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Spinal cord respiratory

Jean-Michel Vandeweerd, Fanny Hontoir, Alexis De Knoop, Kathleen De Swert, Charles Nicaise
Phrenic motor neurons are cervical motor neurons originating from C3 to C6 levels in most mammalian species. Axonal projections converge into phrenic nerves innervating the respiratory diaphragm. In spinal cord slices, phrenic motor neurons cannot be identified from other motor neurons on morphological or biochemical criteria. We provide the description of procedures for visualizing phrenic motor neuron cell bodies in mice, following intrapleural injections of cholera toxin subunit beta (CTB) conjugated to a fluorophore...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kerri A Morgan, Kelly L Taylor, Susan M Tucker, W Todd Cade, Joseph W Klaesner
OBJECTIVE: Determine the validity and reliability of an exercise testing protocol to evaluate cardiorespiratory measures in manual wheelchair users (MWUs) with spinal cord injury (SCI) using a roller-based (RS) wheelchair system. DESIGN: Repeated measures within-subject design. SETTING: Community-based research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Ten adults with SCI requiring the use of a manual wheelchair. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Ibis M Agosto, Nicole L Nichols, Gordon S Mitchell
Although systemic inflammation induced by even a low dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100uL/kg) impairs respiratory motor plasticity, little is known concerning cellular mechanisms giving rise to this inhibition. Phrenic motor facilitation (pMF) is a form of respiratory motor plasticity elicited by pharmacological agents applied to the cervical spinal cord, or by acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH; 3, 5 min hypoxic episodes); when elicited by AIH, pMF is known as phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). AIH consisting of moderate hypoxic episodes (mAIH, PaO2 = 35-55 mmHg) elicits pLTF via the Q- pathway to pMF, a mechanism that requires spinal serotonin (5HT2) receptor activation and new BDNF protein synthesis...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Ourania Preventza, Matt D Price, Hiruni S Amarasekara, Adam Tullos, Peter Chen, Michael R Reidy, Gregory Pattakos, Kim I de la Cruz, Qianzi Zhang, Joseph S Coselli
OBJECTIVES: To compare short-term outcomes, long-term survival and reinterventions in patients requiring surgery after chronic Type I and chronic primary Type III aortic dissections. METHODS: Over an 11-year period, 466 patients underwent thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm repair for chronic Type III (n = 239) and Type I (n = 227) aortic dissections. Short-term outcomes and reinterventions were evaluated by multivariable regression analysis for the entire group; propensity matching produced 169 pairs...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Makoto Nishioka, Yuji Inaba, Mitsuo Motobayashi, Yosuke Hara, Ryusuke Numata, Yoshiro Amano, Kunihiko Shingu, Yoichiro Yamamoto, Kei Murayama, Akira Ohtake, Yozo Nakazawa
INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial dysfunction results in a wide range of organ disorders through diverse genetic abnormalities. We herein present the detailed clinical course of an infant admitted for extensive, rapidly progressing white matter lesions and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to a BOLA3 gene mutation. CASE: A 6-month-old girl with no remarkable family or past medical history until 1 month prior presented with developmental regression and feeding impairment...
February 28, 2018: Brain & Development
Kevin Messacar, Edwin J Asturias, Alison M Hixon, Coretta Van Leer-Buter, Hubert G M Niesters, Kenneth L Tyler, Mark J Abzug, Samuel R Dominguez
Increased circulation of enterovirus D68 in 2014 and 2016 temporally and geographically coincided with increases in cases of acute flaccid myelitis, an uncommon condition of paralysis due to lesions in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. The identification of enterovirus D68 in respiratory specimens from cases of acute flaccid myelitis worldwide further supports an association, yet the absence of direct virus isolation from affected tissues, infrequent detection in cerebrospinal fluid, and the absence, until recently, of an animal model has left the causal nature of the relationship unproven...
February 23, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Takehiro Shiinoki, Ryota Onizuka, Daisuke Kawahara, Tatsuhiko Suzuki, Yuki Yuasa, Koya Fujimoto, Takuya Uehara, Hideki Hanazawa, Keiko Shibuya
<u>Purpose: </u>To quantify the patient-specific imaging dose for real-time tumor monitoring in the lung during respiratory-gated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in clinical cases using SyncTraX.
