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Air stacking

N Haghighian, D Convertino, V Miseikis, F Bisio, A Morgante, C Coletti, M Canepa, O Cavalleri
The surface structure of Few-Layer Graphene (FLG) epitaxially grown on the C-face of SiC has been investigated by TM-AFM in ambient air and upon interaction with dilute aqueous solutions of bio-organic molecules (l-methionine and dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO). Before interaction with molecular solutions, we observe nicely ordered, three-fold oriented rippled domains, with a 4.7 ± 0.2 nm periodicity (small periodicity, SP) and a peak-to-valley distance in the range 0.1-0.2 nm. Upon mild interaction with the molecular solution, the ripple periodicity "relaxes" to 6...
May 2, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Tzu-Chyang King, Zih-Hao Huang, Chien-Hsun Hung, Chien-Jang Wu
We theoretically study the one-way absorption in two 1D defective asymmetric photonic crystals, air/(DB)N A(BD)M /air and air/(DB)N A(BD)M A(DB)N A(BD)M /air, where A and B are dielectrics, D is the semiconductor, n-InSb, and N, M are stack numbers with N≠M. It is revealed that their absorption spectra exhibit one-way properties. We also find that the number of one-way absorption peaks depends on the symmetry and number of defect layers, which are similar to the defect modes in the transmittance spectra of the usual symmetry photonic crystals...
April 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Ngoc Huynh Van, Manoharan Muruganathan, Jothiramalingam Kulothungan, Hiroshi Mizuta
An alternative three-terminal (3T) subthermal subthreshold slope (SS) switch is required to overcome the exponential increase in leakage current with an increase in the drive current of CMOS devices. In this study, we present a 3T graphene nanoelectromechanical (3T-GNEM) switch with a physically isolated channel in the off-state by using heterogeneously stacked two-dimensional (2D) materials. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) was used as a dielectric layer, and graphene was used as a the top double-clamped beam drain, gate and source electrode material; the drain, gate, and source layers were stacked vertically to achieve a small footprint...
April 24, 2018: Nanoscale
Binxu Zhai, Jianguo Chen
A stacked ensemble model is developed for forecasting and analyzing the daily average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) in Beijing, China. Special feature extraction procedures, including those of simplification, polynomial, transformation and combination, are conducted before modeling to identify potentially significant features based on an exploratory data analysis. Stability feature selection and tree-based feature selection methods are applied to select important variables and evaluate the degrees of feature importance...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mouhita Humayun, Chung-Wai Chow, Edmond W K Young
Chronic lung diseases (CLDs) are regulated by complex interactions between many different cell types residing in lung airway tissues. Specifically, interactions between airway epithelial cells (ECs) and airway smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been shown in part to play major roles in the pathogenesis of CLDs, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. To advance our understanding of lung pathophysiology and accelerate drug development processes, new innovative in vitro tissue models are needed that can reconstitute the complex in vivo microenvironment of human lung tissues...
April 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Dong Lv, Tianle Zhu, Runwei Liu, Xinghua Li, Yuan Zhao, Ye Sun, Hongmei Wang, Fan Zhang, Qinglin Zhao
To understand the effects of co-processing sewage sludge in the cement kiln on non-criterion pollutants emissions and its surrounding environment, the flue gas from a cement kiln stack, ambient air and soil from the background/downwind sites were collected in the cement plant. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals of the samples were analyzed. The results show that PAHs in flue gas mainly exist in the gas phase and the low molecular weight PAHs are the predominant congener. The co-processing sewage sludge results in the increase in PAHs and heavy metals emissions, especially high molecular weight PAHs and low-volatile heavy metals such as Cd and Pb in the particle phase, while it does not change their compositions and distribution patterns significantly...
April 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Zhongbin Liao, Xin Xiao, Yingying Hu, Xiaofei Sun, Hui Wang, Hongxuan Zhou, Yu Ma, James Li
We studied heavy metal (HM) stress on wheat seedlings (AK-58) with and without coal fly ash (CFA) exposure. Three CFA spray rates were used to simulate air quality of the second level. Results show airborne particulates can directly enter plant leaves, affecting the whole plant. HM deposition decreases seedling size and mass and reduces activities of the chlorophyll family, photosynthesis enzymes (RuBP and PEPC), and photosynthesis efficiency. In leaves, HM deposition increases with the CFA spray rate. In roots, however, CFA exposure seems to reduce HM deposition, compared with the control without CFA exposure...
