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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933668/the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-generalizing-configural-relationships
#1
Sam C Berens, Chris M Bird
The hippocampus has been implicated in integrating information across separate events in support of mnemonic generalizations. These generalizations may be underpinned by processes at both encoding (linking similar information across events) and retrieval ("on-the-fly" generalization). However, the relative contribution of the hippocampus to encoding- and retrieval-based generalizations is poorly understood. Using fMRI in humans, we investigated the hippocampal role in gradually learning a set of spatial discriminations and subsequently generalizing them in an acquired equivalence task...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933429/establishing-the-values-for-patient-engagement-pe-in-health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-research-an-international-multiple-stakeholder-perspective
#2
Kirstie Haywood, Anne Lyddiatt, Samantha J Brace-McDonnell, Sophie Staniszewska, Sam Salek
PURPOSE: Active patient engagement is increasingly viewed as essential to ensuring that patient-driven perspectives are considered throughout the research process. However, guidance for patient engagement (PE) in HRQoL research does not exist, the evidence-base for practice is limited, and we know relatively little about underpinning values that can impact on PE practice. This is the first study to explore the values that should underpin PE in contemporary HRQoL research to help inform future good practice guidance...
December 8, 2016: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933181/what-are-the-pros-and-cons-of-electronically-monitoring-inhaler-use-in-asthma-a-multistakeholder-perspective
#3
Sam Howard, Alexandra Lang, Sarah Sharples, Dominick Shaw
INTRODUCTION: Electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) are the optimal method for collecting objective data on inhaler use in asthma. Recent research has investigated the attitudes of patients with asthma towards these devices. However, no research to date has formally considered the opinions of stakeholders and decision-makers in asthma care. These individuals have important clinical requirements that need to be taken into account if EMDs are to be successfully provisioned, making collecting their opinions on the key barriers facing these devices a valuable process...
2016: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933005/social-brain-hypothesis-vocal-and-gesture-networks-of-wild-chimpanzees
#4
Sam G B Roberts, Anna I Roberts
A key driver of brain evolution in primates and humans is the cognitive demands arising from managing social relationships. In primates, grooming plays a key role in maintaining these relationships, but the time that can be devoted to grooming is inherently limited. Communication may act as an additional, more time-efficient bonding mechanism to grooming, but how patterns of communication are related to patterns of sociality is still poorly understood. We used social network analysis to examine the associations between close proximity (duration of time spent within 10 m per hour spent in the same party), grooming, vocal communication, and gestural communication (duration of time and frequency of behavior per hour spent within 10 m) in wild chimpanzees...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932585/structural-and-functional-characterization-of-the-tyw3-taw3-class-of-sam-dependent-methyltransferases
#5
Mark A Currie, Greg Brown, Andrew Wong, Takayuki Ohira, Kei Sugiyama, Tsutomu Suzuki, Alexander F Yakunin, Zongchao Jia
S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases regulate a wide range of biological processes through the modification of proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, as well as various metabolites. TYW3/Taw3 is a SAM-dependent methyltransferase responsible for the formation of a tRNA modification known as wybutosine and its derivatives that are required for accurate decoding in protein synthesis. Here, we report the crystal structure of Taw3, a homolog of TYW3 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, which revealed a novel α/β fold...
December 8, 2016: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932074/distributed-neural-signatures-of-natural-audiovisual-speech-and-music-in-the-human-auditory-cortex
#6
Juha Salmi, Olli-Pekka Koistinen, Enrico Glerean, Pasi Jylänki, Aki Vehtari, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Sasu Mäkelä, Lauri Nummenmaa, Katarina Nummi-Kuisma, Ilari Nummi, Mikko Sams
During a conversation or when listening to music, auditory and visual information are combined automatically into audiovisual objects. However, it is still poorly understood how specific type of visual information shapes neural processing of sounds in lifelike stimulus environments. Here we applied multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigate how naturally matching visual input modulates supratemporal cortex activity during processing of naturalistic acoustic speech, singing and instrumental music. Bayesian logistic regression classifiers with sparsity-promoting priors were trained to predict whether the stimulus was audiovisual or auditory, and whether it contained piano playing, speech, or singing...
December 5, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931147/neural-communication-through-theta-gamma-cross-frequency-coupling-in-a-bistable-motion-perception-task
#7
Abolfazl Alipour, Azadeh Mojdehfarahbakhsh, Ashkan Tavakolian, Taha Morshedzadeh, Maedeh Asadi, Alireza Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Nami
Functional significance of the neural oscillations has been debated since long. In particular, oscillations have been suggested to play a major role in formation of communication channels between brain regions. It has been previously suggested that gamma coherence increases during communication between hemispheres when subjects perceive a horizontal motion in Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM) stimulus. In addition, disruption of this coherence may change the horizontal perception of SAM. In this study, we investigated the changes of Cross-Frequency Coupling (CFC) in EEG signals from parietal and occipital cortices during horizontal and vertical perception of SAM...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931090/prenatal-diagnosis-of-susceptibility-loci-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders-genetic-counseling-and-pregnancy-outcome-in-57-cases
#8
Lutgarde Govaerts, Malgorzata Srebniak, Karin Diderich, Marieke Joosten, Sam Riedijk, Maarten Knapen, Attie Go, Dimitri Papatsonis, Katja de Graaf, Toon Toolenaar, Sanne van der Steen, Gido Huijbregts, Jeroen Knijnenburg, Femke de Vries, Diane Van Opstal, Robert-Jan Galjaard
BACKGROUND: Whole genome array testing not only provides an increased diagnostic yield of pathogenic causative findings, but it may also reveal so called susceptibility loci (SL) for neurodevelopmental disorders. The goal of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes in SL cases and to establish a protocol for pregnancy management, follow-up and additional investigations. METHODS: 57 cases were evaluated: 34 with and 23 without ultrasound anomalies at referral...
