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Air stacking

Thao P Nguyen, P Roy, Ji Hoon Shim
The relationship between structure and charge transport properties of phenacene organic semiconductors has been studied with focus on [6] → [10]phenacene. Upon inserting phenyl rings, the π-extended structure results in strong electronic coupling interactions and reduction of reorganization energy. Using the classical Marcus charge transport theory, we predict that hole mobility in the phenacene series increases gradually up to 8.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 at [10]phenacene. This is remarkably high among other discovered OSCs, surpassing that of pentacene...
March 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Edson Baltazar Estrada-Arriaga, Jesús Hernández-Romano, Liliana García-Sánchez, Rosa Angélica Guillén Garcés, Erick Obed Bahena-Bahena, Oscar Guadarrama-Pérez, Gabriela Eleonora Moeller Chavez
In this study, a continuous flow stack consisting of 40 individual air-cathode MFC units was used to determine the performance of stacked MFC during domestic wastewater treatment operated with unconnected individual MFC and in series and parallel configuration. The voltages obtained from individual MFC units were of 0.08-1.1 V at open circuit voltage, while in series connection, the maximum power and current density were 2500 mW/m2 and 500 mA/m2 (4.9 V), respectively. In parallel connection, the maximum power and current density was 5...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Swathi Kuchi, Omprakash Sarkar, Sai Kishore Butti, G Velvizhi, S Venkata Mohan
The effect of stacking multiple microbial fuel cells for stable power output was evaluated in continuous mode operation. Three single chambered air cathode CMFCs with Nafion (CMFCN ), Terry cotton (CMFCT ) as membranes and one without membrane (CMFCML ) were operated in continuous mode. Maximum power density (PD) and COD removal efficiency was obtained for CMFCN (0.1 W/m2 , 50%) followed by CMFCML (0.062 W/m2 , 47%) and CMFCT (0.025 W/m2 , 39%) and were stable throughout the operation. To increase the power output further, stacking of CMFCs was carried in series/parallel circuitry, which yielded high power density in parallel (2...
February 16, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kelsey M Minter, G Timothy Jannik, Brooke H Stagich, Kenneth L Dixon, Joseph R Newton
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the model CAP88 to estimate the total effective dose (TED) to an offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) for demonstrating compliance with 40 CFR 61, Subpart H: The National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. For NESHAP compliance at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), South Carolina's Department of Health and Environmental Control, and SRS approved a dose assessment method in 1991 that models all radiological emissions as if originating from a generalized center of site (COS) location at two allowable stack heights (0 m and 61 m)...
April 2018: Health Physics
Xiangzhong Kong, Ting Zhu, Fangyi Cheng, Mengnan Zhu, Xinxin Cao, Shuquan Liang, Guozhong Cao, Anqiang Pan
Three-dimensional (3D) binary oxides with hierarchical porous nanostructures are attracting increasing attentions as electrode materials in energy storage and conversion systems due to their structural superiority which not only create desired electronic and ions transport channels, but also possess better structural mechanical stability. Herein, unusual 3D hierarchical MnCo2O4 porous dumbbells have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal method combined with a following heat treatment in air. The as-obtained MnCo2O4 dumbbells are composed of tightly stacked nanorods and show a large specific surface area of 41...
February 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Carlo Santoro, Cristina Flores-Cadengo, Francesca Soavi, Mounika Kodali, Irene Merino-Jimenez, Iwona Gajda, John Greenman, Ioannis Ieropoulos, Plamen Atanassov
In this work, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) stack containing 28 ceramic MFCs was tested in both standard and supercapacitive modes. The MFCs consisted of carbon veil anodes wrapped around the ceramic separator and air-breathing cathodes based on activated carbon catalyst pressed on a stainless steel mesh. The anodes and cathodes were connected in parallel. The electrolytes utilized had different solution conductivities ranging from 2.0 mScm-1 to 40.1 mScm-1 , simulating diverse wastewaters. Polarization curves of MFCs showed a general enhancement in performance with the increase of the electrolyte solution conductivity...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Martin Geyer, Ulrike Praeger, Ingo Truppel, Holger Scaar, Daniel A Neuwald, Reiner Jedermann, Klaus Gottschalk
In cold storage facilities of fruit and vegetables, airflow is necessary for heat removal. The design of storage facilities influences the air speed in the surrounding of the product. Therefore, knowledge about airflow next to the product is important to plan the layout of cold stores adapted to the requirements of the products. A new sensing device (ASL, Air speed logger) is developed for omnidirectional measurement of air speed between fruit or vegetables inside storage bins or in bulk. It consists of four interconnected plastic spheres with 80 mm diameter each, adapted to the size of apple fruit...