April 7, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
A G Wernham, O L Cain, A M Thomas
BACKGROUND: The shedding of epithelial squames (skin scales) by staff in operating theatre air is an important source for deep infection following joint replacement surgery. This is a serious complication resulting in significant morbidity for the patient and substantial cost implications for healthcare systems. Much effort has been put into providing clean-air in operating theatres, yet little attention has been given to reducing the shedding of surface skin scales at source. AIM: Our aim was to develop a novel method for calculating surface skin scale density using surface microscopy and to use it to evaluate the effect of a skin care regimen on operating theatre staff...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Rafal Kasztelanic, Adam Filipkowski, Alicja Anuszkiewicz, Paulina Stafiej, Grzegorz Stepniewski, Dariusz Pysz, Konrad Krzyzak, Ryszard Stepien, Mariusz Klimczak, Ryszard Buczynski
We present both a theoretical and an experimental study of a novel compact lensed fiber system utilizing a nanostructured GRIN lens. The lens can be integrated with an optical fiber, which ensures a unique and efficient focusing in any high index medium, such as a liquid. We use the effective medium approach to design lenses with arbitrary refractive index. To fabricate lenses, we utilize a discrete array of nano-sized rods made of two types of glasses, and apply a standard stack-and-draw fiber drawing technology...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thao P Nguyen, P Roy, Ji Hoon Shim
The relationship between structure and charge transport properties of phenacene organic semiconductors has been studied with focus on [6] → [10]phenacene. Upon inserting phenyl rings, the π-extended structure results in strong electronic coupling interactions and reduction of reorganization energy. Using the classical Marcus charge transport theory, we predict that hole mobility in the phenacene series increases gradually up to 8.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 at [10]phenacene. This is remarkably high among other discovered OSCs, surpassing that of pentacene...
March 28, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Edson Baltazar Estrada-Arriaga, Jesús Hernández-Romano, Liliana García-Sánchez, Rosa Angélica Guillén Garcés, Erick Obed Bahena-Bahena, Oscar Guadarrama-Pérez, Gabriela Eleonora Moeller Chavez
In this study, a continuous flow stack consisting of 40 individual air-cathode MFC units was used to determine the performance of stacked MFC during domestic wastewater treatment operated with unconnected individual MFC and in series and parallel configuration. The voltages obtained from individual MFC units were of 0.08-1.1 V at open circuit voltage, while in series connection, the maximum power and current density were 2500 mW/m2 and 500 mA/m2 (4.9 V), respectively. In parallel connection, the maximum power and current density was 5...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Swathi Kuchi, Omprakash Sarkar, Sai Kishore Butti, G Velvizhi, S Venkata Mohan
The effect of stacking multiple microbial fuel cells for stable power output was evaluated in continuous mode operation. Three single chambered air cathode CMFCs with Nafion (CMFCN ), Terry cotton (CMFCT ) as membranes and one without membrane (CMFCML ) were operated in continuous mode. Maximum power density (PD) and COD removal efficiency was obtained for CMFCN (0.1 W/m2 , 50%) followed by CMFCML (0.062 W/m2 , 47%) and CMFCT (0.025 W/m2 , 39%) and were stable throughout the operation. To increase the power output further, stacking of CMFCs was carried in series/parallel circuitry, which yielded high power density in parallel (2...
June 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kelsey M Minter, G Timothy Jannik, Brooke H Stagich, Kenneth L Dixon, Joseph R Newton
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the model CAP88 to estimate the total effective dose (TED) to an offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) for demonstrating compliance with 40 CFR 61, Subpart H: The National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. For NESHAP compliance at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), South Carolina's Department of Health and Environmental Control, and SRS approved a dose assessment method in 1991 that models all radiological emissions as if originating from a generalized center of site (COS) location at two allowable stack heights (0 m and 61 m)...
