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Cancer and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220526/anti-pd-l1-treatment-induced-central-diabetes-insipidus
#1
Chen Zhao, Sri Harsha Tella, Jaydira Del Rivero, Anuhya Kommalapati, Ifechukwude Ebenuwa, James Gulley, Julius Strauss, Isaac Brownell
Context: Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1 and anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibodies, have been widely used in cancer treatment. They are known to cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which resemble autoimmune diseases. Anterior pituitary hypophysitis with secondary hypopituitarism is a frequently reported irAE, especially in patients receiving anti-CTLA4 treatment. In contrast, posterior pituitary involvement, such as central diabetes insipidus (DI), is relatively rare and is unreported in patients undergoing PD-1/PD-L1 blockade...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217192/amot-is-required-for-yap-function-in-high-glucose-induced-liver-malignancy
#2
Ya Liu, Zhicheng Lu, Yi Shi, Fenyong Sun
AMOT has been identified as a YAP interactor. However, how AMOT regulates YAP remains unclear and controversy. Here, we identified that besides YAP, AMOT was another Hippo signaling core factor which could be O-GlcNAcylated. Moreover, high glucose (HG) was able to enhance the expression and O-GlcNAcylation of AMOT. We also found that HG stimulated nuclear accumulation, transcription activity, interaction with transcription factor and transcription of target genes of YAP via AMOT, while AMOT acted as a suppressor of YAP in normal glucose level...
December 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216799/flavonoids-as-potent-allosteric-inhibitors-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-molecular-dynamics-simulation-and-free-energy-calculation
#3
Farshid Zargari, Maryam Lotfi, Omolbanin Shahraki, Zahra Nikfarjam, Jafar Shahraki
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a member of the PTP superfamily which is considered to be a negative regulator of insulin receptor (IR) signalling pathway. PTP1B is a promising drug target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, obesity and cancer. The existence of allosteric site in PTP1B has turned the researcher's attention to an alternate strategy for inhibition of this enzyme. Herein, the molecular interactions between the allosteric site of PTP1B with three non-competitive flavonoids, (MOR), (MOK), and (DPO) have been investigated...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216352/identification-of-estrogen-related-receptor-alpha-agonists-in-the-tox21-compound-library
#4
Caitlin Lynch, Jinghua Zhao, Ruili Huang, Noriko Kanaya, Lauren Bernal, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Scott S Auerbach, Kristine L Witt, B Alex Merrick, Shiuan Chen, Christina T Teng, Menghang Xia
The estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) is an orphan nuclear receptor (NR) that plays a role in energy homeostasis and controls mitochondrial oxidative respiration. Increased expression of ERRα in certain ovarian, breast, and colon cancers has a negative prognosis, indicating an important role for ERRα in cancer progression. An interaction between ERRα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) has also recently been shown to regulate an enzyme in the β-oxidation of free fatty acids, thereby suggesting that ERRα plays an important role in obesity and type 2 diabetes...
December 4, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216250/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-roux-en-y-gastrojejunostomy-vs-gastroduodenostomy-with-respect-to-the-improvement-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-after-distal-gastrectomy-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#5
Yoon Young Choi, Sung Hoon Noh, Ji Yeong An
The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of diabetes control induced by Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy(RY) vs Billroth-I reconstruction(BI) after distal gastrectomy in patients with early gastric cancer(EGC) and type 2 diabetes(T2DM). Forty EGC patients with T2DM, aged 20-80 years, who were expected to undergo curative distal gastrectomy were randomized 1:1 to RY(n = 20) or BI(n = 20). Diabetes medication status, biochemical and hormonal data including blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, C-peptide, HOMA-IR, ghrelin, leptin, GLP-1, PYY, and GIP were evaluated for 12 months after surgery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215822/eleven-year-cumulative-incidence-and-estimated-lifetime-prevalence-of-urolithiasis-in-korea-a-national-health-insurance-service-national-sample-cohort-based-study
#6
Bum Sik Tae, Ulanbek Balpukov, Sung Yong Cho, Chang Wook Jeong
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was estimation of the cumulative incidence and lifetime prevalence of urolithiasis in Korea. METHODS: We used a National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) sample cohort dataset that included approximately 1 million individuals from Korea. Data from January 2002 to December 2013 were collected. We calculated the annual prevalence, recurrence rate, and estimate lifetime prevalence of urolithiasis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with urolithiasis...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215592/natural-korean-medicine-dang-gui-biosynthesis-effective-extraction-and-formulations-of-major-active-pyranocoumarins-their-molecular-action-mechanism-in-cancer-and-other-biological-activities
#7
REVIEW
Chinreddy Subramanyam Reddy, Seong Cheol Kim, Mok Hur, Yeon Bok Kim, Chun Geon Park, Woo Moon Lee, Jae Ki Jang, Sung Cheol Koo
Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is a crucial oriental medicinal herb that grows especially in Korea and the Far-East countries. It contains chemically active compounds like pyranocoumarins, polyacetylenes and essential oils, which might be useful for treatment of several chronic diseases. It has been used for centuries as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia, but in Western countries is used as a functional food and a major ingredient of several herbal products. The genus Angelica is also known as 'female ginseng' due to its critical therapeutic role in female afflictions, such as gynecological problems...
