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Glossopharyngeal breathing

Stefani Harmsen, Dirk Schramm, Michael Karenfort, Andreas Christaras, Michael Euler, Ertan Mayatepek, Daniel Tibussek
Dive-related injuries are relatively common, but almost exclusively occur in recreational or scuba diving. We report 2 children with acute central nervous system complications after breath-hold diving. A 12-year-old boy presented with unilateral leg weakness and paresthesia after diving beneath the water surface for a distance of ∼25 m. After ascent, he suddenly felt extreme thoracic pain that resolved spontaneously. Neurologic examination revealed right leg weakness and sensory deficits with a sensory level at T5...
September 2015: Pediatrics
Alain Boussuges, Olivier Gavarry, Jacques Bessereau, Mathieu Coulange, Morgan Bourc'his, Pascal Rossi
OBJECTIVE: The glossopharyngeal insufflation maneuver (lung packing) is largely performed by competitive breath-hold divers to improve their performance, despite observational evidence of fainting and loss of consciousness in the first seconds of apnea. METHODS: We describe here the time course of hemodynamic changes, induced by breath-holding with and without lung packing, in 2 world-class apnea competitors. RESULTS: When compared with apnea performed after a deep breath (100% vital capacity), lung packing leads to a decrease in cardiac output, blood pressure, and cerebral blood flow during the first seconds after the beginning of apnea...
December 2014: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
John R Bach, Raisa Bakshiyev, Alice Hon
The purpose of this article is to describe noninvasive respiratory management for patients with neuromuscular respiratory muscle dysfunction (NMD) and spinal cord injury (SCI) and the role of electrophrenic pacing (EPP) and diaphragm pacing (DP) in this respect. Long term outcomes will be reviewed and the use of noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV), MAC, and EPP/DP to prevent pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, to facilitate extubation, and to avoid tracheotomy will be evaluated...
2012: Tanaffos
Yan Niu, Zhong Bai, Xiaohong Yang, Mingxiu Zheng, Renwei Liu
OBJECTIVE: To measure the upper airway of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome by speed CT. We can predict the airway obstruction plane with the airway plane data and compliance in OSAHS patients. Through this measurement, we can provide assistance for clinical diagnosis and treatment. METHOD: This study randomly selected 82 patients diagnosed with OSAHS and 45 cases non-snoring healthy people as control group by the PHILIPS 256-slice CT. The zone volume, sagittal diameter, coronary diameter and cross-sectional area of the narrowest plane in nasopharyngeal area, velopharyngeal area, glossopharyngeal area, hypopharynx area in two groups of quiet respiration and Müller's status were measured...
February 2014: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Carlo Bianchi, Raniero Carrara, Sonia Khirani, Maria Chiara Tuccio
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare the unassisted cough peak flow (CPF) of patients affected by muscular dystrophy with CPF augmented by various techniques, including maximal depth glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) combined with a subsequent self-induced thoracic or abdominal thrust. DESIGN: All of the motorized wheelchair-dependent patients with muscular dystrophy who had previously mastered GPB were trained at home to increase their cough efficacy...
January 2014: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Tomas A Schiffer, Peter Lindholm
Breath-hold divers report transient, severe neurological symptoms that could be caused by arterial gas embolism after glossopharyngeal insufflation. This technique is often used to overinflate the lungs and stretch the chest prior to breath-holding and can increase the transpulmonary pressure to around 7-8 kPa, so introducing risk of pulmonary barotrauma. Airway pressure, blood pressure and static spirometry (nitrogen dilution) were measured simultaneously in ten subjects attempting to identify individuals at risk...
March 2013: European Journal of Applied Physiology
John R Bach
This article describes noninvasive acute and long-term management of the respiratory muscle paralysis of high spinal cord injury (SCI). This includes full-setting, continuous ventilatory support by noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV) to support inspiratory muscles and mechanically assisted coughing (MAC) to support inspiratory and expiratory muscles. The NIV and MAC can also be used to extubate or decannulate 'unweanable' patients with SCI, to prevent intercurrent respiratory tract infections from developing into pneumonia and acute respiratory failure (ARF), and to eliminate tracheostomy and resort to costly electrophrenic/diaphragm pacing (EPP/DP) for most ventilator users, while permitting glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) for security in the event of ventilator failure...