 <u>Methods and Materials:</u> Ten patients who underwent respiratory-gated SBRT with SyncTraX were enrolled in this study. The imaging procedure for real-time tumor monitoring using SyncTraX was simulated using Monte Carlo. We evaluated the dosimetric effect of a real-time tumor monitoring in a critical organ at risk (OAR) and the planning target volume (PTV) over the course of treatment...
February 26, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Kerstin Johansson, Åke Seiger, Malin Forsén, Jeanette Holmgren Nilsson, Lena Hartelius, Ellika Schalling
BACKGROUND: Respiratory muscle impairment following cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) may lead to reduced voice function, although the individual variation is large. Voice problems in this population may not always receive attention since individuals with CSCI face other, more acute and life-threatening issues that need/receive attention. Currently there is no consensus on the tasks suitable to identify the specific voice impairments and functional voice changes experienced by individuals with CSCI...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Mark W Urban, Biswarup Ghosh, Laura R Strojny, Cole G Block, Sara M Blazejewski, Megan C Wright, George M Smith, Angelo C Lepore
Damage to respiratory neural circuitry and consequent loss of diaphragm function is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals suffering from traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Repair of CNS axons after SCI remains a therapeutic challenge, despite current efforts. SCI disrupts inspiratory signals originating in the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) of the medulla from their phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) targets, resulting in loss of diaphragm function. Using a rat model of cervical hemisection SCI, we aimed to restore rVRG-PhMN-diaphragm circuitry by stimulating regeneration of injured rVRG axons via targeted induction of Rheb (ras homolog enriched in brain), a signaling molecule that regulates neuronal-intrinsic axon growth potential...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Rebecca F D'Cruz, Patrick B Murphy, Georgios Kaltsakas
Motor neurone disease (MND) is a neurodegenerative disease defined by axonal loss and gliosis of upper and lower motor neurones in the motor cortex, lower brainstem nuclei and ventral horn of the spinal cord. MND is currently incurable and has a poor prognosis, with death typically occurring 3 to 5 years after disease onset. The disease is characterised by rapidly progressive weakness leading to paralysis, fasciculations, bulbar symptoms (including dysarthria and dysphagia) and respiratory compromise. Respiratory complications arise as a result of weakness of upper airway (pharyngeal and laryngeal) muscles and respiratory muscles (diaphragm, intercostal and accessory muscles) leading to respiratory failure...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Hiroyuki Takahashi, Tomohisa Shoko, Fumino Taketazu, Keiichi Kuriyama, Kazuhide Yoshikawa, Yoshizumi Deguchi
Case: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is becoming the standard therapy for blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI). However, the long-term outcomes of TEVAR for BTAI remain unclear. A 36-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department with dyspnea. He had been involved in a serious traffic accident 6 years earlier, requiring TEVAR for BTAI. Outcome: Acute heart failure and pneumonia were diagnosed on this admission. His respiratory condition improved, but paraplegia developed 10 h after hospitalization...
January 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
Hidehiko Koizumi, Tibin T John, Justine X Chia, Mohammad F Tariq, Ryan S Phillips, Bryan Mosher, Yonghua Chen, Ryan Thompson, Ruli Zhang, Naohiro Koshiya, Jeffrey C Smith
Transient receptor potential channel, TRPM4, the putative molecular substrate for Ca2+-activated nonselective cation current (ICAN), is hypothesized to generate bursting activity of pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) inspiratory neurons and critically contribute to respiratory rhythmogenesis. Another TRP channel, TRPC3, which mediates Na+/Ca2+ fluxes, may be involved in regulating Ca2+-related signaling, including affecting TRPM4/ICAN in respiratory pre-BötC neurons. However, TRPM4 and TRPC3 expression in pre-BötC inspiratory neurons and functional roles of these channels remain to be determined...