February 13, 2018: Sensors
Doekele G Stavenga, Hein L Leertouwer, Bodo D Wilts
The blue secondary and purple-to-green tail feathers of magpies are structurally coloured due to stacks of hollow, air-containing melanosomes embedded in the keratin matrix of the barbules. We investigated the feathers' spectral and spatial reflection characteristics by applying (micro)spectrophotometry and imaging scatterometry. To interpret the spectral data, we performed optical modelling, applying the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method as well as an effective media approach, treating the melanosome stacks as multilayers with effective refractive indices dependent on the component media...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Lukas Hoffmann, Kai Oliver Brinkmann, Jessica Malerczyk, Detlef Rogalla, Tim Becker, Detlef Theirich, Ivan Shutsko, Patrick Görrn, Thomas Riedl
Despite the notable success of hybrid halide perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs), their long-term stability is still a key-issue. Aside from optimizing the photo-active perovskite, the cell design states a powerful lever to improve stability under various stress conditions. Dedicated electrically conductive diffusion barriers inside the cell stack, that counteract the ingress of moisture and prevent the migration of corrosive halogen species, can substantially improve ambient and thermal stability. While atomic layer deposition (ALD) is excellently suited to prepare such functional layers, ALD suffers from the requirement of vacuum and only allows for a very limited throughput...
January 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Guoliang Li, Qingru Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhenya Duan, Haitao Su, Lei Zhang, Zhijian Li, Yi Tang, Minjiang Zhao, Lei Chen, Kaiyun Liu, Yong Zhang
This study tested the mercury emission characteristics of six municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and recommended future mercury control via adjusting operational parameters. The results indicated that over 99% of the mercury in solid wastes ended in fly ash and flue gas, of which 3.3%-66.3% was emitted to air through stack gas. Mercury in the stack gas was mainly in the form of oxidized mercury (Hg2+), the proportion (65.4%-89.0%) of which was far higher than previous estimation (15%). Mercury removal efficiencies (MRE) of the tested incinerators were in the range of 33...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Dalong Zheng, Liping Ma, Rongmou Wang, Jie Yang, Quxiu Dai
Phosphogypsum is a solid industry by-product generated when sulphuric acid is used to process phosphate ore into fertiliser. Phosphogypsum stacks without pretreatment are often piled on the land surface or dumped in the sea, causing significant environmental damage. This study examined the reaction characteristics of phosphogypsum, when decomposed in a multi-atmosphere fluidised bed. Phosphogypsum was first dried, sieved and mixed proportionally with lignite at the mass ratio of 10:1, it was then immersed in 0...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
L J Cooper, K R Daly, P D Hallett, M Naveed, N Koebernick, A G Bengough, T S George, T Roose
The parameters in Richards' equation are usually calculated from experimentally measured values of the soil-water characteristic curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The complex pore structures that often occur in porous media complicate such parametrization due to hysteresis between wetting and drying and the effects of tortuosity. Rather than estimate the parameters in Richards' equation from these indirect measurements, image-based modelling is used to investigate the relationship between the pore structure and the parameters...
November 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Tzu-Chyang King, Yi-Huan Wu, Zhe-Wei Li, Chih-Hsi Huang, Chien-Jang Wu
We theoretically study wave properties for one-dimensional defective asymmetric photonic crystals, air/(AB)M G(BA)N /air, air/(AQ)M G(QA)N /air, and air/(BQ)M G(QB)N /air, where A is a lossy epsilon-negative material, B is a lossy mu-negative material, G and Q are dielectrics with different refractive indexes, and M and N are stack numbers with M≠N. Special attention has been paid to their absorption spectra. It is found that at certain frequencies the absorption can exhibit unidirectional properties. Our calculated results show two kinds of unidirectional absorption peaks...
