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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713283/excitatory-modulation-of-the-preb%C3%A3-tzinger-complex-inspiratory-rhythm-generating-network-by-endogenous-hydrogen-sulfide
#1
Glauber S F da Silva, João P J Sabino, Vishaal Rajani, Tucaauê S Alvares, Silvia Pagliardini, Luiz G S Branco, Gregory D Funk
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is one of three gasotransmitters that modulate excitability in the CNS. Global application of H2S donors or inhibitors of H2S synthesis to the respiratory network has suggested that inspiratory rhythm is modulated by exogenous and endogenous H2S. However, effects have been variable, which may reflect that the RTN/pFRG (retrotrapezoid nucleus, parafacial respiratory group) and the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC, critical for inspiratory rhythm generation) are differentially modulated by exogenous H2S...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711602/contribution-of-5-ht2a-receptors-on-diaphragmatic-recovery-after-chronic-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Kun-Ze Lee, Elisa J Gonzalez-Rothi
Unilateral C2 spinal cord hemisection (C2Hx) interrupts bulbospinal respiratory pathways innervating ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons, resulting in cessation of ipsilateral diaphragm motor output. Plasticity within the spinal neural circuitry controlling the diaphragm can induce partial recovery of phrenic bursting which correlates with the time-dependent return of spinal serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactivity in the vicinity of phrenic motoneurons. The 5-HT2A receptor subtype is present on phrenic motoneurons and its expression is up-regulated after cervical spinal cord injury; however the functional role of these receptors following injury has not been clearly defined...
July 12, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699426/management-of-hemothorax-after-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair-for-ruptured-aneurysms
#3
Mila H Ju, Michael J Nooromid, Heron E Rodriguez, Mark K Eskandari
Background Thoracic aortic aneurysm rupture is often a fatal condition. Emergent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has emerged as a suitable treatment option. Unfortunately, respiratory complications from hemothorax continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality even after successful management of the aortic rupture. We hypothesize that early hemothorax decompression after TEVAR for ruptured aneurysms decreases the rate of postoperative respiratory complications. Methods Single-center, retrospective eight-year review of ruptured thoracic aneurysms treated with TEVAR...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696309/influenza-infection-triggers-disease-in-a-genetic-model-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#4
Stephen Blackmore, Jessica Hernandez, Michal Juda, Emily Ryder, Gregory G Freund, Rodney W Johnson, Andrew J Steelman
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Most MS patients experience periods of symptom exacerbation (relapses) followed by periods of partial recovery (remission). Interestingly, upper-respiratory viral infections increase the risk for relapse. Here, we used an autoimmune-prone T-cell receptor transgenic mouse (2D2) and a mouse-adapted human influenza virus to test the hypothesis that upper-respiratory viral infection can cause glial activation, promote immune cell trafficking to the CNS, and trigger disease...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690873/spinal-cord-infarction-in-a-sick-neonate-from-predominant-haemorrhagic-aetiology-a-case-report
#5
Richa Kulshrestha, Joy R Chowdhury, Radhesh K Lalam, Nigel T Kiely
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injuries in new born infants following a traumatic delivery or umbilical cord catheterisation due to thromboembolism are well known. Cases with atraumatic acute onset of neonatal paraplegia have also been described in preterm babies or babies born small for gestational age with a stormy postnatal course related to ischaemic aetiology. We describe a rare case of infarction of the spinal cord from a predominant haemorrhagic aetiology. CASE PRESENTATION: A term female baby, first child of unrelated parents, was born by normal vaginal delivery...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665491/feasibility-of-dynamic-adaptive-passive-scattering-proton-therapy-with-computed-tomography-image-guidance-in-the-lung
#6
Shunsuke Moriya, Hidenobu Tachibana, Kenji Hotta, Naoki Nakamura, Sakae Takeji, Tetsuo Akimoto
PURPOSE: Hypo-fractionated proton beam therapy (PBT) is an approach that has been increasingly explored over the past decade. It requires high geometric accuracy for targeting of the PBT beams. However, image-guided PBT is currently commonly performed with kV X-ray images of bony anatomy. A dynamic adaptive passive scattering PBT system using computed tomography-based three-dimensional image guidance was developed, and its effectiveness was then evaluated retrospectively in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
June 30, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660164/epidemiology-of-trauma-victims-admitted-to-a-level-2-trauma-center-of-north-india
#7
Vikas Verma, Ajay Singh, Girish Kumar Singh, Santosh Kumar, Vineet Sharma, Ashish Kumar, Vineet Kumar
BACKGROUND: Good quality information on characteristics of victims, types, and frequency of injuries, causes of accidents, vehicles involved in injury and outcome is essential for understanding and planning required for managing the trauma epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of trauma victims admitted to King George's Medical University trauma center. METHODS: This observational study enrolled trauma victims over a 1-year period...