January 2018: ENeuro
Aisha Lofters, Maha Chaudhry, Morgan Slater, Andree Schuler, James Milligan, Joseph Lee, Sara J T Guilcher
OBJECTIVE: Context/Objective: Family physicians may lack the knowledge or resources to adequately support patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Our objectives were to determine patterns of preventive care for patients with SCI in a primary care setting (i.e. cancer screening, influenza vaccinations, general physicals, bone mineral density tests), and determine physicians' level of comfort with providing primary care to patients with SCI. DESIGN: i) Retrospective chart review, ii) Survey of physicians in the family practice...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Eric Garshick, Palak Walia, Rebekah L Goldstein, Merilee A Teylan, Antonio A Lazzari, Carlos G Tun, Jaime E Hart
CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality attributable to respiratory diseases. Previous studies in non-SCI populations suggest that vitamin D may be a determinant of respiratory health. Therefore, we sought to assess if lower vitamin D levels were associated with decreased pulmonary function in persons with chronic SCI. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Veterans Affairs Medical Center...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
James P Orengo, Meike E van der Heijden, Shuang Hao, Jianrong Tang, Harry T Orr, Huda Y Zoghbi
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is characterized by adult-onset cerebellar degeneration with attendant loss of motor coordination. Bulbar function is eventually impaired, and patients tend to die from inability to clear the airway. We asked whether motor neuron degeneration is at the root of bulbar dysfunction by studying SCA1 knock-in mice. We analyzed spinal cord and brainstem motor neurons in SCA1 knock-in (Atxn1154Q) mice at 1, 3, and 6 months of age. Specifically, we assessed breathing physiology, diaphragm histology and electromyography, and motor neuron histology and immunohistochemistry...
January 29, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Loredano Pollegioni, Luciano Piubelli, Gianluca Molla, Elena Rosini
pLG72 is a small, primate-specific protein of 153 amino acids. It is the product of the G72 gene, expressed in testis, spinal cord, and brain. The presence of G72 transcript and pLG72 has recurrently been called into question, however G72 mRNA and pLG72 protein levels were higher in blood and brain of patients with schizophrenia than in healthy controls. On the one hand, the SNP rs2391191 corresponding to the R30K substitution in pLG72 was genetically linked to schizophrenia, reduced thickness of the brain cortex in schizophrenia-affected individuals, and altered memory function...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Seong-Hee Kang, Siyong Kim, Dong-Su Kim, Tae-Ho Kim, So-Hyun Park, Dong-Seok Shin, Kyeong-Hyeon Kim, Min-Seok Cho, YeonSil Kim, Tae Suk Suh
Background: To propose an effective and simple cost value function to determine an optimal respiratory phase for lung treatment using either respiratory gating or breath-hold technique. Results: The optimized phase was obtained at a phase close to end inhalation in 11 out of 15 patients. For the rest of patients, the optimized phase was obtained at a phase close to end exhalation indicating that optimal phase can be patient specific. The mean doses of the Organs-at-risk (OARs) significantly decreased at the optimized phase without compromising the planning target volume (PTV) coverage (about 8% for all 3 OARs considered)...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Rebecca F Shaffer, Glen Picard, J Andrew Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of spinal cord injury level and duration to peak aerobic capacities during arms-only (AO) rowing compared to hybrid Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) rowing. DESIGN: Comparison of peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak), peak ventilation (VEpeak), peak respiratory exchange ratio (RERpeak), and peak heart rate (HRpeak) were measured during AO-rowing and FES-rowing obtained from graded exercise tests. RESULTS: Peak aerobic values were strongly related to injury level and injury duration for both AO-rowing (r=0...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Tony McDonald, Kathy Stiller
Objective To investigate the feasibility and safety and, to a lesser extent efficacy, of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) for patients with acute complete cervical or thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Prospective, observational pilot study comprising a series of case reports. Setting Tertiary care, public hospital. Participants Seven adult subjects with an acute complete cervical or thoracic SCI. Interventions Participants received IMT as soon as their respiratory condition was stable. A high-resistance, low-repetition program of IMT using a POWERbreathe KH1 device was instituted...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Lina Yan, Yaling Liu, Can Sun, Qian Zheng, Pengli Hao, Jingxu Zhai, Yuanyuan Liu
BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive muscular dystrophy and paralysis; most ALS patients die from respiratory failure within 3 to 5 years, and there is currently no effective treatment. Some studies have indicated sex differences in the incidence of ALS, and evidence suggests a neuroprotective role for estrogen. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (hSOD1-G93A) transgenic mice to determine the effects of ovariotomy on the onset of disease and behavior; we also used Western blotting to measure the expression of aromatase and estrogen receptors, as well as the inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis markers, in the lumbar spinal cord to determine the mechanism of estrogen-mediated neuroprotection...
February 2, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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