December 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215398/a-genetic-risk-score-for-fasting-plasma-glucose-is-independently-associated-with-arterial-stiffness-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#8
Mikael Gottsäter, George Hindy, Marju Orho-Melander, Peter M Nilsson, Olle Melander
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is known to be associated with a number of clinical conditions including hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia, and may predict cardiovascular events and mortality. However, causal links are hard to establish. Results from genome-wide association studies have identified only a few single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with arterial stiffness, the results have been inconsistent between studies and overlap with other clinical conditions is lacking. Our aim was to investigate a potential shared set of risk single nucleotide polymorphisms between relevant cardiometabolic traits and arterial stiffness...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214834/source-and-size-of-social-support-network-on-sedentary-behavior-among-older-adults
#9
Paul D Loprinzi, Elizabeth A Crush
PURPOSE: To examine the association of source of social support and size of social support network on sedentary behavior among older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006. PARTICIPANTS: 2519 older adults (60+ years). MEASURES: Sedentary behavior was assessed via accelerometry over a 7-day period. Social support was assessed via self-report...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214599/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-inhibitors-from-natural-sources
#10
REVIEW
Bing Tian Zhao, Duc Hung Nguyen, Duc Dat Le, Jae Sue Choi, Byung Sun Min, Mi Hee Woo
Since PTP1B enzyme was discovered in 1988, it has captured the research community's attention. This landmark discovery has stimulated numerous research studies on a variety of human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and diabetes. Tremendous progress has been made in finding PTP1B inhibitors and exploring PTP1B regulatory mechanisms. This review investigates for the natural PTP1B inhibitors, and focuses on the common characteristics of the discovered structures and structure-activity relationships. To facilitate understanding, all the natural compounds are here divided into five different classes (fatty acids, phenolics, terpenoids, steroids, and alkaloids), according to their skeletons...
December 6, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214238/redox-regulation-of-a-gain-of-function-mutation-n308d-in-shp2-noonan-syndrome
#11
Luciana E S F Machado, David A Critton, Rebecca Page, Wolfgang Peti
SHP2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2; PTPN11) is a ubiquitous multidomain, nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that plays an important role in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and Noonan syndrome (NS). NS is one of the most common genetic disorders associated with congenital heart disease, and approximately half of the patients with Noonan syndrome have gain-of-function mutations in SHP2. One of the most common NS mutations is N308D. The activity of SHP2, like that of most PTPs, is reversibly inactivated by reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
November 30, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212592/-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-endocrinological-side-effects
#12
Line Bisgaard Jørgensen, Lars Bastholt, Knud Yderstræde
Immune checkpoint inhibitors including anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 and anti-programmed cell death-1 have revolutionized cancer therapy but have also induced serious immune-related adverse events including hormonal dysfunction. The objective of this review is to characterize the incidence, clinical presentation, management and prognosis of the endocrine-related adverse events including hypophysitis, thyroid dysfunction and diabetes mellitus. Combination therapy is associated with an increased risk of adverse events...
December 4, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211738/metformin-inhibits-the-development-and-promotes-the-resensitization-of-treatment-resistant-breast-cancer
#13
Gerald Davies, Liubov Lobanova, Wojciech Dawicki, Gary Groot, John R Gordon, Matthew Bowen, Troy Harkness, Terra Arnason
Multiple drug resistant (MDR) malignancy remains a predictable and often terminal event in cancer therapy, and affects individuals with many cancer types, regardless of the stage at which they were originally diagnosed or the interval from last treatment. Protein biomarkers of MDR are not globally used for clinical decision-making, but include the overexpression of drug-efflux pumps (ABC transporter family) such as MDR-1 and BCRP, as well as HIF1α, a stress responsive transcription factor found elevated within many MDR tumors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211393/the-impact-of-metformin-use-on-the-risk-of-prostate-cancer-after-prostate-biopsy-in-patients-with-high-grade-intraepithelial-neoplasia
#14
Lucio Dell'Atti, Andrea B Galosi
PURPOSE: We report our experience on metformin use in diabetic patients and its impact on prostate cancer (PCa) after a high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 551 patients with a diagnosis of HGPIN without PCa in a first prostate biopsy. The cohort of the study consisted of 456 nondiabetic subjects, and 95 diabetic patients. Among the patients with diabetes 44 were treated with metformin, and 51 with other antidiabetic drugs...
