients-receiving-chiropractic-care-in-a-neurorehabilitation-hospital-a-descriptive-study
#4
Robert D Vining, Stacie A Salsbury, W Carl Cooley, Donna Gosselin, Lance Corber, Christine M Goertz
Objectives: Individuals rehabilitating from complex neurological injury require a multidisciplinary approach, which typically does not include chiropractic care. This study describes inpatients receiving multidisciplinary rehabilitation including chiropractic care for brain injury, spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke, and other complex neurological conditions. Design: Chiropractic services were integrated into Crotched Mountain Specialty Hospital (CMSH) through this project...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736265/evaluation-of-a-clinical-implementation-of-a-respiratory-muscle-training-group-during-spinal-cord-injury-rehabilitation
#5
Anja M Raab, Jörg Krebs, Claudio Perret, Mirjam Pfister, Maria Hopman, Gabi Mueller
Study design: Retrospective cohort study. Objective: To evaluate the clinical implementation of a respiratory muscle training group during rehabilitation of individuals with spinal cord injury. Setting: Spinal cord injury rehabilitation center. Methods: Individuals with complete or incomplete lesions during inpatient rehabilitation, level C4-T12.Ten or more training sessions of either an inspiratory or a combined in- and expiratory muscle training were performed in a group setting with respiratory function measurements before and after the training period...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732422/developments-in-the-treatment-of-chiari-type-1-malformations-over-the-past-decade
#6
Peter G Passias, Alexandra Pyne, Samantha R Horn, Gregory W Poorman, Muhammad B Janjua, Dennis Vasquez-Montes, Cole A Bortz, Frank A Segreto, Nicholas J Frangella, Matthew Y Siow, Akhila Sure, Peter L Zhou, John Y Moon, Bassel G Diebo, Shaleen N Vira
Background: Chiari malformations type 1 (CM-1), a developmental anomaly of the posterior fossa, usually presents in adolescence or early adulthood. There are few studies on the national incidence of CM-1, taking into account outcomes based on concurrent diagnoses. To quantify trends in treatment and associated diagnoses, as retrospective review of the Kid's Inpatient Database (KID) from 2003-2012 was conducted. Methods: Patients aged 0-20 with primary diagnosis of CM-1 in the KID database were identified...
March 2018: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725819/senataxin-mutations-elicit-motor-neuron-degeneration-phenotypes-and-yield-tdp-43-mislocalization-in-als4-mice-and-human-patients
#7
Craig L Bennett, Somasish G Dastidar, Shuo-Chien Ling, Bilal Malik, Travis Ashe, Mandheer Wadhwa, Derek B Miller, Changwoo Lee, Matthew B Mitchell, Michael A van Es, Christopher Grunseich, Yingzhang Chen, Bryce L Sopher, Linda Greensmith, Don W Cleveland, Albert R La Spada
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 4 (ALS4) is a rare, early-onset, autosomal dominant form of ALS, characterized by slow disease progression and sparing of respiratory musculature. Dominant, gain-of-function mutations in the senataxin gene (SETX) cause ALS4, but the mechanistic basis for motor neuron toxicity is unknown. SETX is a RNA-binding protein with a highly conserved helicase domain, but does not possess a low-complexity domain, making it unique among ALS-linked disease proteins. We derived ALS4 mouse models by expressing two different senataxin gene mutations (R2136H and L389S) via transgenesis and knock-in gene targeting...
May 3, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718187/mutations-in-coa7-cause-spinocerebellar-ataxia-with-axonal-neuropathy
#8
Yujiro Higuchi, Ryuta Okunushi, Taichi Hara, Akihiro Hashiguchi, Junhui Yuan, Akiko Yoshimura, Kei Murayama, Akira Ohtake, Masahiro Ando, Yu Hiramatsu, Satoshi Ishihara, Hajime Tanabe, Yuji Okamoto, Eiji Matsuura, Takehiro Ueda, Tatsushi Toda, Sumimasa Yamashita, Kenichiro Yamada, Takashi Koide, Hiroaki Yaguchi, Jun Mitsui, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Jun Yoshimura, Koichiro Doi, Shinichi Morishita, Ken Sato, Masanori Nakagawa, Masamitsu Yamaguchi, Shoji Tsuji, Hiroshi Takashima
Several genes related to mitochondrial functions have been identified as causative genes of neuropathy or ataxia. Cytochrome c oxidase assembly factor 7 (COA7) may have a role in assembling mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes that function in oxidative phosphorylation. Here we identified four unrelated patients with recessive mutations in COA7 among a Japanese case series of 1396 patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) or other inherited peripheral neuropathies, including complex forms of CMT...
