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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139528/assembly-of-small-molecule-surfactants-at-highly-dynamic-air-water-interfaces
#1
Omar T Mansour, Beatrice Cattoz, Manon Beaube, Morganne Montagnon, Richard K Heenan, Ralf Schweins, Marie-Sousai Appavou, Peter C Griffiths
Small-angle neutron scattering has been used to probe the interfacial structure of foams stabilised by small molecule surfactants at concentrations well below their critical micelle concentration. The data for wet foams showed a pronounced Q(-4) dependence at low Q and noticeable inflexions over the mid Q range. These features were found to be dependent on the surfactant structure (mainly the alkyl chain length) with various inflexions across the measured Q range as a function of the chain length but independent of factors such as concentration and foam age/height...
November 15, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124234/permeability-strength-and-electrochemical-studies-on-ceramic-multilayers-for-solid-state-electrochemical-cells
#2
Kjeld Bøhm Andersen, Benoit Charlas, Eugen Stamate, Kent Kammer Hansen
An electrochemical reactor can be used to purify flue gasses. Such a reactor can be a multilayer structure consisting of alternating layers of porous electrodes and electrolytes (a porous cell stack). In this work optimization of such a unit has been done by changing the pore former composition and the electrode powder pre-treatment. The effect on permeability, mechanical strength and electrochemical behavior was studied in this work. The effects were evaluated by measuring the pressure difference over the samples in relation to the flow through the sample, by the ball on ring method and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in air at temperatures between 300 and 450 °C...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121409/image-quality-and-dose-for-a-multi-source-cone-beam-ct-extremity-scanner
#3
Grace Jianan Gang, Wojciech Zbijewski, Mahadevappa Mahesh, Gaurav Thawait, Nathan Packard, John Yorkston, Shadpour Demehri, Jeffrey Harrold Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: This work investigates the dose characteristics and image quality of a multi-source cone-beam CT scanner dedicated for extremity imaging. METHODS: The scanner has an x-ray source with three separate anode-cathode units evenly distributed along the longitudinal direction. A nominal scan protocol fires the three sources sequentially, and a total of 600 projections (200 for each source) are acquired over a source-detector orbit of 210(o) . Dose was measured using a Farmer chamber in three CTDI phantoms stacked end-to-end...
November 9, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103469/improved-clinical-workflow-for-simultaneous-whole-body-pet-mri-using-high-resolution-caipirinha-accelerated-mr-based-attenuation-correction
#4
Martin T Freitag, Matthias Fenchel, Philipp Bäumer, Thorsten Heußer, Christopher M Rank, Marc Kachelrieß, Daniel Paech, Klaus Kopka, Sebastian Bickelhaupt, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Klaus Maier-Hein, Ralf Floca, Mark E Ladd, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Florian Maier
PURPOSE: To explore the value and reproducibility of a novel magnetic resonance based attenuation correction (MRAC) using a CAIPIRINHA-accelerated T1-weighted Dixon 3D-VIBE sequence for whole-body PET/MRI compared to the clinical standard. METHODS: The PET raw data of 19 patients from clinical routine were reconstructed with standard MRAC (MRACstd) and the novel MRAC (MRACcaipi), a prototype CAIPIRINHA accelerated Dixon 3D-VIBE sequence, both acquired in 19 s/bed position...
November 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077110/seasonal-variation-and-risk-assessment-of-pm2-5-and-pm2-5-10-in-the-ambient-air-of-kenitra-morocco
#5
Mounia Tahri, Abdelfettah Benchrif, Moussa Bounakhla, Fouad Benyaich, Yves Noack
The seasonal and spatial variations of particulate matter (PM2.5-10 and PM2.5) and its chemical composition have been studied over a one-year period in Kenitra city (2007-2008). The samples were collected using Gent stacked filters and dichotomous samplers in two size fractions: below 2.5 μm (fine) and 2.5 to 10 μm (coarse). The chemical compositions of the collected filters were evaluated by using Total X-ray Fluorescence and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The influence of atmospheric transport scenarios on the levels of PM was elaborated by means of air mass back-trajectories, using the HYSPLIT™ model...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054635/emissions-of-volatile-organic-compounds-vocs-from-cooking-and-their-speciation-a-case-study-for-shanghai-with-implications-for-china
#6
Hongli Wang, Zhiyuan Xiang, Lina Wang, Shengao Jing, Shengrong Lou, Shikang Tao, Jing Liu, Mingzhou Yu, Li Li, Li Lin, Ying Chen, Alfred Wiedensohler, Changhong Chen
Cooking emission is one of sources for ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is deleterious to air quality, climate and human health. These emissions are especially of great interest in large cities of East and Southeast Asia. We conducted a case study in which VOC emissions from kitchen extraction stacks have been sampled in total 57 times in the Megacity Shanghai. To obtain representative data, we sampled VOC emissions from kitchens, including restaurants of seven common cuisine types, canteens, and family kitchens...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054261/development-and-validation-of-various-phenotyping-algorithms-for-diabetes-mellitus-using-data-from-electronic-health-records
#7
Santiago Esteban, Manuel Rodríguez Tablado, Francisco E Peper, Yamila S Mahumud, Ricardo I Ricci, Karin S Kopitowski, Sergio A Terrasa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Recent progression towards precision medicine has encouraged the use of electronic health records (EHRs) as a source for large amounts of data, which is required for studying the effect of treatments or risk factors in more specific subpopulations. Phenotyping algorithms allow to automatically classify patients according to their particular electronic phenotype thus facilitating the setup of retrospective cohorts. Our objective is to compare the performance of different classification strategies (only using standardized problems, rule-based algorithms, statistical learning algorithms (six learners) and stacked generalization (five versions)), for the categorization of patients according to their diabetic status (diabetics, not diabetics and inconclusive; Diabetes of any type) using information extracted from EHRs...
