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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231485/the-importance-of-teacher-support-differential-impacts-by-gender-and-sexuality
#1
Adrienne B Dessel, Alex Kulick, Laura J Wernick, Daniel Sullivan
Teachers play an important role in shaping the experiences of high school students with regard to patterns of heteronormativity and binary gender norms, particularly for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) students. A climate survey of high school students (n = 953) in the United States examined the association between students' well-being and their relationships with teachers. The sample was majority white (65.8%) and multiracial (14.1%). Cisgender (cis)-girls (49.6%), cis-boys (41...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225048/thiamine-deficiency-oxidative-metabolic-pathways-and-ethanol-induced-neurotoxicity-how-poor-nutrition-contributes-to-the-alcoholic-syndrome-as-marchiafava-bignami-disease
#2
REVIEW
L M P Fernandes, F R Bezerra, M C Monteiro, M L Silva, F R de Oliveira, R R Lima, E A Fontes-Júnior, C S F Maia
Ethanol is an important risk factor for the occurrence of several brain disorders that depend on the amount, period and frequency of its consumption. Chronic use of ethanol often leads to the development of neurodegenerative syndromes, which cause morphological and functional impairments such as foetal alcohol syndrome in newborns exposed to ethanol during pregnancy, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome and, more rarely, Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD). MBD is characterized by primary degeneration of the corpus callosum, without inflammation and is associated with oxidative stress and hypovitaminosis, as well as altered mental status, to mention dementia, seizures, depression and so on...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224875/-thiamine-in-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorder-and-wernicke-s-encephalopathy
#3
D J Brinkman, J K Bekema, M A Kuijenhoven, J W Wijnia, M J H J Dekker, M A van Agtmael
- Patients with alcohol use disorder frequently have a thiamine deficiency.- A potential life-threatening complication of thiamine deficiency is Wernicke's encephalopathy.- Since it is clinically difficult to recognize Wernicke's encephalopathy, this condition is often treated inadequately. - Early supplementation of thiamine is important to avoid irreversible neurological damage. - There are differences between the Dutch guidelines regarding the supplementation of thiamine for the treatment of alcoholic use disorder, and those for Wernicke's encephalopathy...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214879/thiamine-deprivation-produces-a-liver-atp-deficit-and-metabolic-and-genomic-effects-in-mice-findings-are-parallel-to-those-of-biotin-deficiency-and-have-implications-for-energy-disorders
#4
Alain de J Hernandez-Vazquez, Josue Andres Garcia-Sanchez, Elizabeth Moreno-Arriola, Ana Salvador-Adriano, Daniel Ortega-Cuellar, Antonio Velazquez-Arellano
Thiamine is one of several essential cofactors for ATP generation. Its deficiency, like in beriberi and in the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, has been studied for many decades. However, its mechanism of action is still not completely understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Since it acts as a coenzyme for dehydrogenases of pyruvate, branched-chain keto acids, and ketoglutarate, its nutritional privation is partly a phenocopy of inborn errors of metabolism, among them maple syrup urine disease. In the present paper, we report metabolic and genomic findings in mice deprived of thiamine...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213665/neurologic-manifestations-of-vitamin-b-deficiency-after-bariatric-surgery
#5
Suriya Punchai, Zubaidah Nor Hanipah, Katherine M Meister, Philip R Schauer, Stacy A Brethauer, Ali Aminian
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcomes of neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiencies following bariatric surgery. METHODS: Patients at a single academic institution who underwent bariatric surgery and developed neurologic complications secondary to low levels of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12 between the years 2004 and 2015 were studied. RESULTS: In total, 47 (0.7%) bariatric surgical patients (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass n = 36, sleeve gastrectomy n = 9, and duodenal switch n = 2) developed neurologic manifestations secondary to vitamin B deficiencies...
February 17, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193519/thiamine-deficiency-induces-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-oxidative-stress-in-human-neurons-derived-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
Xin Wang, Mei Xu, Jacqueline A Frank, Zun-Ji Ke, Jia Luo
Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) plays a major role in the etiology of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) which is a severe neurological disorder. TD induces selective neuronal cell death, neuroinflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress in the brain which are commonly observed in many aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear...