March 2012: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Kerstin M Johansson, Malin Nygren-Bonnier, Ellika Schalling
This case report describes the effects of glossopharyngeal breathing on respiration and speech in a patient with tetraplegia due to multiple sclerosis. Glossopharyngeal breathing is a technique where air is insufflated with the glossopharyngeal muscles, to increase vital capacity. Results from follow-up assessments up to 20 months after intervention showed that (1) the patient's speech and respiratory function with glossopharyngeal breathing improved over time, (2) the patient's respiratory function without glossopharyngeal breathing deteriorated over time (possibly because of a severe cold), and (3) at each assessment, the patient's speech and respiratory function was better with glossopharyngeal breathing than without it...
June 2012: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Arash Pirat, Selim Candan, Aytekin Unlükaplan, Ozgür Kömürcü, Selim Kuşlu, Gülnaz Arslan
Pierre-Robin syndrome (PRS) is often associated with difficulty in endotracheal intubation. We present the use of percutaneous dilational tracheotomy (PDT) for airway management of a newborn with PRS and a glossopharyngeal web. A 2-day-old term newborn with PRS and severe obstructive dyspnea was evaluated by the anesthesiology team for airway management. A direct laryngoscopy revealed a glossopharyngeal web extending from the base of the tongue to the posterior pharyngeal wall. The infant was spontaneously breathing through a 2 mm diameter fistula in the center of this web...
April 2012: Respiratory Care
François Maltais
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2011: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Erik J A Westermann, Laura P Verweij-van den Oudenrijn, Michael A Gaytant, Mike J Kampelmacher
Lung volume recruitment can improve peak cough flows and respiratory compliance in patients who either do or do not require mechanical ventilation. There are several lung volume recruitment techniques: air stacking, glossopharyngeal breathing and mechanical insufflation-exsufflation with cough assist devices. The principle of lung volume recruitment is based on the insufflation of air in the lungs after maximal inspiration. In air stacking, a manual resuscitation bag is used for insufflation. Glossopharyngeal breathing requires the use of oropharyngeal and laryngeal muscles by the patient...
2011: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Tonci Batinic, Wolfgang Utz, Toni Breskovic, Jens Jordan, Jeanette Schulz-Menger, Stipan Jankovic, Zeljko Dujic, Jens Tank
PURPOSE: Apnea divers hyperinflate the lung by taking a deep breath followed by glossopharyngeal insufflation. The maneuver can lead to symptomatic arterial hypotension. We tested the hypotheses that glossopharyngeal insufflation interferes with cardiac function further reducing cardiac output (CO) using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to fully sample both cardiac chambers. METHODS: Eleven dive athletes (10 men, 1 woman; age = 26 ± 5 yr, body mass index = 23...
November 2011: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Stephan Walterspacher, Tobias Scholz, Kay Tetzlaff, Stephan Sorichter
PURPOSE: Extensive breath-hold (BH) diving imposes high pulmonary stress by performing voluntary lung hyperinflation maneuvers (glossopharyngeal insufflation, GI), hyperinflating the lung up to 50% of total lung capacity. Breath-hold durations of up to 10 min without oxygen support may also presume cerebral alterations of respiratory drive. Little is known about the long-term effects of GI onto the pulmonary parenchyma and respiratory adaptation processes in this popular extreme sport...
July 2011: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Iga Muradyan, Stephen H Loring, Massimo Ferrigno, Peter Lindholm, George P Topulos, Samuel Patz, James P Butler
Punctate reopening of the lung from subresidual volumes (sub-RV) is commonly observed in excised lung preparations, either degassed or collapsed to zero transpulmonary pressure, and in the course of reinflation of human lungs when the chest is open, secondary to traumatic or surgical pneumothoraxes. In the course of physiological studies on two elite breath-hold divers, who are able to achieve lung volumes well below traditional RV with glossopharyngeal exsufflation, we used MRI lung imaging with inhaled hyperpolarized (129)Xe to visualize ventilatory patterns...
