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Air stacking

Roisin Stack, Joseph McLoughlin, Amy Gillis, Barbara M Ryan
A 45-year-old woman with suspected Functional Biliary Sphincter Disorder (FBSD) developed Clostridium perfringens related emphysematous cholecystitis after ERCP. A low index of suspicion for emphysematous cholecystitis in this young, otherwise healthy woman led to a significant delay in making the correct diagnosis, and air in the gallbladder was wrongly attributed to a possible gallbladder perforation. ERCP is associated with significant risks, particularly in patients with FBSD, where diagnostic uncertainty renders the balance of risk versus benefit even more critical...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Tomoki Ogoshi, Yasuo Shimada, Yoko Sakata, Shigehisa Akine, Tada-Aki Yamagishi
Colored crystals of pillar[5]arene containing one benzoquinone unit were found to exhibit alkane-shape-selective vapochromic behavior. Activated pillar[5]arene crystals, prepared by removing solvated methanol from pillar[5]arene crystals, changed color from dark-brown to light-red after exposure to linear alkane vapors; however, no color changes were observed on exposure to branched or cyclic alkanes. Uptake of methanol vapor by the activated crystals induced a different color change, from dark-brown to black...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
John Jairo Pinzón Barrantes, Bruno Maggio, Rita Hoyos de Rossi, Raquel Viviana Vico
Artificial supramolecular-hierarchical structures that emulated nature represent an overcoming alternative for the design of new drug delivery systems. Thermodynamic and topographic properties of films formed by a monoacylated amphiphilic β-cyclodextrin (βCD-C16) with the phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) at the air/water interface were studied. βCD-C16 formed stable mixed films with POPC at several proportions when spread together at the air/water interface. The orientation of βCD-C16 cavity at the interface depends on its mole fraction in the film as reveled by the analysis of partial mean molecular areas as function of composition...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Jonathan I Levy, Leiran Biton, Philip K Hopke, K Max Zhang, Lisa Rector
BACKGROUND: Biomass facilities have received increasing attention as a strategy to increase the use of renewable fuels and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from the electric generation and heating sectors, but these facilities can potentially increase local air pollution and associated health effects. Comparing the economic costs and public health benefits of alternative biomass fuel, heating technology, and pollution control technology options provides decision-makers with the necessary information to make optimal choices in a given location...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Research
Hossain Mohammad Fahad, Hiroshi Shiraki, Matin Amani, Chuchu Zhang, Vivek Srinivas Hebbar, Wei Gao, Hiroki Ota, Mark Hettick, Daisuke Kiriya, Yu-Ze Chen, Yu-Lun Chueh, Ali Javey
There is great interest in developing a low-power gas sensing technology that can sensitively and selectively quantify the chemical composition of a target atmosphere. Nanomaterials have emerged as extremely promising candidates for this technology due to their inherent low-dimensional nature and high surface-to-volume ratio. Among these, nanoscale silicon is of great interest because pristine silicon is largely inert on its own in the context of gas sensing, unless functionalized with an appropriate gas-sensitive material...
March 2017: Science Advances
Anna Merle Reinhart, Claudia Katharina Spindeldreier, Jan Jakubek, Maria Martisikova
Carbon ion beam radiotherapy enables a very localised dose deposition. However, already small changes in the patient geometry or positioning errors can significantly distort the dose distribution. A live, non-invasive monitoring system of the beam delivery within the patient is therefore highly desirable and could improve patient treatment. We present a novel three-dimensional imaging method of the beam in the irradiated object, exploiting the measured tracks of single secondary ions emerging under irradiation...