April 27, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689339/mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-implicated-in-retinoic-acid-induced-spina-bifida-aperta-in-rat-fetuses
#9
Jia Xue, Hui Gu, Dan Liu, Wei Ma, Xiaowei Wei, Lianshuai Zhao, Yusi Liu, Chaonan Zhang, Zhengwei Yuan
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common and severe congenital malformations, which result from failure of the neural tube to close during embryonic development. The etiology of NTDs is complex, caused by interactions between genetic defects and environmental factors, but the exact mechanisms of this disease are still not fully understood. We herein employ a Seahorse Bioscience microplate-based extracellular flux (XF) analyzer to determine mitochondrial function and quantify respiratory coupling to various bioenergetic functions using specific pharmacological inhibitors of bioenergetic pathways...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681425/epidemiology-and-national-trends-in-prevalence-and-surgical-management-of-metastatic-spinal-disease
#10
Samantha R Horn, Ekamjeet S Dhillon, Gregory W Poorman, Jared C Tishelman, Frank A Segreto, Cole A Bortz, John Y Moon, Omar Behery, Nicholas Shepard, Bassel G Diebo, Shaleen Vira, Peter G Passias
Surgical treatment for spinal metastasis has benefited from improvements in surgical techniques. However, the trends in treatment and outcomes for spinal metastasis surgery have not been well-established in a pediatric population. Patients <20 years old with metastatic spinal tumors undergoing spinal surgery were identified in the KID database. Trends for spinal metastases treatment and patient outcomes were analyzed using weight-adjusted ANOVAs. 333 patients were identified in the KID database. The top five primary diagnoses were metastatic brain/spinal cord tumor (19...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672224/nocturnal-swallowing-and-arousal-threshold-in-individuals-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Aliza Rizwan, Abdulghani Sankari, Amy T Bascom, Sarah Vaughan, M Safwan Badr
Respiratory complications are potential causes of death in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Nocturnal swallowing could be related to transient arousals, and lead to fragmented sleep in SCI patients. However, the impact of nocturnal swallowing on breathing and sleep physiology in SCI is unknown. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine whether nocturnal swallowing is more common in SCI than in able-bodied subjects, (2) to determine the role of nocturnal swallowing on arousal threshold in SCI individuals with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), (3) to determine the effect of CPAP treatment on nocturnal swallowing...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658149/coagulation-parameters-following-ehv-1-infection-in-horses
#12
M E Wilson, C L Holz, A K Kopec, J J Dau, J P Luyendyk, G Soboll Hussey
BACKGROUND: Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion storms, and outbreaks of herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Infection of the spinal cord is characterised by multifocal regions of virally infected vascular endothelia, associated with vasculitis, thrombosis and haemorrhage that result in ischaemia and organ dysfunction. However, the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity and thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT) levels in horses following infection with EHV-1...
April 15, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653187/mid-cervical-spinal-cord-contusion-causes-robust-deficits-in-respiratory-parameters-and-pattern-variability
#13
Philippa M Warren, Cara Campanaro, Frank J Jacono, Warren J Alilain
Mid-cervical spinal cord contusion disrupts both the pathways and motoneurons vital to the activity of inspiratory muscles. The present study was designed to determine if a rat contusion model could result in a measurable deficit to both ventilatory and respiratory motor function under "normal" breathing conditions at acute to chronic stages post trauma. Through whole body plethysmography and electromyography we assessed respiratory output from three days to twelve weeks after a cervical level 3 (C3) contusion...
April 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627087/autonomic-nervous-system-in-paralympic-athletes-with-spinal-cord-injury
#14
REVIEW
Matthias Walter, Andrei V Krassioukov
Individuals sustaining a spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently suffer from sensorimotor and autonomic impairment. Damage to the autonomic nervous system results in cardiovascular, respiratory, bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunctions, as well as temperature dysregulation. These complications not only impede quality of life, but also affect athletic performance of individuals with SCI. This article summarizes existing evidence on how damage to the spinal cord affects the autonomic nervous system and impacts the performance in athletes with SCI...