December 8, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930867/squamous-cell-carcinoma-associated-with-inverted-papilloma-of-the-maxillary-sinus-our-experience-with-21-patients
#9
Myeong Sang Yu, Won Sub Lim, Bong-Jae Lee, Yoo-Sam Chung
Sinonasal inverted papillomas (IP) are benign tumors, which represent 0.5-7.0% of all diagnosed sinonasal tumors,(1) and exhibit malignant characteristics, including high rates of recurrence and local aggressiveness and association with malignancy.(1) The incidence of IP associated with SCC differs widely according to various reports (2-53%).(2,3) IP-associated SCC is not considered to be simply a mixture of the two other primary tumors, but rather a malignant transformation of the IP.(3) This article is protected by copyright...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930515/usefulness-of-the-maximum-rate-of-pressure-rise-in-the-central-and-peripheral-arteries-after-weaning-from-cardiopulmonary-bypass-in-pediatric-congenital-heart-surgery-a-retrospective-analysis
#10
Jung-Won Kim, Ji-Yeon Bang, Chun Soo Park, Mijeung Gwak, Won-Jung Shin, Gyu-Sam Hwang
The maximum rate of pressure rise (dP/dtmax) in radial artery has been proposed as a noninvasive surrogate of aortic dp/dtmax, reflecting left ventricular (LV) contractility in children. The aim of this study was to investigate relationship between aortic and radial dp/dtmax at weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and usefulness of these indices for estimating postoperative outcomes in pediatric congenital heart surgery.Aortic and radial arterial pressure waveforms were analyzed simultaneously during weaning from CPB in 29 congenital heart surgery...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929698/breastfeeding-associated-with-higher-lung-function-in-african-american-youths-with-asthma
#11
Sam Oh, Randal Du, Andrew M Zeiger, Meghan E Mcgarry, Donglei Hu, Neeta Thakur, Maria Pino-Yanes, Joshua M Galanter, Harold J Farber, Celeste Eng, Katherine Keiko Nishimura, Scott Huntsman, Kelley Meade, Pedro Avila, Denise Serebrisky, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Michael A Lenoir, Jean G Ford, Emerita Brigino-Buenaventura, William Rodriguez-Cintron, Shannon M Thyne, Saunak Sen, Jose R Rodriguez-Santana, Keoki Williams, Rajesh Kumar, Esteban G Burchard
Objective In the United States, Puerto Ricans and African Americans have lower prevalence of breastfeeding and worse clinical outcomes for asthma compared with other racial/ethnic groups. We hypothesize that history of breastfeeding is associated with increased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % predicted and reduced asthma exacerbations in Latino and African American youths with asthma. Methods As part of Study A and Study B, we conducted case-only analyses in children and adolescents aged 8-21 years old with asthma from four different racial/ethnic groups: African Americans (n = 426), Mexican Americans (n = 424), mixed/other Latinos (n = 255), and Puerto Ricans (n = 629)...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929602/facial-reanimation-according-to-the-postresection-defect-during-lateral-skull-base-surgery
#12
John P Leonetti, Sahar Nadimi, Sam J Marzo, Douglas Anderson, Darl Vandevender
The vast majority of benign tumors of the cerebellopontine angle, temporal bone, and parotid gland can be successfully resected without permanent injury to the facial nerve. Malignant tumors or recurrent disease may require facial nerve sacrifice, especially if preoperative facial paresis is present. This article will present case examples of the various methods to reconstruct facial animation after lateral skull base resections that require sacrifice of cranial nerve VII, and the associated mimetic facial musculature...
December 2016: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929451/the-self-regulation-model-of-illness-comparison-between-zika-and-dengue-and-its-application-to-predict-mosquito-prevention-behaviours-in-malaysia-a-dengue-endemic-country
#13
Li Ping Wong, Haridah Alias, Nasrin Aghamohammadi, I-Ching Sam, Sazaly AbuBakar
Perceptions about illnesses may influence self-care and preventive health behaviours. Illness perceptions of the Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were investigated under the framework of the Self-Regulation Model of Illness. Illness perception differences between ZIKV and dengue fever were also examined. Lastly, associations between illness perceptions of ZIKV with mosquito prevention practices were studied. Samples were drawn from landline telephone numbers using computer-assisted telephone interviewing in Malaysia...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929146/reactivity-of-the-nitrogen-centered-tryptophanyl-radical-in-the-catalysis-by-the-radical-sam-enzyme-nosl
#14
Haocheng Qianzhu, Wenjuan Ji, Xinjian Ji, Leixia Chu, Chuchu Guo, Wei Lu, Wei Ding, Jiangtao Gao, Qi Zhang
The radical SAM tryptophan (Trp) lyase NosL involved in nosiheptide biosynthesis catalyzes two parallel reactions, converting l-Trp to 3-methyl-2-indolic acid (MIA) and to dehydroglycine and 3-methylindole, respectively. The two parallel reactions diverge from a nitrogen-centered tryptophanyl radical intermediate. Here we report an investigation on the intrinsic reactivity of the tryptophanyl radical using a chemical model study and DFT calculations. The kinetics of the formation and fragmentation of this nitrogen-centered radical in NosL catalysis were also studied in detail...