February 11, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180072/the-diminishing-dominance-of-the-dominant-hemisphere-language-fmri-in-focal-epilepsy
#7
Chris Tailby, David F Abbott, Graeme D Jackson
"Which is the dominant hemisphere?" is a question that arises frequently in patients considered for neurosurgery. The concept of the dominant hemisphere implies uniformity of language lateralisation throughout the brain. It is increasingly recognised that this is not the case in the healthy control brain, and it is especially not so in neurological diseases such as epilepsy. In the present work we adapt our published objective lateralisation method (based on the construction of laterality curves) for use with sub-lobar cortical, subcortical and cerebellar regions of interest (ROIs)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179469/lesion-localization-of-speech-comprehension-deficits-in-chronic-aphasia
#8
Sara B Pillay, Jeffrey R Binder, Colin Humphries, William L Gross, Diane S Book
OBJECTIVE: Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to localize impairments specific to multiword (phrase and sentence) spoken language comprehension. METHODS: Participants were 51 right-handed patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. They performed an auditory description naming (ADN) task requiring comprehension of a verbal description, an auditory sentence comprehension (ASC) task, and a picture naming (PN) task. Lesions were mapped using high-resolution MRI...
February 8, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163193/the-neuropathological-signature-of-bulbar-onset-als-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
S Shellikeri, V Karthikeyan, R Martino, S E Black, L Zinman, J Keith, Y Yunusova
ALS is a multisystem disorder affecting cognitive and motor functions. Bulbar-onset ALS (bALS) may be preferentially associated with language/cognitive impairments, compared with spinal-onset ALS (sALS), stemming from a potentially unique neuropathology. The objective of this systematic review was to compare neuropathology reported for bALS and sALS subtypes in studies of cadaveric brains. Using Cochrane guidelines, we reviewed articles in MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO databases using standardized search terms for ALS and neuropathology, from inception until July 16th 2016...
February 2, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109775/treatment-of-rats-with-the-jak-2-inhibitor-fedratinib-does-not-lead-to-experimental-wernicke-s-encephalopathy
#10
Alan S Hazell, Szeifoul Afadlal, David Cheresh, Ashraf Azar
Recent clinical trials suggest that patients with myelofibrosis can develop Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) when treated with fedratinib, a specific Janus kinase-2 (JAK-2) inhibitor. To investigate this issue, we have examined (1) if fedratinib can produce or alter the course of this disorder, (2) its effects on thiamine-dependent enzyme activity and thiamine status, and (3) its influence on the uptake of thiamine. Animals administered fedratinib for 28days at a comparable dose used to treat human cases of myelofibrosis showed no evidence of clinical signs of thiamine deficiency (TD)...
January 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107727/neural-correlates-of-subliminally-presented-visual-sexual-stimuli
#11
Martina Wernicke, Corinna Hofter, Kirsten Jordan, Peter Fromberger, Peter Dechent, Jürgen L Müller
In the context of forensic psychiatry, it is crucial that diagnoses of deviant sexual interests are resistant to manipulation. In a first attempt to promote the development of such tools, the current fMRI study focusses on the examination of hemodynamic responses to preferred, in contrast to non-preferred, sexual stimuli with and without explicit sexual features in 24 healthy heterosexual subjects. The subliminal stimulus presentation of sexual stimuli could be a new approach to reduce vulnerability to manipulation...
January 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087242/brains-for-birds-and-babies-neural-parallels-between-birdsong-and-speech-acquisition
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan Prather, Kazuo Okanoya, Johan J Bolhuis
Language as a computational cognitive mechanism appears to be unique to the human species. However, there are remarkable behavioral similarities between song learning in songbirds and speech acquisition in human infants that are absent in non-human primates. Here we review important neural parallels between birdsong and speech. In both cases there are separate but continually interacting neural networks that underlie vocal production, sensorimotor learning, and auditory perception and memory. As in the case of human speech, neural activity related to birdsong learning is lateralized, and mirror neurons linking perception and performance may contribute to sensorimotor learning...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064230/high-dose-parenteral-thiamine-in-treatment-of-wernicke-s-encephalopathy-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Andrew Nishimoto, Justin Usery, John C Winton, Jennifer Twilla
BACKGROUND: Thiamine deficiency can lead to Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), an acute and potentially life-threatening neurological disorder. Even though the main treatment modality for WE consists of thiamine replacement, evidence supporting an optimal dosing strategy and duration is unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We present a single-center case series of eleven patients that were admitted with possible WE and treated with high-dose parenteral thiamine. RESULTS: Patients with suspected WE were treated with ≥500 mg intravenous thiamine for a median of 3 days with 73% of patients (eight out of eleven) displaying symptom resolution or improvement after treatment...
