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Air stacking

Stefan Cwik, Sebastian M J Beer, Stefanie Hoffmann, Michael Krasnopolski, Detlef Rogalla, Hans-Werner Becker, Daniel Peeters, Andreas Ney, Anjana Devi
The application potential of rare earth nitride (REN) materials has been limited due to their high sensitivity to air and moisture leading to facile oxidation upon exposure to ambient conditions. For the growth of device quality films, physical vapor deposition methods, such as molecular beam epitaxy, have been established in the past. In this regard, aluminum nitride (AlN) has been employed as a capping layer to protect the functional gadolinium nitride (GdN) from interaction with the atmosphere. In addition, an AlN buffer was employed between a silicon substrate and GdN serving as a seeding layer for epitaxial growth...
August 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jiajia Xue, Jingwei Xie, Wenying Liu, Younan Xia
Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique that relies on the electrostatic repulsion between surface charges to continuously draw nanofibers from a viscoelastic fluid. It has been applied to successfully produce nanofibers, with diameters down to tens of nanometers, from a rich variety of materials, including polymers, ceramics, small molecules, and their combinations. In addition to solid nanofibers with a smooth surface, electrospinning has also been adapted to generate nanofibers with a number of secondary structures, including those characterized by a porous, hollow, or core-sheath structure...
August 4, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Mihails Kusnezoff, Nikolai Trofimenko, Martin Müller, Alexander Michaelis
The solid oxide cell is a basis for highly efficient and reversible electrochemical energy conversion. A single cell based on a planar electrolyte substrate as support (ESC) is often utilized for SOFC/SOEC stack manufacturing and fulfills necessary requirements for application in small, medium and large scale fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Thickness of the electrolyte substrate, and its ionic conductivity limits the power density of the ESC. To improve the performance of this cell type in SOFC/SOEC mode, alternative fuel electrodes, on the basis of Ni/CGO as well as electrolytes with reduced thickness, have been applied...
November 8, 2016: Materials
Olusola Adedayo Adesina, Jacob Ademola Sonibare, Paul N Diagboya, Adesuji Adejuwon, Temitope Famubode, Josiah O Bello
Due to the subtle occurrence of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) pollution from incinerators, it is seldom considered a significant source of PAH pollution. However, considering the recent build-up of toxics in urban air, this may be a serious concern around the incinerator vicinity due to the potential consequences of PAHs on human health. Hence, this study determined 11 alkyl-naphthalene contributions from a hospital waste incinerator (HWI_0) into ambient air receptor points (HWI_1 to HWI_5) for a 1-year period: June 2014-May 2015...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Edson Baltazar Estrada-Arriaga, Yvonne Guillen-Alonso, Cornelio Morales-Morales, Liliana García-Sánchez, Erick Obed Bahena-Bahena, Oscar Guadarrama-Pérez, Félix Loyola-Morales
Two different air-cathode stacked microbial fuel cell (MFC) configurations were evaluated under continuous flow during the treatment of municipal wastewater and electricity production at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3, 1, and 0.5 d. Stacked MFC 1 was formed by 20 individual air-cathode MFC units. The second stacked MFC (stacked MFC 2) consisted of 40 air-cathode MFC units placed in a shared reactor. The maximum voltages produced at closed circuit (1,000 Ω) were 170 mV for stacked MFC 1 and 94 mV for stacked MFC 2...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Aidan P Rooney, Aleksey Kozikov, Alexander N Rudenko, Eric Prestat, Matthew J Hamer, Freddie Withers, Yang Cao, Kostya S Novoselov, Mikhail I Katsnelson, Roman Gorbachev, Sarah J Haigh
Vertically stacked van der Waals heterostructures are a lucrative platform for exploring the rich electronic and optoelectronic phenomena in two-dimensional materials. Their performance will be strongly affected by impurities and defects at the interfaces. Here we present the first systematic study of interfaces in van der Waals heterostructure using cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) imaging. By measuring interlayer separations and comparing these to density functional theory (DFT) calculations we find that pristine interfaces exist between hBN and MoS2 or WS2 for stacks prepared by mechanical exfoliation in air...