April 2017: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650234/antinociceptive-and-respiratory-effects-following-application-of-transdermal-fentanyl-patches-and-assessment-of-brain-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-ball-pythons
#8
Rima J Kharbush, Allison Gutwillig, Kate E Hartzler, Rebecca S Kimyon, Alyssa N Gardner, Andrew D Abbott, Sherry K Cox, Jyoti J Watters, Kurt K Sladky, Stephen M Johnson
OBJECTIVE To quantify plasma fentanyl concentrations (PFCs) and evaluate antinociceptive and respiratory effects following application of transdermal fentanyl patches (TFPs) and assess cerebrospinal μ-opioid receptor mRNA expression in ball pythons (compared with findings in turtles). ANIMALS 44 ball pythons (Python regius) and 10 turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). PROCEDURES To administer 3 or 12 μg of fentanyl/h, a quarter or whole TFP (TFP-3 and TFP-12, respectively) was used. At intervals after TFP-12 application in snakes, PFCs were measured by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography...
July 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644430/the-clinical-landscape-for-sma-in-a-new-therapeutic-era
#9
REVIEW
K Talbot, E F Tizzano
Despite significant advances in basic research, the treatment of degenerative diseases of the nervous system remains one of the greatest challenges for translational medicine. The childhood onset motor neuron disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has been viewed as one of the more tractable targets for molecular therapy, due to a detailed understanding of the molecular genetic basis of the disease. In SMA, inactivating mutations in the SMN1 gene can be partially compensated for by limited expression of SMN protein from a variable number of copies of the SMN2 gene, which provides both a molecular explanation for phenotypic severity and a target for therapy...
June 23, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637335/astrocyte-produced-mir-146a-as-a-mediator-of-motor-neuron-loss-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#10
Samantha L Sison, Teresa N Patitucci, Emily R Seminary, Eric Villalon, Christian L Lorson, Allison D Ebert
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading genetic cause of infant mortality, is caused by loss of the survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1) gene, which leads to motor neuron loss, muscle atrophy, respiratory distress, and death. Motor neurons exhibit the most profound loss, but the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis are not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that motor neuron extrinsic influences, such as those arising from astrocytes, contribute to motor neuron malfunction and loss. Here we investigated both loss-of-function and toxic gain-of-function astrocyte mechanisms that could play a role in SMA pathology...
June 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631749/causes-of-death-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-a-70-year-british-study
#11
G Savic, M J DeVivo, H L Frankel, M A Jamous, B M Soni, S Charlifue
DESIGN: Retrospective and prospective observational. OBJECTIVE: Analyse causes of death after traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) in persons surviving the first year post injury, and establish any trend over time. SETTING: Two spinal centres in Great Britain. METHODS: The sample consisted of 5483 patients with tSCI admitted to Stoke Mandeville and Southport spinal centres who were injured between 1943 and 2010, survived first year post injury, had residual neurological deficit on discharge and were British residents...
June 20, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626021/acute-segmental-poliomyelitis-like-flaccid-paralysis-in-an-adult-in-the-uk-associated-with-enterovirus-d68
#12
Sybil R L Stacpoole, Adam Molyneux, Dirk Bäumer
Enterovirus D68 has been associated with a poliomyelitis-like illness, notably during an outbreak in 2014, and particularly affecting children in the USA. We report a case of acute segmental flaccid paralysis with respiratory involvement in an adult in the UK, with enterovirus D68 detected in a sputum sample. MR imaging of cervical spinal cord showed a longitudinally extensive T2 hyperintensity in the anterior cord. Cerebrospinal fluid showed an elevated white cell count, predominantly lymphocytic, with otherwise normal constituents and negative viral PCRs...