December 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043766/solution-processed-metal-oxide-p-n-charge-generation-junction-for-high-performance-inverted-quantum-dot-light-emitting-diodes
#8
Hyo-Min Kim, Jeonggi Kim, Sin-Young Cho, Jin Jang
We report solution-processed metal-oxide p-n junction, Li-doped CuO (Li:CuO) and Li-doped ZnO (Li:ZnO), as a charge generation junction (CGJ) in quantum-dot light-emitting diode (QLED) at reverse bias. Efficient charge generation is demonstrated in a stack of air-annealed Li:CuO and Li:ZnO layers in QLEDs. Air annealing of Li:ZnO on Li:CuO turns out to be a key process to decrease oxygen vacancy (Vo) and increase the copper (II) oxide (CuO) fraction at the Li:CuO/Li:ZnO interface for efficient charge generation...
November 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039362/the-influence-of-atmosphere-on-the-performance-of-pure-phase-wz-and-zb-inas-nanowire-transistors
#9
A R Ullah, H J Joyce, H H Tan, C Jagadish, A P Micolich
We compare the characteristics of phase-pure MOCVD grown ZB and WZ InAs nanowire transistors in several atmospheres: air, dry pure N2 and O2, and N2 bubbled through liquid H2O and alcohols to identify whether phase-related structural/surface differences affect their response. Both WZ and ZB give poor gate characteristics in dry state. Adsorption of polar species reduces off-current by 2-3 orders of magnitude, increases on-off ratio and significantly reduces sub-threshold slope. The key difference is the greater sensitivity of WZ to low adsorbate level...
October 17, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032527/spatiotemporal-distributions-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-close-to-a-typical-medical-waste-incinerator
#10
Olusola A Adesina, Jacob A Sonibare, Paul N Diagboya, Jamiu A Adeniran, Rafiu O Yusuf
Environmental contaminations by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) especially from incinerators occur subtly, and PAH contribution from this source is underestimated. However, as environmental PAH concentrations build up, this may be a serious concern around the incinerator vicinity due to the potential consequences of PAHs on ecosystems and human health. Thus, the contribution of selected (12) PAHs from the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital medical waste incinerator (or source, HWI_0) was determined by sampling stack gas and ambient air around incinerator vicinity from June 2014 to May 2015...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991158/a-method-for-enhancing-the-sensing-distance-of-a-fingerprint-sensor
#11
Kyung-Hoon Song, Jaehuk Choi, Jung-Hoon Chun
In this paper, we describe a method for improving the quality of fingerprint images at long sensing distances by reducing the fringe capacitance formed between a pixel and surrounding fingerprint patterns. Air-walls were applied to the glass attached to a fingerprint sensor for reducing the edge capacitance. Fingerprints and air-wall structures were modeled using a three-dimensional capacitance analysis tool. A prototype was fabricated by stacking glass layers with air-walls with a depth of 50 μm and a pitch of 50 μm on a silicon-type capacitive sensor...
October 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989241/rise-time-reduction-of-thermal-actuators-operated-in-air-and-water-through-optimized-pre-shaped-open-loop-driving
#12
T Larsen, J C Doll, F Loizeau, N Hosseini, A W Peng, G Fantner, A J Ricci, B L Pruitt
Electrothermal actuators have many advantages compared to other actuators used in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). They are simple to design, easy to fabricate and provide large displacements at low voltages. Low voltages enable less stringent passivation requirements for operation in liquid. Despite these advantages, thermal actuation is typically limited to a few kHz bandwidth when using step inputs due to its intrinsic thermal time constant. However, the use of pre-shaped input signals offers a route for reducing the rise time of these actuators by orders of magnitude...
2017: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering: Structures, Devices, and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933706/the-influence-of-atmosphere-on-performance-of-pure-phase-wz-and-zb-inas-nanowire-transistors
#13
Abu Rifat Ullah, Hannah J Joyce, Hoe Tan, Chennupati Jagadish, Adam P Micolich
We compare the characteristics of phase-pure MOCVD grown ZB and WZ InAs nanowire transistors in several atmospheres: air, dry pure N<sub>2</sub> and O<sub>2</sub>, and N<sub>2</sub> bubbled through liquid H<sub>2</sub>O and alcohols to identify whether phase-related structural/surface differences affect their response. Both WZ and ZB give poor gate characteristics in dry state. Adsorption of polar species reduces off-current by 2-3 orders of magnitude, increases on-off ratio and significantly reduces sub-threshold slope...