April 3, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Seshananda Sanjel, Sanjay N Khanal, Steven M Thygerson, William S Carter, James D Johnston, Sunil K Joshi
BACKGROUND: Bricks have been manufactured in Nepal for hundreds of years and are seen as a component of Nepalese sculpture and architecture. Large quantities of hazardous materials including high concentrations of particulate matter are emitted on a daily basis from brick kilns. Exposure to these hazardous materials can lead to adverse consequences on the environment and human health. This study was conducted to  estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms/illnesses and the magnitude of respirable and total dust exposures among Nepalese brick kiln workers...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Michael W McNaughton, Jessica M Gillis, Elizabeth Ruedig, Jeffrey J Whicker, David P Fuehne
Standard plume models can underestimate the gamma-ray dose when most of the radioactive material is above the heads of the receptors. Typically, a model is used to calculate the air concentration at the height of the receptor, and the dose is calculated by multiplying the air concentration by a concentration-to-dose conversion factor. Models indicate that if the plume is emitted from a stack during stable atmospheric conditions, the lower edges of the plume may not reach the ground, in which case both the ground-level concentration and the dose are usually reported as zero...
May 2017: Health Physics
Awais Mansoor, Geovanny Perez, Gustavo Nino, Marius George Linguraru
Significant progress has been made in recent years for computer-aided diagnosis of abnormal pulmonary textures from computed tomography (CT) images. Similar initiatives in chest radiographs (CXR), the common modality for pulmonary diagnosis, are much less developed. CXR are fast, cost effective and low-radiation solution to diagnosis over CT. However, the subtlety of textures in CXR makes them hard to discern even by trained eye. We explore the performance of deep learning abnormal tissue characterization from CXR...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Meikang Han, Xiaowei Yin, Zexin Hou, Changqing Song, Xinliang Li, Litong Zhang, Laifei Cheng
Three-dimensional (3D) flexible foams consisting of reduced graphene oxides (rGO) and in situ grown SiC nanowires (NWs) were prepared using freeze-drying and carbothermal reduction processes. By means of incorporating SiC nanowires into rGO foams, both the thermostability and electromagnetic absorption of the composites were improved. It was demonstrated that rGO/SiC NW foams were thermostable beyond ∼630 °C (90% weight retention in air atmosphere). As expected, rGO/SiC NW foams in the poly(dimethylsiloxane) matrix achieved effective absorption in the entire X-band (8...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
N O Rode, P Soroye, R Kassen, H D Rundle
Genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects (G × G IGEs) occur when the phenotype of an individual is influenced by an interaction between its own genotype and those of neighbour individuals. Little is known regarding the relative importance of G × G IGEs compared with other forms of direct and indirect genetic effects. We quantified the relative importance of IGEs in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, a species in which IGEs are likely to be important as air-borne social interactions are known to affect growth...
March 15, 2017: Heredity
Jung Hwan Kim, Hubdar Ali Maitlo, Joo Yang Park
Electrocoagulation with an iron-air fuel cell is an innovative arsenate removal system that can operate without an external electricity supply. Thus, this technology is advantageous for treating wastewater in remote regions where it is difficult to supply electricity. In this study, the possibility of real applications of this system for arsenate treatment with electricity production was verified through electrolyte effect investigations using a small-scale fuel cell and performance testing of a liter-scale fuel cell stack...
March 2, 2017: Water Research
Gul Hassan, Fasihullah Khan, Arshad Hassan, Shawkat Ali, Jinho Bae, Chong Hyun Lee
Recently, many researchers have been paying attention to nanogenerators (NGs) as energy sources for self-powered mirco-nano systems, and studying how to achieve their higher power generation. Hence, we propose a hybrid-type NG for harvesting both the piezoelectric and triboelectric effect simultaneously. In the proposed hybrid NG, the piezoelectric NG (PNG) and triboelectric NG (TENG) are fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and perovskite zinc stannite (ZnSnO3) nanocubes with a high charge polarization of 59 uC cm(-2) composite (PDMS + ZnSnO3) and UV surface-treated PDMS, respectively...
