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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679627/diabetes-and-cancer-pathophysiological-fundamentals-of-a-dangerous-affair
#1
REVIEW
Angelo Cignarelli, Valentina Annamaria Genchi, Irene Caruso, Annalisa Natalicchio, Sebastio Perrini, Luigi Laviola, Francesco Giorgino
Diabetes and cancer are worldwide chronic diseases with a major impact on the quality and expectancy of life. Metabolic abnormalities observed during the onset and progression of diabetes may have a critical role on the initiation and progression of carcinogenesis. To date, there are no conclusive data on the mechanisms underlying the relationship between diabetes and any type of human cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that both hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in diabetes could elicit cell damage responses, such as glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity and oxidative stress, which participate in the cell transformation process raising the risk of cancer development...
April 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679626/microrna-expression-profile-in-plasma-from-type-1-diabetic-patients-case-control-study-and-bioinformatic-analysis
#2
Taís S Assmann, Mariana Recamonde-Mendoza, Márcia Puñales, Balduíno Tschiedel, Luís H Canani, Daisy Crispim
AIMS: To investigate a miRNA expression profile in plasma of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients and control subjects and analyze the putative pathways involved. METHODS: Expressions of 48 miRNAs were analyzed in plasma of 33 T1DM patients and 26 age-and-gender-matched controls using Stem-loop RT-PreAmp PCR and TaqMan Low Density Arrays (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Five dysregulated miRNAs were then chosen for validation in an independent sample of 27 T1DM patients and 14 controls, using RT-qPCR...
April 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678976/fostering-active-living-and-healthy-eating-through-understanding-physical-activity-and-dietary-behaviours-of-arabic-speaking-adults-a-cross-sectional-study-from-the-middle-east
#3
Tam Truong Donnelly, Tak Shing Fung, Al-Anoud Bint Mohammad Al-Thani
OBJECTIVES: Physical inactivity and unhealthy diets increase the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Many people in Qatar are sedentary and consume diets high in fats, salt and sugar. The purpose of this study was to determine physical activity levels, food habits and understand the variables that might predict physical activity and healthy eating behaviours among Arabic-speaking adults living in the State of Qatar. SETTING: A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted with 1606 Arab adults ≥18 years of age from March 2013 to June 2015...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677364/long-anterior-lens-zonules-and-intraocular-pressure
#4
Daniel K Roberts, Tricia L Newman, Mary Flynn Roberts, Bruce A Teitelbaum, Janis E Winters
Purpose: To investigate the relation between intraocular pressure (IOP) and the idiopathic long anterior zonule (LAZ) trait. Methods: Patients presenting for primary eye care were examined for LAZ, identified as radially oriented zonular fibers with central extension >1.0 mm beyond the normal anterior lens insertion zone (estimated via slit lamp beam length). Ocular, systemic health, and lifestyle data were collected via comprehensive exam and questionnaire. Multivariate regression was used to assess the relationship between IOP (Goldmann) and LAZ...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677167/the-role-of-catechins-in-cellular-responses-to-oxidative-stress
#5
REVIEW
Jurga Bernatoniene, Dalia Marija Kopustinskiene
Catechins are polyphenolic compounds—flavanols of the flavonoid family found in a variety of plants. Green tea, wine and cocoa-based products are the main dietary sources of these flavanols. Catechins have potent antioxidant properties, although in some cases they may act in the cell as pro-oxidants. Catechins are reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers and metal ion chelators, whereas their indirect antioxidant activities comprise induction of antioxidant enzymes, inhibition of pro-oxidant enzymes, and production of the phase II detoxification enzymes and antioxidant enzymes...
