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Air stacking

Dalong Zheng, Liping Ma, Rongmou Wang, Jie Yang, Quxiu Dai
Phosphogypsum is a solid industry by-product generated when sulphuric acid is used to process phosphate ore into fertiliser. Phosphogypsum stacks without pretreatment are often piled on the land surface or dumped in the sea, causing significant environmental damage. This study examined the reaction characteristics of phosphogypsum, when decomposed in a multi-atmosphere fluidised bed. Phosphogypsum was first dried, sieved and mixed proportionally with lignite at the mass ratio of 10:1, it was then immersed in 0...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
L J Cooper, K R Daly, P D Hallett, M Naveed, N Koebernick, A G Bengough, T S George, T Roose
The parameters in Richards' equation are usually calculated from experimentally measured values of the soil-water characteristic curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The complex pore structures that often occur in porous media complicate such parametrization due to hysteresis between wetting and drying and the effects of tortuosity. Rather than estimate the parameters in Richards' equation from these indirect measurements, image-based modelling is used to investigate the relationship between the pore structure and the parameters...
November 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Tzu-Chyang King, Yi-Huan Wu, Zhe-Wei Li, Chih-Hsi Huang, Chien-Jang Wu
We theoretically study wave properties for one-dimensional defective asymmetric photonic crystals, air/(AB)MG(BA)N/air, air/(AQ)MG(QA)N/air, and air/(BQ)MG(QB)N/air, where A is a lossy epsilon-negative material, B is a lossy mu-negative material, G and Q are dielectrics with different refractive indexes, and M and N are stack numbers with M≠N. Special attention has been paid to their absorption spectra. It is found that at certain frequencies the absorption can exhibit unidirectional properties. Our calculated results show two kinds of unidirectional absorption peaks...
December 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Jonathan D Willis, Joshua N Grant, Mitra Mazarei, Lindsey M Kline, Caroline S Rempe, A Grace Collins, Geoffrey B Turner, Stephen R Decker, Robert W Sykes, Mark F Davis, Nicole Labbe, Juan L Jurat-Fuentes, C Neal Stewart
Background: Genetically engineered biofuel crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), that produce their own cell wall-digesting cellulase enzymes would reduce costs of cellulosic biofuel production. To date, non-bioenergy plant models have been used in nearly all studies assessing the synthesis and activity of plant-produced fungal and bacterial cellulases. One potential source for cellulolytic enzyme genes is herbivorous insects adapted to digest plant cell walls. Here we examine the potential of transgenic switchgrass-produced TcEG1 cellulase from Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Elham Shirazi, Kelly G Pennell
Vapor intrusion (IV) exposure risks are difficult to characterize due to the role of atmospheric, building and subsurface processes. This study presents a three-dimensional VI model that extends the common subsurface fate and transport equations to incorporate wind and stack effects on indoor air pressure, building air exchange rate (AER) and indoor contaminant concentration to improve VI exposure risk estimates. The model incorporates three modeling programs: (1) COMSOL Multiphysics to model subsurface fate and transport processes, (2) CFD0 to model atmospheric air flow around the building, and (3) CONTAM to model indoor air quality...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Yan-Song Zheng, Jia-Bin Xiong, Hai-Tao Feng, Jin-Hua Wang, Bao Li, Chun Zhang
Novel tetraphenylethylene (TPE) foldamers with double hairpin-turn linkers and aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect were synthesized for the first time. Unprecedentedly, crystal structure of foldamer-TNT complex was obtained, enabling the direct observation of the interactions of TNT molecules with chromophore ones that never did before. Instead of π-π stacking interactions which were often considered to be the key mechanism in binding TNT by chromophoric receptors, strong n-π interactions between TNT nitro groups and aromatic rings of the foldamer were found...
December 3, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Tao Sun, Qing Shi, Qiang Huang, Huaping Wang, Xiaolu Xiong, Chengzhi Hu, Toshio Fukuda
Traditional cell-encapsulating scaffolds may elicit adverse host responses and inhomogeneity in cellular distribution. Thus, fabrication techniques for cellular self-assembly with micro-scaffold incorporation have been used recently to generate toroidal cellular modules for the bottom-up construction of vascular-like structures. The micro-scaffolds show advantage in promoting tissue formation. However, owing to the lack of annular cell micro-scaffolds, it remains a challenge to engineer micro-scale toroidal cellular modules (micro-TCMs) to fabricate microvascular-like structures...