September 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930146/co%C3%A2-sensing-characteristics-of-a-la%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-sno%C3%A2-stacked-structure-with-micromachined-hotplates
#14
Tatsuya Iwata, Kyosuke Matsuda, Kazuhiro Takahashi, Kazuaki Sawada
Demand for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is increasing in various fields, including air-quality monitoring, healthcare, and agriculture. On the other hand, smart gas sensors, in which micromachined gas sensors are integrated with driving circuits, are desirable toward the development of the society of the internet of things. In this study, micromachined hotplate-based CO 2 sensors were fabricated and their characteristics were investigated. The sensors have La 2 O 3 /SnO 2 stacked layers as a sensing material and Pt interdigitated electrodes...
September 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922479/highly-conductive-and-transparent-large-area-bilayer-graphene-realized-by-mocl5-intercalation
#15
Hiroki Kinoshita, Il Jeon, Mina Maruyama, Kenji Kawahara, Yuri Terao, Dong Ding, Rika Matsumoto, Yutaka Matsuo, Susumu Okada, Hiroki Ago
Bilayer graphene (BLG) comprises a 2D nanospace sandwiched by two parallel graphene sheets that can be used to intercalate molecules or ions for attaining novel functionalities. However, intercalation is mostly demonstrated with small, exfoliated graphene flakes. This study demonstrates intercalation of molybdenum chloride (MoCl5 ) into a large-area, uniform BLG sheet, which is grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This study reveals that the degree of MoCl5 intercalation strongly depends on the stacking order of the graphene; twist-stacked graphene shows a much higher degree of intercalation than AB-stacked...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884515/controlled-hydrothermal-crystallization-of-anhydrous-ln2-oh-4-so4-ln-eu-lu-y-as-a-new-family-of-layered-rare-earth-metal-hydroxides
#16
Xuejiao Wang, Maxim S Molokeev, Qi Zhu, Ji-Guang Li
Anhydrous hydroxide sulfates Ln2 (OH)4 SO4 (Ln=Eu-Lu, Y) were hydrothermally synthesized as a new family of layered rare earth metal hydroxides (LRHs). They crystallize in the monoclinic system (space group C2/m) with structures built up by alternate stacking of interlayer SO4(2-) and the two-dimensional host layer composed of tricapped [LnO9 ] trigonal prisms along the a axis. In distinct contrast to the recently discovered hydrated LRHs Ln2 (OH)4 SO4 ⋅2 H2 O, which only exist for Ln=La-Dy, the host layers of the anhydrous phase are linked together by sharing edges instead of an O node of the SO4(2-) tetrahedron...
September 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879476/impact-assessment-of-atmospheric-dust-on-foliage-pigments-and-pollution-resistances-of-plants-grown-nearby-coal-based-thermal-power-plants
#17
Manisha Hariram, Ravi Sahu, Suresh Pandian Elumalai
Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category...
September 6, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875216/a-crystalline-alpo4-5-intermediate-designed-synthesis-structure-and-phase-transformation
#18
Cong Lin, Jian Li, Fengjuan Pan, Yifang Zhao, Le Xu, Yanquan Yang, Xin Du, Xiaohuan Lin, Fuhui Liao, Jianhua Lin, Tao Yang, Junliang Sun
AlPO4-5 is the most extensively studied material in exploring the crystallization mechanism of aluminophosphate molecular sieves, and it can be synthesized using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as an organic structure-directing agent (OSDA). Achieving the AlPO4-5 intermediate in the crystalline form would be of great importance and significance for this purpose. In this study, we proposed a concept that by carefully regulating the synthesis conditions, crystalline alumimophosphate intermediates could be rationally prepared...
September 28, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845996/wrinkling-and-periodic-folding-of-graphene-oxide-monolayers-by-langmuir-blodgett-compression
#19
Gregory J Silverberg, Chad D Vecitis
Crumples, wrinkles, and other three-dimensional topographical features in graphene oxide (GO) have been of recent interest as these features have improved material performance for a variety of applications. However, wrinkling of monolayer GO films has yet to be reported. Herein, we demonstrate wrinkling and folding of monolayer GO using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique for the first time. First, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and GO are deposited on the air-water interface and uniaxially compressed to form a monolayer...
September 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840506/perception-of-the-length-of-an-object-through-dynamic-touch-is-invariant-across-changes-in-the-medium
#20
Madhur Mangalam, Sophie A Barton, Jeffrey B Wagman, Dorothy M Fragaszy, Karl M Newell
Rotational inertia-a mechanical quantity that describes the differential resistance of an object to angular acceleration in different directions-has been shown to support perception of the properties of that object through dynamic touch (wielding). The goal of the present study was to examine if perception of the length of an object through dynamic touch depends on its rotational inertia, independent of the medium in which it is wielded. The participants (n = 14) wielded 12 different objects held in air or completely immersed in water and reported perceived lengths of those objects...
August 24, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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