April 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675984/associations-of-pre-existing-co-morbidities-with-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-radiodensity-in-patients-with-non-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#6
Jingjie Xiao, Bette J Caan, Erin Weltzien, Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Candyce H Kroenke, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Vickie E Baracos, Marilyn L Kwan, Adrienne L Castillo, Carla M Prado
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Co-morbidities and computerized tomography-measured muscle abnormalities are both common in cancer patients and independently adversely influence clinical outcomes. Muscle abnormalities are also evident in other diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. This study examined for the first time the association between co-morbidities and muscle abnormalities in patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 3051 non-metastatic patients with Stages I-III CRC...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674970/hypothesis-the-psychedelic-ayahuasca-heals-traumatic-memories-via-a-sigma-1-receptor-mediated-epigenetic-mnemonic-process
#7
Antonio Inserra
Ayahuasca ingestion modulates brain activity, neurotransmission, gene expression and epigenetic regulation. N,N -Dimethyltryptamine (DMT, one of the alkaloids in Ayahuasca) activates sigma 1 receptor (SIGMAR1) and others. SIGMAR1 is a multi-faceted stress-responsive receptor which promotes cell survival, neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and neuroimmunomodulation. Simultaneously, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) also present in Ayahuasca prevent the degradation of DMT. One peculiarity of SIGMAR1 activation and MAOI activity is the reversal of mnemonic deficits in pre-clinical models...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673944/liver-disease-in-men-undergoing-androgen-deprivation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer
#8
Philipp Gild, Alexander P Cole, Anna Krasnova, Barbra A Dickerman, Nicolas von Landenberg, Maxine Sun, Lorelei A Mucci, Stuart R Lipsitz, Felix K-H Chun, Paul L Nguyen, Adam S Kibel, Toni K Choueiri, Shehzad Basaria, Quoc-Dien Trinh
PURPOSE: Androgen deprivation therapy is associated with development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Its effect on developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a condition frequently co-occuring with metabolic syndrome, and other subsequent liver conditions (liver cirrhosis, hepatic necrosis, any liver disease) has not been investigated.
 MATERIALS & METHODS: We identified 82,938 men aged 66 and older diagnosed with localized prostate cancer within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results- Medicare database, 1992-2009...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673046/newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-may-serve-as-a-potential-marker-for-pancreatic-cancer
#9
Rachel Dankner, Laurence S Freedman, Hertzel Gerstein, Jesse Roth, Lital Keinan-Boker
Pancreatic cancer has an extremely highly case fatality. Diabetes is a well-established strong risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Compared to a non-diabetic population, we previously reported a 15- and 14-fold greater risk for detecting pancreatic cancer during the first year after diagnosing diabetes in adult women and men, respectively, which dropped during the second year to 5.4-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively, and stabilized around 3-fold for the rest of the 11-year follow up in our historical cohort. The population attributable risk (PAR) during the 11-year period was 13...
April 19, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672754/comorbidity-clusters-in-people-with-gout-an-observational-cohort-study-with-linked-medical-record-review
#10
Megan Bevis, Milisa Blagojevic-Bucknall, Christian Mallen, Samantha Hider, Edward Roddy
Objective: To investigate how comorbid conditions cluster in patients with gout in a UK primary care population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using baseline data from a primary-care-based prospective observational cohort of people aged ⩾18 years with gout. Participants with gout were identified through primary care medical records. Factor analysis was performed to obtain distinct clusters of comorbidity variables including obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, coronary heart disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cancer...
April 17, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671907/a-comprehensive-review-of-phytochemical-profile-bioactives-for-pharmaceuticals-and-pharmacological-attributes-of-azadirachta-indica
#11
REVIEW
Sumaira Saleem, Gulzar Muhammad, Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
Azadirachta indica L. is a multipurpose medicinal tree of family Meliaceae. It occurs in tropical and semitropical regions of the world. Different parts of this miraculous tree are used to treat pyrexia, headache, ulcer, respiratory disorders, cancer, diabetes, leprosy, malaria, dengue, chicken pox, and dermal complications. The tree is popular for its pharmacological attributes such as hypolipidemic, antifertility, microbicidal, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antipyretic, hypoglycemic, insecticidal, nematicidal, antiulcer, antioxidant, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and antileishmaniasis properties...
April 19, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671896/subgroups-from-regression-trees-with-adjustment-for-prognostic-effects-and-postselection-inference
#12
Wei-Yin Loh, Michael Man, Shuaicheng Wang
Identification of subgroups with differential treatment effects in randomized trials is attracting much attention. Many methods use regression tree algorithms. This article addresses 2 important questions arising from the subgroups: how to ensure that treatment effects in subgroups are not confounded with effects of prognostic variables and how to determine the statistical significance of treatment effects in the subgroups. We address the first question by selectively including linear prognostic effects in the subgroups in a regression tree model...
April 19, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671893/gallstone-disease-and-increased-risk-of-mortality-two-large-prospective-studies-in-us-men-and-women
#13
Yan Zheng, Min Xu, Yoriko Heianza, Wenjie Ma, Tiange Wang, Dianjianyi Sun, Christine M Albert, Frank B Hu, Kathryn M Rexrode, Jo Ann E Manson, Lu Qi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gallstone disease has been related to a higher prevalence and incidence of chronic conditions, such as dyslipidemia, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, limited data are available regarding whether gallstone disease is related to mortality. METHODS: We examined the relationship of a history of gallstone disease and risk of death, using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, among 86,030 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 43,949 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671532/vitamin-d-screening-and-supplementation-in-community-dwelling-adults-common-questions-and-answers
#14
Michael L LeFevre, Nicholas M LeFevre
Measurement of vitamin D levels and supplementation with oral vitamin D have become commonplace, although clinical trials have not demonstrated health benefits. The usefulness of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to assess adequate exposure to vitamin D is hampered by variations in measurement technique and precision. Serum levels less than 12 ng per mL reflect inadequate vitamin D intake for bone health. Levels greater than 20 ng per mL are adequate for 97.5% of the population. Routine vitamin D supplementation does not prolong life, decrease the incidence of cancer or cardiovascular disease, or decrease fracture rates...