November 28, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Hao Wu, Zhimin Chen, Jialin Zhang, Feng Wu, Fei Xiao, Shichao Du, Chunying He, Yiqun Wu, Zhiyu Ren
The development of effective approaches for preparing large-area, self-standing, ultrathin metal-based nanosheets, which have proved to be favorable for catalytic applications such as water electrolysis, is highly desirable but remains a great challenge. Reported herein is a simple and versatile strategy to synthesize ultrathin Co3 O4 and CoP NSs consisting of close-packed nanoparticles by pyrolyzing cobalt(II) phthalocyanine/graphene oxide (CoPc/GO) assemblies in air and subsequent topotactic phosphidation while preserving the graphene-like morphology...
December 1, 2017: Small
Atsuhiro Osuka, Kenichi Kato, Ko Furukawa, Tadashi Mori
Stable helical radicals are promising multi-functional molecules in light of intriguing magnetic and chiroptical properties. Attempts were made to extend diphenylmethyl-fused NiII porphyrin radical to helical system as the first air-stable organic neutral helical radicals. Intramolecular Pd-catalyzed twofold C-H arylation of methyl- or methoxy-introduced meso-diphenylmethyl NiII porphyrins gave a mixture of the target and rearranged radicals. Oxidative fusion reaction of meso-(bis(1-naphthyl)methyl) NiII porphyrins provided doubly fused NiII porphyrin radicals...
November 30, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
P Priou, W Trzepizur, N Meslier, F Gagnadoux
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular diseases include a wide range of conditions that may involve potentially life-threatening respiratory complications (infection, respiratory failure). SURVEILLANCE AND PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS: For patients with neuromuscular diseases, clinical assessment of respiratory function and regular pulmonary function tests are needed to screen for nocturnal respiratory disorders, weakness of the diaphragm and potential restrictive disorders and/or chronic hypercapnic respiratory insufficiency, possibly with couch deficiency...
November 21, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
A Gągor, G Banach, M Węcławik, A Piecha-Bisiorek, R Jakubas
The easy to prepare and stable in air (2-methylimidazolium) tetraiodoantimoniate(iii) single-crystals with optical band gap of 2.17(1) eV at room temperature have been synthesized. The crystal structure features one-dimensional [SbI4](-)n anionic chains, which are intercepted with stacks of 2MIm(+) ions. At 294/295 K, it undergoes a structural phase transition to an incommensurately modulated phase as a result of subtle, lone-pair-electron-driven distortions of the anions. Separately from the anion displacements, the ordering of 2MIm(+) countercations takes place over a wide temperature range of the modulated phase...
November 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Omar T Mansour, Beatrice Cattoz, Manon Beaube, Morganne Montagnon, Richard K Heenan, Ralf Schweins, Marie-Sousai Appavou, Peter C Griffiths
Small-angle neutron scattering has been used to probe the interfacial structure of foams stabilised by small molecule surfactants at concentrations well below their critical micelle concentration. The data for wet foams showed a pronounced Q(-4) dependence at low Q and noticeable inflexions over the mid Q range. These features were found to be dependent on the surfactant structure (mainly the alkyl chain length) with various inflexions across the measured Q range as a function of the chain length but independent of factors such as concentration and foam age/height...
November 15, 2017: Soft Matter
Kjeld Bøhm Andersen, Benoit Charlas, Eugen Stamate, Kent Kammer Hansen
An electrochemical reactor can be used to purify flue gasses. Such a reactor can be a multilayer structure consisting of alternating layers of porous electrodes and electrolytes (a porous cell stack). In this work optimization of such a unit has been done by changing the pore former composition and the electrode powder pre-treatment. The effect on permeability, mechanical strength and electrochemical behavior was studied in this work. The effects were evaluated by measuring the pressure difference over the samples in relation to the flow through the sample, by the ball on ring method and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in air at temperatures between 300 and 450 °C...
August 2017: Heliyon
Grace Jianan Gang, Wojciech Zbijewski, Mahadevappa Mahesh, Gaurav Thawait, Nathan Packard, John Yorkston, Shadpour Demehri, Jeffrey Harrold Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: This work investigates the dose characteristics and image quality of a multi-source cone-beam CT scanner dedicated for extremity imaging. METHODS: The scanner has an x-ray source with three separate anode-cathode units evenly distributed along the longitudinal direction. A nominal scan protocol fires the three sources sequentially, and a total of 600 projections (200 for each source) are acquired over a source-detector orbit of 210(o) . Dose was measured using a Farmer chamber in three CTDI phantoms stacked end-to-end...