December 7, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210901/smoking-habits-are-strongly-associated-with-colorectal-polyps-in-a-population-based-case-control-study
#15
Naomi Fliss-Isakov, Shira Zelber-Sagi, Muriel Webb, Zamir Halpern, Revital Kariv
GOALS: The goal of this study is to test the association between lifetime smoking habits and colorectal polyps of different classifications. BACKGROUND: Smoking is an established risk factor for several cancers, including colorectal cancer. However, the association between lifetime smoking habits including intensity, duration, and cessation, and premalignant colorectal polyps is yet to be established. STUDY: A case-control study among 828 consecutive subjects aged 40 to 70 years, undergoing screening or diagnostic colonoscopy...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210632/role-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-degenerative-kidney-disorders
#16
Shifa Narula, Chanderdeep Tandon, Simran Tandon
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are members of calcium dependent-zinc containing endopeptidases that play a pivotal role in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. MMPs are also known to cleave non-matrix proteins, including cell surface receptors, TNF-α, angiotensin-II, growth factors, (especially transforming growth factor-β1, ΤGF-β1) plasminogen, endothelin and other bioactive molecules. The tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) inhibit the activity of MMPs and decrease ECM degradation. Various patho-physiological conditions have been linked with the imbalance of ECM synthesis and degradation...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210581/modelling-of-human-fatty-acid-synthase-and-in-silico-docking-of-acyl-carrier-protein-domain-and-its-partner-catalytic-domains
#17
Rui P P Neves, Maria João Ramos, Pedro A Fernandes, Matilde Viegas
Human Fatty Acid Synthase (hFAS) is a megasynthase whose main function is de novo biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids. Interest has been drawn to this enzyme beyond its physiological role due to the association between high levels of hFAS and clinical conditions such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Thus, it has become an undeniably attractive pharmacological target. Until now, no crystal structure of the complete hFAS is available, hindering attempts to fully understand this protein. Using homology modelling, we built a model of the entire megasynthase, encompassing all of its domains, including the Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) and Thioesterase (TE) mobile domains absent in the crystal structure of mammalian Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210129/effect-of-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene-on-aging-and-longevity
#18
REVIEW
Yi-Rong Li, Shiming Li, Chi-Chien Lin
Over the past years, several studies have found that foods rich in polyphenols protect against age-related disease, such as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer, arthritis, cataracts, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension and Alzheimer's disease. Resveratrol and pterostilbene, the polyphenol found in grape and blueberries, have beneficial effects as anti-aging compounds through modulating the hallmarks of aging, including oxidative damage, inflammation, telomere attrition and cell senescence...
December 6, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208999/associations-between-childhood-body-size-and-seventeen-adverse-outcomes-analysis-of-65-057-european-women
#19
Jingmei Li, Mikael Eriksson, Wei He, Per Hall, Kamila Czene
Large childhood body size has been consistently shown to be associated with decreased breast cancer risk. However, it is important to consider the effects of a large childhood body size on other adult diseases. It is not clear if the associations between childhood body size and adult diseases will persist if they later attain healthy weight. The associations between body size at age 7 and 17 adverse outcomes in adulthood were examined using Cox models in a Swedish study of 65,057 women. Large body size at age 7, when compared to small body size, was associated with decreased risk for breast cancer (HR [95% CI]: 0...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208860/high-wall-motion-score-index-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-is-associated-with-worse-in-hospital-outcome
#20
H Pandit, M N Islam, M A Bari, P Pandit, M S Bari, A S Bhuiyan, R K Talukder, M A Rouf, M S Islam, S S Shakil, M S Islam, H Akhter
Myocardial Infarction is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The incidence of coronary heart disease is high and second most cause of death after cancer. This prospective study conducted on 100 patients admitted with first attack of acute myocardial infarction in the department of Cardiology in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2012 to June 2013 who were observed 3 to 8 days of hospital stay without doing further echocardiography and evaluated the relationship between echocardiographic wall motion score index (WMSI) assessed within 24 hours of admission and in-hospital outcomes...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
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