December 2010: Journal of Applied Physiology
Karsten Heusser, Gordan Dzamonja, Toni Breskovic, Craig D Steinback, André Diedrich, Jens Tank, Jens Jordan, Zeljko Dujic
Glossopharyngeal insufflation (lung packing) is a common maneuver among experienced apnea divers by which additional air is pumped into the lungs. It has been shown that packing may compromise cardiovascular homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that the packing-mediated increase in intrathoracic pressure enhances the baroreflex-mediated increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in response to an exaggerated drop in cardiac output (CO). We compared changes in hemodynamics and MSNA (peroneal microneurography) during maximal breath-holds without and with prior moderate packing (0...
December 2010: Journal of Applied Physiology
Cheila de Lima Boijink, Luiz Henrique Florindo, Cleo A Costa Leite, Ana Lúcia Kalinin, William K Milsom, Francisco Tadeu Rantin
The aim of the present study was to determine the roles that externally versus internally oriented CO(2)/H(+)-sensitive chemoreceptors might play in promoting cardiorespiratory responses to environmental hypercarbia in the air-breathing fish, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (jeju). Fish were exposed to graded hypercarbia (1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% CO(2)) and also to graded levels of environmental acidosis (pH approximately 7.0, 6.0, 5.8, 5.6, 5.3 and 4.7) equal to the pH levels of the hypercarbic water to distinguish the relative roles of CO(2) versus H(+)...
August 15, 2010: Journal of Experimental Biology
Gordan Dzamonja, Jens Tank, Karsten Heusser, Ivan Palada, Zoran Valic, Darija Bakovic, Ante Obad, Vladimir Ivancev, Toni Breskovic, André Diedrich, Friedrich C Luft, Zeljko Dujic, Jens Jordan
Apnea divers increase intrathoracic pressure voluntarily by taking a deep breath followed by glossopharyngeal insufflation. Because apnea divers sometimes experience hypotension and syncope during the maneuver, they may serve as a model to study the mechanisms of syncope. We recorded changes in hemodynamics and sympathetic vasomotor tone with microneurography during breath holding with glossopharyngeal insufflation. Five men became hypotensive and fainted during breath holding with glossopharyngeal insufflation within the first minute...
December 2010: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Steven C S Chung, Leigh M Seccombe, Christine R Jenkins, Clayton J Frater, Lloyd J Ridley, Matthew J Peters
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Glossopharyngeal insufflation (GI) is a technique practised by competitive breath-hold divers to enhance their performance. Using the oropharyngeal musculature, air is pumped into the lungs to increase the lung volume above physiological TLC. Experienced breath-hold divers can increase their lung volumes by up to 3 L. Although the potential for lung injury is evident, there is limited information available. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is any evidence of lung injury following GI, independent of diving...
July 2010: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
M Angeles Fernández-Gil, R Palacios-Bote, M Leo-Barahona, J P Mora-Encinas
The brainstem has an ectodermal origin and is composed of 4 parts: the diencephalon, mesencephalon, pons, and medulla oblongata. It serves as the connection between the cerebral hemispheres with the medulla and the cerebellum and is responsible for basic vital functions, such as breathing, heartbeat blood pressure, control of consciousness, and sleep. The brainstem contains both white and gray matter. The gray matter of the brainstem (neuronal cell bodies) is found in clumps and clusters throughout the brainstem to form the cranial nerve nuclei, the reticular formation, and pontine nuclei...
June 2010: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Jane Mello Lopes, Cheila de Lima Boijink, Luiz Henrique Florindo, Cleo Alcantara Costa Leite, Ana Lúcia Kalinin, William K Milsom, Francisco Tadeu Rantin
In one series of experiments, heart frequency (f (H)), blood pressure (P (a)), gill ventilation frequency (f ( R )), ventilation amplitude (V (AMP)) and total gill ventilation (V (TOT)) were measured in intact jeju (Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus) and jeju with progressive denervation of the branchial branches of cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal) and X (vagus) without access to air. When these fish were submitted to graded hypoxia (water PO(2) approximately 140, normoxia to 17 mmHg, severe hypoxia), they increased f ( R ), V (AMP), V (TOT) and P (a) and decreased f (H)...
August 2010: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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