August 1, 2017: Nano Letters
Hui Li, Mallory E DeCoster, Robert M Ireland, Jian Song, Patrick E Hopkins, Howard E Katz
Four p-type polymers were synthesized by modifying poly(bisdodecylquaterthiophene) (PQT12) to increase oxidizability by p-dopants. A sulfur atom is inserted between the thiophene rings and dodecyl chains, and/or 3,4-ethylenedioxy groups are appended to thiophene rings of PQT12. Doped with NOBF4, PQTS12 (with sulfur in side chains) shows a conductivity of 350 S cm(-1), the highest reported nonionic conductivity among films made from dopant-polymer solutions. Doped with tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ), PDTDE12 (with 3,4-ethylenedioxy groups on thiophene rings) shows a conductivity of 140 S cm(-1)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lei Xu, Yaqian Zhao, Tongyue Wang, Ranbin Liu, Fei Gao
To improve the sustainability of constructed wetlands (CWs), a novel tiered wetland system integrated with a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed in this study. Compared to the single stage CW, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was improved from 83.2% to 88.7%. More significantly, this tiered system significantly enhanced total nitrogen removal efficiency (an increase from 53.1% to 75.4%). In terms of MFC integration, a gradually decreased performance in electricity production was observed during its 3 months of operation (the voltage dropped from nearly 600 mV to less than 300 mV), which resulted in a reduction of power density from around 2 W/m(3) to less than 0...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Francisca Segura, Veronica Bartolucci, José Manuel Andújar
This work presents a hardware/software data acquisition system developed for monitoring the temperature in real time of the cells in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (AC-PEFC). These fuel cells are of great interest because they can carry out, in a single operation, the processes of oxidation and refrigeration. This allows reduction of weight, volume, cost and complexity of the control system in the AC-PEFC. In this type of PEFC (and in general in any PEFC), the reliable monitoring of temperature along the entire surface of the stack is fundamental, since a suitable temperature and a regular distribution thereof, are key for a better performance of the stack and a longer lifetime under the best operating conditions...
July 9, 2017: Sensors
Peng Yu, Wei Fu, Qingsheng Zeng, Junhao Lin, Cheng Yan, Zhuangchai Lai, Bijun Tang, Kazu Suenaga, Hua Zhang, Zheng Liu
Compared with 2D S-based and Se-based transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), Te-based TMDs display much better electrical conductivities, which will be beneficial to enhance the capacitances in supercapacitors. However, to date, the reports about the applications of Te-based TMDs in supercapacitors are quite rare. Herein, the first supercapacitor example of the Te-based TMD is reported: the type-II Weyl semimetal 1Td WTe2 . It is demonstrated that single crystals of 1Td WTe2 can be exfoliated into the nanosheets with 2-7 layers by liquid-phase exfoliation, which are assembled into air-stable films and further all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors...
July 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
O Connan, D Hébert, L Solier, D Maro, G Pellerin, C Voiseux, M Lamotte, P Laguionie
In-air tritium measurements were conducted around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant, as well as on other sites that are not impacted by the nuclear industry in northwest of France. The results indicate that the dominant tritium form around the AREVA site is HT (86%). HT and HTO levels are lower than 5 and 1 Bq. m(-3) for hourly samples taken in the plume. No tritiated organic molecules (TOM) were detected. 26 measurement campaigns were performed and links were established between near-field (85)Kr, HT and HTO activities...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M Dehairs, H Bosmans, W Desmet, N W Marshall
Current automatic dose rate controls (ADRCs) of dynamic x-ray imaging systems adjust their acquisition parameters in response to changes in patient thickness in order to achieve a constant signal level in the image receptor. This work compares a 3 parameter (3P) ADRC control to a more flexible 5-parameter (5P) method to meet this goal. A phantom composed of 15 composite poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA)/aluminium (Al) plates was imaged on a Siemens Artis Q dynamic system using standard 3P and 5P ADRC techniques...
July 31, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Reinhard Hecht, Juliane Kade, David Schmidt, Agnieszka Nowak-Król
Three acceptor-π-bridge-acceptor (A-π-A) molecules derived from 2-(3-boryl-2-thienyl)thiazole have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized. Incorporation of a B-N unit into thienylthiazole and attachment of suitable acceptor moieties allowed to obtain ambient-stable A-π-A molecules with low-lying LUMO levels. Their potential for applications in organic electronics was tested in vacuum-deposited organic thin film transistors (OTFT). The OTFT device based on boryl-thienylthiazole donor and 1,1-dicyanomethylene-3-indandione (DCIND) acceptor moieties showed an electron mobility of ~1...