May 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627031/pregnancy-outcomes-in-women-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Elena Abati, Stefania Corti
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy resulting from progressive degeneration and loss of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and brain stem nuclei. The onset of weakness ranges from prenatal age to young adulthood. Thus, many female patients reach fertile age and may consider getting pregnant. However, only little information is available about outcomes and complications of pregnancy in women with SMA. In this review, we compared different studies on the subject, then we analyzed outcomes in the different stages of the pregnancy (preconceptional period, embryonal period, fetal period, delivery and post partum), with a special focus on maternal and fetal complications, prematurity, mode of delivery, anesthesiological risk, respiratory function and influence of pregnancy on the disease course...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621012/spinal-cord-neuromodulation-therapy-for-levofloxacin-reinduced-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-and-neurotoxicity-a-case-report
#16
David Hao, Geza Kiss, William Grubb, Shaul Cohen, Danielle Levin, Ashraf Sakr
Fluoroquinolones are a class of popular outpatient antimicrobial agents with a wide spectrum of therapeutic indications for respiratory and genitourinary infections. Though the most common side effects are gastrointestinal, fluoroquinolones have been increasingly associated with neurotoxicity including peripheral neuropathy and seizures. We present here a case of a 43-year-old woman with previously resolved type I complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) who presented with symptoms of CRPS and neurotoxicity in the setting of levofloxacin administration...
March 31, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596845/spontaneous-respiratory-plasticity-following-unilateral-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-in-behaving-rats
#17
Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Kristiina M Hormigo, Vitaliy Marchenko, Michael A Lane
Unilateral cervical C2 hemisection (C2Hx) is a classic model of spinal cord injury (SCI) for studying respiratory dysfunction and plasticity. However, most previous studies were performed under anesthesia, which significantly alters respiratory network. Therefore, the goal of this work was to assess spontaneous diaphragm recovery post-C2Hx in awake, freely behaving animals. Adult rats were chronically implanted with diaphragm EMG electrodes and recorded during 8 weeks post-C2Hx. Our results reveal that ipsilateral diaphragm activity partially recovers within days post-injury and reaches pre-injury amplitude in a few weeks...
March 26, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578946/the-bivalent-ligand-mcc22-potently-attenuates-nociception-in-a-murine-model-of-sickle-cell-disease
#18
Giuseppe Cataldo, Mary M Lunzer, Julie K Olson, Eyup Akgün, John D Belcher, Gregory M Vercellotti, Philip S Portoghese, Donald A Simone
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder accompanied by chronic pain. In addition to ongoing pain and hyperalgesia, vaso-occlusive crises-induced pain can be chronic or episodic. Since analgesics typically used to treat pain are not very effective in SCD, opioids, including morphine, are a primary treatment for managing pain in SCD but are associated with many serious side effects, including constipation, tolerance, addiction, and respiratory depression. Thus, there is a need for the development of novel treatments for pain in SCD...
March 22, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576405/a-propensity-matched-comparison-of-fenestrated-endovascular-aneurysm-repair-and-open-surgical-repair-of-pararenal-and-paravisceral-aortic-aneurysms
#19
Giovanni Tinelli, Maria Antonietta Crea, Chiara de Waure, Gian Luca Di Tanna, Jean-Pierre Becquemin, Jonathan Sobocinski, Francesco Snider, Stéphan Haulon
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the outcomes of a current series of patients treated with fenestrated and branched endovascular aneurysm repair (F-BEVAR) or open surgical repair (OSR) for pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (pr-AAAs), including juxtarenal, suprarenal, and type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysms. This study compares the outcomes of these procedures from two high-volume centers without the bias induced by a learning curve. METHODS: All patients with pr-AAAs undergoing repair at two centers between January 2010 and June 2016 were included in a prospective database...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553523/retrograde-neuroanatomical-tracing-of-phrenic-motor-neurons-in-mice
#20
Jean-Michel Vandeweerd, Fanny Hontoir, Alexis De Knoop, Kathleen De Swert, Charles Nicaise
Phrenic motor neurons are cervical motor neurons originating from C3 to C6 levels in most mammalian species. Axonal projections converge into phrenic nerves innervating the respiratory diaphragm. In spinal cord slices, phrenic motor neurons cannot be identified from other motor neurons on morphological or biochemical criteria. We provide the description of procedures for visualizing phrenic motor neuron cell bodies in mice, following intrapleural injections of cholera toxin subunit beta (CTB) conjugated to a fluorophore...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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