August 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616022/therapeutic-opportunities-and-challenges-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-motor-neurons-for-treatment-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-motor-neuron-disease
#13
REVIEW
Manoj Kumar Jaiswal
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are progressive neurodegenerative diseases that affect nerve cells in the brain affecting upper and lower motor neurons (UMNs/LMNs), brain stem and spinal cord. The clinical phenotype is characterized by loss of motor neurons (MNs), muscular weakness and atrophy eventually leading to paralysis and death due to respiratory failure within 3-5 years after disease onset. No effective treatment or cure is currently available that halts or reverses ALS and MND except FDA approved drug riluzole that only modestly slows the progression of ALS in some patients...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615436/hospital-safety-among-neurologic-patients-a-population-based-cohort-study-of-adverse-events
#14
Khara M Sauro, Hude Quan, Khokan C Sikdar, Peter Faris, Nathalie Jette
OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency and type of adverse events (AEs) experienced by neurologic patients in hospital. METHODS: This population-based, retrospective cohort study used hospital discharge abstract data for children and adults admitted to hospital from 2009 to 2015 with 1 of 9 neurologic conditions (Alzheimer disease and related dementia, brain tumor, epilepsy, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, parkinsonism/Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and stroke)...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615341/high-frequency-epidural-stimulation-across-the-respiratory-cycle-evokes-phrenic-short-term-potentiation-after-incomplete-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Elisa J Gonzalez-Rothi, Kristi A Streeter, Marie H Hanna, Anna C Stamas, Paul J Reier, David M Baekey, David D Fuller
C2 spinal hemilesion (C2Hx) paralyzes the ipsilateral diaphragm, but recovery is possible through activation of "crossed spinal" synaptic inputs to ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons. We tested the hypothesis that high frequency epidural stimulation (HF-ES) would potentiate ipsilateral phrenic output after subacute and chronic C2Hx. HF-ES (300 Hz) was applied to the ventrolateral C4 or T2 spinal cord ipsilateral to C2Hx in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated adult rats. Stimulus duration was 60-sec and currents ranged from 100-1000 µA...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601952/an-in-vitro-experimental-model-for-analysis-of-central-control-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity
#16
Yuji Oyama, Kamon Iigaya, Yoshino Minoura, Toshitaka Okabe, Masahiko Izumizaki, Hiroshi Onimaru
Newborn rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations are useful for in vitro analysis of various brainstem functions including respiratory activity. When studying the central control of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), it is important to record peripheral outputs of the SNA. We developed an in vitro preparation in which neuronal connections between the cardiovascular center in the medulla and SNA peripheral outputs are preserved. Zero- to 1-day-old rats were deeply anesthetized with isoflurane, and the brainstem and spinal cord were isolated with a partial right thoracic cage to record sympathetic nerve discharge from the right thoracic sympathetic nerve trunk (T9-T11)...
September 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592693/non-genomic-actions-of-17-%C3%AE-estradiol-restore-respiratory-neuroplasticity-in-young-ovariectomized-female-rats
#17
Brendan J Dougherty, Elizabeth S Kopp, Jyoti J Watters
Gonadal steroids modulate CNS plasticity, including phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal respiratory neuroplasticity resulting in increased phrenic nerve motor output following exposure to acute intermittent hypoxia (aIH; three 5 min episodes, 10.5% O2). Despite the importance of respiratory system neuroplasticity, and its dependence on estrogen in males, little is known about pLTF expression or mechanisms of estrogen signaling in females. Here, we tested the hypotheses that: 1) pLTF expression in young, gonadally intact female rats would be expressed during estrous cycle stages in which 17β-estradiol (E2) is naturally high (e...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571527/assessment-and-management-of-acute-spinal-cord-injury-from-point-of-injury-to-rehabilitation
#18
Laureen D Hachem, Christopher S Ahuja, Michael G Fehlings
CONTEXT: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition that can lead to significant neurological impairment and reduced quality of life. Despite advancements in our understanding of the pathophysiology and secondary injury mechanisms involved in SCI, there are currently very few effective treatments for this condition. The field, however, is rapidly changing as new treatments are developed and key discoveries are made. METHODS: In this review, we outline the pathophysiology, management, and long-term rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic SCI...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570440/successful-reinnervation-of-the-diaphragm-after-intercostal-to-phrenic-nerve-neurotization-in-patients-with-high-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Kulvir S Nandra, Martin Harari, Thea P Price, Patrick J Greaney, Michael S Weinstein
OBJECTIVE: Our objective in this study was to extend diaphragmatic pacing therapy to include paraplegic patients with high cervical spinal cord injuries between C3 and C5. INTRODUCTION: Diaphragmatic pacing has been used in patients experiencing ventilator-dependent respiratory failure due to spinal cord injury as a means to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical ventilation. However, this technique relies on intact phrenic nerve function. Recently, phrenic nerve reconstruction with intercostal nerve grafting has expanded the indications for diaphragmatic pacing...
August 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566610/an-autopsy-case-of-respiratory-failure-induced-by-repetitive-cervical-spinal-cord-damage-due-to-abnormal-movement-of-the-neck-in-athetoid-cerebral-palsy
#20
Yo-Ichi Takei, Hiroshi Koshihara, Kenya Oguchi, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi, Shinji Ohara
We herein report the clinical and autopsy findings of a 48-year-old right-handed man with athetoid cerebral palsy who suffered from cervical myelopathy due to abnormal neck movement, and who died of respiratory failure. Pathologically, the external appearance of the ventral surface of the cervical spinal cord revealed a linear indentation running obliquely at the level between the C4 and C5 segments. In the most severely compressed lesion, the gray matter was predominantly affected and severely atrophic. Microscopically, clusters of oligodendrocytes associated with thinly myelinated axons were also observed in the lateral funiculus...
2017: Internal Medicine
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