2, 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046810/su-f-t-615-comparison-of-plan-quality-for-linac-based-stereotactic-radiosurgery-srs-using-single-and-multi-isocenter-techniques
#14
J Chang, A Wernicke, S Pannullo
PURPOSE: To compare the plan quality of linear accelerator (linac)-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using single-isocenter volumetric arc therapy (SI-VMAT), restricted single-isocenter dynamic-arc (RSI-DARC), and multi-isocenter DARC (MI-DARC) techniques. METHODS: Fifteen SRS cases were randomly selected and re-planned using the SI-VMAT (Pinnacle), RSI-DARC (iPlanNet) and MI-DARC (iPlanNet). The number of planning target volumes (PTVs) for each plan ranged from 1 to 6...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042371/wernicke-like-encephalopathy-associated-with-ifosfamide
#15
John Kent Lin, Daniel S Chow, Leslie Sheu, Bhavya Rehani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Neurohospitalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032196/air-mass-origin-signals-in-%C3%AE-18-o-of-tree-ring-cellulose-revealed-by-back-trajectory-modeling-at-the-monsoonal-tibetan-plateau
#16
Jakob Wernicke, Philipp Hochreuther, Jussi Grießinger, Haifeng Zhu, Lily Wang, Achim Bräuning
A profound consideration of stable oxygen isotope source water origins is a precondition for an unambiguous palaeoenvironmental interpretation of terrestrial δ (18)O archives. To stress the influence of air mass origins on widely used δ (18)O tree-ring chronologies, we conducted correlation analyses between six annually resolved δ (18)O tree-ring cellulose ([Formula: see text]) chronologies and mean annual air package origins obtained from backward trajectory modeling. This novel approach has been tested for a transect at the southeastern Tibetan plateau (TP), where air masses with different isotopic composition overlap...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027558/cognitive-evoked-potentials-p300-after-radiation-exposure
#17
K M Loganovsky, K V Kuts
OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at evaluating features of brain information processes and cognitive functioning in the remote period after irradiation due to the Chornobyl accident by using cognitive evoked potentials P300. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 128 people, 112 male Chornobyl clean up workers in 1986-1987 with the records of radiation doses available in Clinical and Epidemiological Registry (CER) of State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» (NRCRM) (study group) and 16 unexposed persons due to the Chornobyl disaster (control group)...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005160/a-contemporary-framework-of-language-processing-in-the-human-brain-in-the-context-of-preoperative-and-intraoperative-language-mapping
#18
Erik H Middlebrooks, Kaan Yagmurlu, Jerzey P Szaflarski, Maryam Rahman, Baran Bozkurt
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of advanced in vivo neuroimaging methods has redefined the understanding of brain function with a shift from traditional localizationist models to more complex and widely distributed neural networks. In human language processing, the traditional localizationist models of Wernicke and Broca have fallen out of favor for a dual-stream processing system involving complex networks organized over vast areas of the dominant hemisphere. The current review explores the cortical function and white matter connections of human language processing, as well as their relevance to surgical planning...
December 22, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003159/both-anodal-and-cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-semantic-processing
#19
Sabrina Brückner, Thomas Kammer
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a common method to modulate cortical activity. Anodal tDCS is usually associated with an enhancement of the stimulated brain area, whereas cathodal tDCS is often described as inhibitory brain stimulation method. Our aim was to investigate whether this canonical assumption derived from the motor system could be transferred to the semantic system. Three groups with 20 healthy subjects each were stimulated at Wernicke's area with either anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS...
December 18, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998546/wernicke-s-encephalopathy-after-conversion-from-sleeve-gastrectomy-to-gastric-bypass
#20
Tony Alias, Pamela Hoof, Mike Lee, Daniel Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
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