November 9, 2017: Medical Physics
Martin T Freitag, Matthias Fenchel, Philipp Bäumer, Thorsten Heußer, Christopher M Rank, Marc Kachelrieß, Daniel Paech, Klaus Kopka, Sebastian Bickelhaupt, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Klaus Maier-Hein, Ralf Floca, Mark E Ladd, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Florian Maier
PURPOSE: To explore the value and reproducibility of a novel magnetic resonance based attenuation correction (MRAC) using a CAIPIRINHA-accelerated T1-weighted Dixon 3D-VIBE sequence for whole-body PET/MRI compared to the clinical standard. METHODS: The PET raw data of 19 patients from clinical routine were reconstructed with standard MRAC (MRACstd) and the novel MRAC (MRACcaipi), a prototype CAIPIRINHA accelerated Dixon 3D-VIBE sequence, both acquired in 19 s/bed position...
November 2017: European Journal of Radiology
Mounia Tahri, Abdelfettah Benchrif, Moussa Bounakhla, Fouad Benyaich, Yves Noack
The seasonal and spatial variations of particulate matter (PM2.5-10 and PM2.5) and its chemical composition have been studied over a one-year period in Kenitra city (2007-2008). The samples were collected using Gent stacked filters and dichotomous samplers in two size fractions: below 2.5 μm (fine) and 2.5 to 10 μm (coarse). The chemical compositions of the collected filters were evaluated by using Total X-ray Fluorescence and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The influence of atmospheric transport scenarios on the levels of PM was elaborated by means of air mass back-trajectories, using the HYSPLIT™ model...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Hongli Wang, Zhiyuan Xiang, Lina Wang, Shengao Jing, Shengrong Lou, Shikang Tao, Jing Liu, Mingzhou Yu, Li Li, Li Lin, Ying Chen, Alfred Wiedensohler, Changhong Chen
Cooking emission is one of sources for ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is deleterious to air quality, climate and human health. These emissions are especially of great interest in large cities of East and Southeast Asia. We conducted a case study in which VOC emissions from kitchen extraction stacks have been sampled in total 57 times in the Megacity Shanghai. To obtain representative data, we sampled VOC emissions from kitchens, including restaurants of seven common cuisine types, canteens, and family kitchens...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Santiago Esteban, Manuel Rodríguez Tablado, Francisco E Peper, Yamila S Mahumud, Ricardo I Ricci, Karin S Kopitowski, Sergio A Terrasa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Recent progression towards precision medicine has encouraged the use of electronic health records (EHRs) as a source for large amounts of data, which is required for studying the effect of treatments or risk factors in more specific subpopulations. Phenotyping algorithms allow to automatically classify patients according to their particular electronic phenotype thus facilitating the setup of retrospective cohorts. Our objective is to compare the performance of different classification strategies (only using standardized problems, rule-based algorithms, statistical learning algorithms (six learners) and stacked generalization (five versions)), for the categorization of patients according to their diabetic status (diabetics, not diabetics and inconclusive; Diabetes of any type) using information extracted from EHRs...
December 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Hyo-Min Kim, Jeonggi Kim, Sin-Young Cho, Jin Jang
We report solution-processed metal-oxide p-n junction, Li-doped CuO (Li:CuO) and Li-doped ZnO (Li:ZnO), as a charge generation junction (CGJ) in quantum-dot light-emitting diode (QLED) at reverse bias. Efficient charge generation is demonstrated in a stack of air-annealed Li:CuO and Li:ZnO layers in QLEDs. Air annealing of Li:ZnO on Li:CuO turns out to be a key process to decrease oxygen vacancy (Vo) and increase the copper (II) oxide (CuO) fraction at the Li:CuO/Li:ZnO interface for efficient charge generation...
November 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
A R Ullah, H J Joyce, H H Tan, C Jagadish, A P Micolich
We compare the characteristics of phase-pure MOCVD grown ZB and WZ InAs nanowire transistors in several atmospheres: air, dry pure N2 and O2, and N2 bubbled through liquid H2O and alcohols to identify whether phase-related structural/surface differences affect their response. Both WZ and ZB give poor gate characteristics in dry state. Adsorption of polar species reduces off-current by 2-3 orders of magnitude, increases on-off ratio and significantly reduces sub-threshold slope. The key difference is the greater sensitivity of WZ to low adsorbate level...
October 17, 2017: Nanotechnology
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