December 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Jonathan D Willis, Joshua N Grant, Mitra Mazarei, Lindsey M Kline, Caroline S Rempe, A Grace Collins, Geoffrey B Turner, Stephen R Decker, Robert W Sykes, Mark F Davis, Nicole Labbe, Juan L Jurat-Fuentes, C Neal Stewart
Background: Genetically engineered biofuel crops, such as switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.), that produce their own cell wall-digesting cellulase enzymes would reduce costs of cellulosic biofuel production. To date, non-bioenergy plant models have been used in nearly all studies assessing the synthesis and activity of plant-produced fungal and bacterial cellulases. One potential source for cellulolytic enzyme genes is herbivorous insects adapted to digest plant cell walls. Here we examine the potential of transgenic switchgrass-produced TcEG1 cellulase from Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Elham Shirazi, Kelly G Pennell
Vapor intrusion (IV) exposure risks are difficult to characterize due to the role of atmospheric, building and subsurface processes. This study presents a three-dimensional VI model that extends the common subsurface fate and transport equations to incorporate wind and stack effects on indoor air pressure, building air exchange rate (AER) and indoor contaminant concentration to improve VI exposure risk estimates. The model incorporates three modeling programs: (1) COMSOL Multiphysics to model subsurface fate and transport processes, (2) CFD0 to model atmospheric air flow around the building, and (3) CONTAM to model indoor air quality...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Jia-Bin Xiong, Hai-Tao Feng, Jin-Hua Wang, Chun Zhang, Bao Li, Yan-Song Zheng
Tetraphenylethylene (TPE) foldamers with double hairpin-turn linkers showing an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect have been synthesized for the first time. A crystal structure of a foldamer-TNT complex has been obtained, enabling unprecedented direct observation of the interactions between TNT molecules and the chromophores of the foldamer. Instead of π-π stacking interactions, which have often been considered to be the key mechanism in the binding of TNT by chromophoric receptors, strong n-π interactions between the nitro groups of TNT and the aromatic rings of the foldamer have been found...
February 6, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Tao Sun, Qing Shi, Qiang Huang, Huaping Wang, Xiaolu Xiong, Chengzhi Hu, Toshio Fukuda
Traditional cell-encapsulating scaffolds may elicit adverse host responses and inhomogeneity in cellular distribution. Thus, fabrication techniques for cellular self-assembly with micro-scaffold incorporation have been used recently to generate toroidal cellular modules for the bottom-up construction of vascular-like structures. The micro-scaffolds show advantage in promoting tissue formation. However, owing to the lack of annular cell micro-scaffolds, it remains a challenge to engineer micro-scale toroidal cellular modules (micro-TCMs) to fabricate microvascular-like structures...
January 15, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Hao Wu, Zhimin Chen, Jialin Zhang, Feng Wu, Fei Xiao, Shichao Du, Chunying He, Yiqun Wu, Zhiyu Ren
The development of effective approaches for preparing large-area, self-standing, ultrathin metal-based nanosheets, which have proved to be favorable for catalytic applications such as water electrolysis, is highly desirable but remains a great challenge. Reported herein is a simple and versatile strategy to synthesize ultrathin Co3 O4 and CoP NSs consisting of close-packed nanoparticles by pyrolyzing cobalt(II) phthalocyanine/graphene oxide (CoPc/GO) assemblies in air and subsequent topotactic phosphidation while preserving the graphene-like morphology...
February 2018: Small
Kenichi Kato, Ko Furukawa, Tadashi Mori, Atsuhiro Osuka
Stable helical radicals are promising multi-functional molecules in light of intriguing magnetic and chiroptical properties. Attempts were made to extend diphenylmethyl-fused NiII porphyrin radical to helical system as the first air-stable organic neutral helical radicals. Intramolecular Pd-catalyzed twofold C-H arylation of methyl- or methoxy-introduced meso-diphenylmethyl NiII porphyrins gave a mixture of the target and rearranged radicals. Oxidative fusion reaction of meso-(bis(1-naphthyl)methyl) NiII porphyrins provided doubly fused NiII porphyrin radicals...
January 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
P Priou, W Trzepizur, N Meslier, F Gagnadoux
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular diseases include a wide range of conditions that may involve potentially life-threatening respiratory complications (infection, respiratory failure). SURVEILLANCE AND PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS: For patients with neuromuscular diseases, clinical assessment of respiratory function and regular pulmonary function tests are needed to screen for nocturnal respiratory disorders, weakness of the diaphragm and potential restrictive disorders and/or chronic hypercapnic respiratory insufficiency, possibly with couch deficiency...
December 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
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