February 15, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670040/pectin-and-pectin-based-composite-materials-beyond-food-texture
#15
REVIEW
Claudia Lara-Espinoza, Elizabeth Carvajal-Millán, René Balandrán-Quintana, Yolanda López-Franco, Agustín Rascón-Chu
Pectins are plant cell wall natural heteropolysaccharides composed mainly of α-1-4 d-galacturonic acid units, which may or may not be methyl esterified, possesses neutral sugars branching that harbor functional moieties. Physicochemical features as pH, temperature, ions concentration, and cosolute presence, affect directly the extraction yield and gelling capacity of pectins. The chemical and structural features of this polysaccharide enables its interaction with a wide range of molecules, a property that scientists profit from to form new composite matrices for target/controlled delivery of therapeutic molecules, genes or cells...
April 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669993/myeloperoxidase-as-an-active-disease-biomarker-recent-biochemical-and-pathological-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Amjad A Khan, Mohammed A Alsahli, Arshad H Rahmani
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) belongs to the family of heme-containing peroxidases, produced mostly from polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The active enzyme (150 kDa) is the product of the MPO gene located on long arm of chromosome 17. The primary gene product undergoes several modifications, such as the removal of introns and signal peptides, and leads to the formation of enzymatically inactive glycosylated apoproMPO which complexes with chaperons, producing inactive proMPO by the insertion of a heme moiety. The active enzyme is a homodimer of heavy and light chain protomers...
April 18, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669818/changes-in-glomerular-filtration-rate-and-impact-on-long-term-survival-among-adults-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Sangeeta Hingorani, Emily Pao, Phil Stevenson, Gary Schoch, Benjamin L Laskin, Ted Gooley, George B McDonald
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kidney injury is a significant complication for patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but few studies have prospectively examined changes in GFR in long-term survivors of HCT. We described the association between changes in GFR and all-cause mortality in patients up to 10 years after HCT. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study of adult patients undergoing HCT at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle, Washington from 2003 to 2015...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669572/one-year-and-three-year-mortality-prediction-in-adult-major-blunt-trauma-survivors-a-national-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#18
Ting Hway Wong, Nivedita Vikas Nadkarni, Hai V Nguyen, Gek Hsiang Lim, David Bruce Matchar, Dennis Chuen Chai Seow, Nicolas K K King, Marcus Eng Hock Ong
BACKGROUND: Survivors of trauma are at increased risk of dying after discharge. Studies have found that age, head injury, injury severity, falls and co-morbidities predict long-term mortality. The objective of our study was to build a nomogram predictor of 1-year and 3-year mortality for major blunt trauma adult survivors of the index hospitalization. METHODS: Using data from the Singapore National Trauma Registry, 2011-2013, we analyzed adults aged 18 and over, admitted after blunt injury, with an injury severity score (ISS) of 12 or more, who survived the index hospitalization, linked to death registry data...
April 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669520/effect-of-metformin-use-on-the-risk-and-prognosis-of-endometrial-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Danxia Chu, Jie Wu, Kaili Wang, Mengling Zhao, Chunfang Wang, Liuxia Li, Ruixia Guo
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that metformin may be useful for preventing and treating endometrial cancer (EC), while the results have been inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between metformin use and risk and prognosis of patients with EC. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for observational studies evaluating the effect of metformin on EC prevention or treatment...
April 18, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669170/risk-factors-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-age-sex-and-liver-disorder-status-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-korea
#20
Sang-Wook Yi, Ja-Sung Choi, Jee-Jeon Yi, Yong-Ho Lee, Ki Jun Han
BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, relatively little is known regarding the interaction of risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with age, sex, and liver disorder status. METHODS: The authors followed 504,646 Korean patients aged 40 to 80 years who underwent routine health checkups between 2002 and 2003 until 2013 via linkage to national hospital discharge records. RESULTS: HCC occurred in 2744 individuals. In the sex-adjusted and age-adjusted analysis, cirrhosis increased the incidence of HCC by 42-fold, followed by hepatitis B virus (21-fold), hepatitis C virus (HCV; 19-fold), male sex (4...
April 18, 2018: Cancer
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