December 8, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929088/thioredoxin-interacting-protein-regulates-haematopoietic-stem-cell-ageing-and-rejuvenation-by-inhibiting-p38-kinase-activity
#15
Haiyoung Jung, Dong Oh Kim, Jae-Eun Byun, Won Sam Kim, Mi Jeong Kim, Hae Young Song, Young Kwan Kim, Du-Kyeong Kang, Young-Jun Park, Tae-Don Kim, Suk Ran Yoon, Hee Gu Lee, Eun-Ji Choi, Sang-Hyun Min, Inpyo Choi
Ageing is a natural process in living organisms throughout their lifetime, and most elderly people suffer from ageing-associated diseases. One suggested way to tackle such diseases is to rejuvenate stem cells, which also undergo ageing. Here we report that the thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP)-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) axis regulates the ageing of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), by causing a higher frequency of long-term HSCs, lineage skewing, a decrease in engraftment, an increase in reactive oxygen species and loss of Cdc42 polarity...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928690/from-shoot-to-leaf-step-wise-shifts-in-meristem-and-knox1-activity-correlate-with-the-evolution-of-a-unifoliate-body-plan-in-gesneriaceae
#16
Kanae Nishii, Bing-Hong Huang, Chun-Neng Wang, Michael Möller
Typical dicots possess equal-sized cotyledons and leaf-bearing shoots topped with a shoot apical meristem (SAM), the source of lateral organs, and where KNOX1 homeobox genes act as key regulators. New World Gesneriaceae show typical cotyledons, whereas Old World Gesneriaceae show anisocotyly, the unequal post-germination growth of cotyledons, and include unifoliate (one-leaf) plants. One-leaf plants show an extremely reduced body plan: the adult above-ground photosynthetic tissue consisting of a single cotyledon, a macrocotyledon enlarged by the basal meristem (BM), but lacking a SAM...
December 8, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928176/influence-of-parity-of-birth-and-suckled-sows-on-piglet-nasal-mucosal-colonization-with-haemophilus-parasuis
#17
Marion Brean, Sam Abraham, Michelle Hebart, Roy N Kirkwood
Litters of primiparous and multiparous sows were switched at 12 d and nasally swabbed at 12, 18, and 23 d for detection of Haemophilus parasuis. At lactation days 12 and 23, mucosal colonization rates for multiparous and primiparous litters were 0% versus 33% and 26% versus 60%, respectively.
December 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927672/influenza
#18
REVIEW
Sam Ghebrehewet, Peter MacPherson, Antonia Ho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927542/t12-sagittal-tilt-predicts-thoracic-kyphosis
#19
Stephen J Lewis, Taylor E Dear, Michael G Zywiel, Sam G Keshen, Y Raja Rampersaud, Sofia P Magana
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review and analysis of lateral long cassette radiographs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether certain radiographic features routinely seen on lumbar radiographs can predict a structural thoracic deformity. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Obtaining proper sagittal alignment is an essential factor contributing to favorable clinical outcomes following spinal deformity surgery. The majority of patients treated with lumbar fusions do not undergo long cassette radiographs, and therefore physicians must rely upon clinical examination to determine the presence of a structural thoracic kyphotic deformity...
March 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927174/a-controlled-trial-of-implementing-a-complex-mental-health-intervention-for-carers-of-vulnerable-young-people-living-in-out-of-home-care-the-ripple-project
#20
Helen Herrman, Cathy Humphreys, Stephen Halperin, Katherine Monson, Carol Harvey, Cathrine Mihalopoulos, Susan Cotton, Penelope Mitchell, Tony Glynn, Anne Magnus, Lenice Murray, Josef Szwarc, Elise Davis, Sophie Havighurst, Patrick McGorry, Sam Tyano, Ida Kaplan, Simon Rice, Kristen Moeller-Saxone
BACKGROUND: Out-of-home care (OoHC) refers to young people removed from their families by the state because of abuse, neglect or other adversities. Many of the young people experience poor mental health and social function before, during and after leaving care. Rigorously evaluated interventions are urgently required. This publication describes the protocol for the Ripple project and notes early findings from a controlled trial demonstrating the feasibility of the work. The Ripple project is implementing and evaluating a complex mental health intervention that aims to strengthen the therapeutic capacities of carers and case managers of young people (12-17 years) in OoHC...
December 7, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
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