June 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Fandi Ning, Xudong He, Yangbin Shen, Hehua Jin, Qingwen Li, Da Li, Shuping Li, Yulu Zhan, Ying Du, Jingjing Jiang, Hui Yang, Xiaochun Zhou
Flexible devices have been attracting great attention recently due to their numerous advantages. But the energy densities of current energy sources are still not high enough to support flexible devices for a satisfactory length of time. Although proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) do have a high-energy density, traditional PEMFCs are usually too heavy, rigid, and bulky to be used in flexible devices. In this research, we successfully invented a light and flexible air-breathing PEMFC by using a new design of PEMFC and a flexible composite electrode...
June 27, 2017: ACS Nano
Jialin Wang, Jiajun Peng, Xiaoyu Liu, Ziqi Liang
Planar perylene diimides (PDIs), when used as nonfullerene acceptors for organic photovoltaics, are constrained by their large π-aggregation in solid state. To tackle this issue, another planar nonfullerene acceptor 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone)-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (ITIC) with weak crystallinity and near-infrared light absorption is introduced into the PTB7-Th:PDI binary blend to fabricate efficient and stable ternary solar cells...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Joshua P Peterson, Margarita R Geraskina, Rui Zhang, Arthur H Winter
A series of substituted aryl dicyanomethyl radicals were synthesized, and the bonding thermodynamic parameters for self-dimerization were determined from van't Hoff plots obtained from variable-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. At low temperatures, the radicals dimerize, but the colored, air-stable free radicals return upon heating. Heating and cooling cycles (5-95 °C) can be repeated without radical degradation and with striking thermochromic behavior. We find a linear free energy relationship between the Hammett para substituent parameter and the dimerization equilibrium constant, with para electron-donating substituents leading to a weaker bond and electron-withdrawing substituents leading to stronger bonds, following a captodative effect...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Patricia A Scofield, Linda L Smith, David N Johnson
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated national emission standards for emissions of radionuclides other than radon from US Department of Energy facilities in Chapter 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H. This regulatory standard limits the annual effective dose that any member of the public can receive from Department of Energy facilities to 0.1 mSv. As defined in the preamble of the final rule, all of the facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, i.e., the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, East Tennessee Technology Park, and any other U...
July 2017: Health Physics
Antonio Sarmento, Vanessa Regiane Resqueti, Mario Emílio Teixeira Dourado-Júnior, Lailane Saturnino, Andrea Aliverti, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas Fregonezi, Armele de Fátima Dornelas de Andrade
OBJECTIVES: To assess the acute effects of air stacking on cough peak flow (CPF) and chest wall compartmental volumes of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) versus healthy controls positioned at 45° body inclination. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with a matched-pair design. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve persons with ALS and twelve age-matched healthy. MAIN OUTCOMES: CPF, chest wall compartmental inspiratory capacity (ICCW), vital capacity (VCCW), tidal volume (VTCW) and operational volumes, breathing pattern and percentage of contribution of the compartments to the inspired volume were measured by optoelectronic plethysmography...
May 16, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Li-Fei Ji, Jian-Xun Fan, Shou-Feng Zhang, Ai-Min Ren
A theoretical study was carried out to investigate the electronic structures and the charge transport properties of a series of naphthodithiophene diimide (NDTI) thiophene α-substituted derivatives NDTI-X using density functional theory and classical Marcus charge transfer theory. This study deeply revealed the structure-property relationships by analyzing the intermolecular interactions in crystal structures of C8-NDTI and C8-NDTI-Cl thoroughly by using the Hirshfeld surface, QTAIM theories and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT)...
May 31, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mustafa Al-Saiedy, Ali Tarokh, Sultan Nelson, Kiavash Hossini, Francis Green, Chang-Chun Ling, Elmar J Prenner, Matthias Amrein
The pulmonary surfactant is a protein-lipid mixture that spreads into a film at the air-lung interface. The highly-compacted molecules of the film keep the interface from shrinking under the influence of otherwise high surface tension and thus prevent atelectasis. We have previously shown that for the film to withstand a high film pressure without collapsing it needs to assume a specific architecture of a molecular monolayer with islands of stacks of molecular multilayers scattered over the area. Surface activity was assessed in a captive bubble surfactometer (CBS) and the role of cholesterol and oxidation on surfactant function examined...
May 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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