April 28, 2017: Nanotechnology
Lina Wang, Zhiyuan Xiang, Svetlana Stevanovic, Zoran Ristovski, Farhad Salimi, Jun Gao, Hongli Wang, Li Li
Chinese-style cooking often involves volatilization of oils which can potentially produce a large number of pollutants, which have adverse impact on environment and human health. Therefore, we have reviewed 75 published studies associated with research topic among Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, involving studies on the roles of food ingredients and oil type, cooking style impacting on generated pollutants, and human health. The highest concentration occurred including: 1) when peat, wood, and raw coal were used in stoves; 2) olive oil was adopted; 3) cooking with high temperatures; and 4) without cleaning technology...
March 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Gianluca Memoli, Mihai Caleap, Michihiro Asakawa, Deepak R Sahoo, Bruce W Drinkwater, Sriram Subramanian
Controlling acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-surfaces. The quanta here are small, pre-manufactured three-dimensional units-which we call metamaterial bricks-each encoding a specific phase delay. These bricks can be assembled into meta-surfaces to generate any diffraction-limited acoustic field...
February 27, 2017: Nature Communications
Yuanchen Chen, Wei Du, Shaojie Zhuo, Weijian Liu, Yuanlong Liu, Guofeng Shen, Shuiping Wu, Jianjun Li, Bianhong Zhou, Gehui Wang, Eddy Y Zeng, Hefa Cheng, Wenxin Liu, Shu Tao
Little information exists on emission factors (EFs, quantities of pollutants emitted per unit of fuel consumed) for brick kilns in China, although brick kilns are important emission sources of many air pollutants, and 45% of the world's bricks are produced in China. In this study, EFs of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matters (PMs), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for brick kilns were derived based on field measurements of a total of 18 brick kilns of major types in China...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Awais Mansoor, Geovanny Perez, Gustavo Nino, Marius George Linguraru, Awais Mansoor, Geovanny Perez, Gustavo Nino, Marius George Linguraru, Geovanny Perez, Marius George Linguraru, Gustavo Nino, Awais Mansoor
Significant progress has been made in recent years for computer-aided diagnosis of abnormal pulmonary textures from computed tomography (CT) images. Similar initiatives in chest radiographs (CXR), the common modality for pulmonary diagnosis, are much less developed. CXR are fast, cost effective and low-radiation solution to diagnosis over CT. However, the subtlety of textures in CXR makes them hard to discern even by trained eye. We explore the performance of deep learning abnormal tissue characterization from CXR...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Antonio Sarmento, Armèle F Dornelas de Andrade, Íllia Nadinne Df Lima, Andrea Aliverti, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas Fregonezi, Vanessa R Resqueti
BACKGROUND: Air stacking (AS) is a lung insufflation method that requires the use of a manual insufflator to provide air volumes higher than inspiratory capacity. Neuromuscular patients benefit the most from the maneuver; however, the acute effects of AS in healthy subjects are still unclear. METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects (8 males) were studied by optoelectronic plethysmography to investigate the immediate effects of AS on cough peak flow, operational volume variations, distribution of these volumes in the chest wall compartments (pulmonary rib cage, abdominal rib cage, and abdominal), breathing pattern, and shortening velocity of the respiratory muscles during a protocol that included vital capacity maneuvers and spontaneous coughs before and after AS...
April 2017: Respiratory Care
Aday J Molina-Mendoza, Emerson Giovanelli, Wendel S Paz, Miguel Angel Niño, Joshua O Island, Charalambos Evangeli, Lucía Aballe, Michael Foerster, Herre S J van der Zant, Gabino Rubio-Bollinger, Nicolás Agraït, J J Palacios, Emilio M Pérez, Andres Castellanos-Gomez
The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other)...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
Tong Yang, Jeremy S Mehta, Jeffrey M Mativetsky
Solution-processed nanowires are promising for low-cost and flexible electronics. When depositing nanowires from solution, due to stacking of the nanowires, an air gap exists between the substrate and much of the active material. Here, using confocal Raman spectroscopy, we quantify the thickness of the air gap in transistors comprising organic semiconductor nanowires. The average air gap thickness is found to be unexpectedly large, being at least three times larger than the nanowire diameter, leading to a significant impact on transistor performance...
March 24, 2017: Nanotechnology
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