April 2018: Health Physics
Xiangzhong Kong, Ting Zhu, Fangyi Cheng, Mengnan Zhu, Xinxin Cao, Shuquan Liang, Guozhong Cao, Anqiang Pan
Three-dimensional (3D) binary oxides with hierarchical porous nanostructures are attracting increasing attentions as electrode materials in energy storage and conversion systems because of their structural superiority which not only create desired electronic and ion transport channels but also possess better structural mechanical stability. Herein, unusual 3D hierarchical MnCo2 O4 porous dumbbells have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal method combined with a following heat treatment in air. The as-obtained MnCo2 O4 dumbbells are composed of tightly stacked nanorods and show a large specific surface area of 41...
March 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Carlo Santoro, Cristina Flores-Cadengo, Francesca Soavi, Mounika Kodali, Irene Merino-Jimenez, Iwona Gajda, John Greenman, Ioannis Ieropoulos, Plamen Atanassov
In this work, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) stack containing 28 ceramic MFCs was tested in both standard and supercapacitive modes. The MFCs consisted of carbon veil anodes wrapped around the ceramic separator and air-breathing cathodes based on activated carbon catalyst pressed on a stainless steel mesh. The anodes and cathodes were connected in parallel. The electrolytes utilized had different solution conductivities ranging from 2.0 mScm-1 to 40.1 mScm-1 , simulating diverse wastewaters. Polarization curves of MFCs showed a general enhancement in performance with the increase of the electrolyte solution conductivity...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Martin Geyer, Ulrike Praeger, Ingo Truppel, Holger Scaar, Daniel A Neuwald, Reiner Jedermann, Klaus Gottschalk
In cold storage facilities of fruit and vegetables, airflow is necessary for heat removal. The design of storage facilities influences the air speed in the surrounding of the product. Therefore, knowledge about airflow next to the product is important to plan the layout of cold stores adapted to the requirements of the products. A new sensing device (ASL, Air speed logger) is developed for omnidirectional measurement of air speed between fruit or vegetables inside storage bins or in bulk. It consists of four interconnected plastic spheres with 80 mm diameter each, adapted to the size of apple fruit...
February 13, 2018: Sensors
Doekele G Stavenga, Hein L Leertouwer, Bodo D Wilts
The blue secondary and purple-to-green tail feathers of magpies are structurally coloured owing to stacks of hollow, air-containing melanosomes embedded in the keratin matrix of the barbules. We investigated the spectral and spatial reflection characteristics of the feathers by applying (micro)spectrophotometry and imaging scatterometry. To interpret the spectral data, we performed optical modelling, applying the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method as well as an effective media approach, treating the melanosome stacks as multi-layers with effective refractive indices dependent on the component media...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Lukas Hoffmann, Kai O Brinkmann, Jessica Malerczyk, Detlef Rogalla, Tim Becker, Detlef Theirich, Ivan Shutsko, Patrick Görrn, Thomas Riedl
Despite the notable success of hybrid halide perovskite-based solar cells, their long-term stability is still a key-issue. Aside from optimizing the photoactive perovskite, the cell design states a powerful lever to improve stability under various stress conditions. Dedicated electrically conductive diffusion barriers inside the cell stack, that counteract the ingress of moisture and prevent the migration of corrosive halogen species, can substantially improve ambient and thermal stability. Although atomic layer deposition (ALD) is excellently suited to prepare such functional layers, ALD suffers from the requirement of vacuum and only allows for a very limited throughput...
February 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Guoliang Li, Qingru Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhenya Duan, Haitao Su, Lei Zhang, Zhijian Li, Yi Tang, Minjiang Zhao, Lei Chen, Kaiyun Liu, Yong Zhang
This study tested the mercury emission characteristics of six municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and recommended future mercury control via adjusting operational parameters. The results indicated that over 99% of the mercury in solid wastes ended in fly ash and flue gas, of which 3.3-66.3% was emitted to air through stack gas. Mercury in the stack gas was mainly in the form of oxidized mercury (Hg2+ ), the proportion (65.4-89.0%) of which was far higher than previous estimation (15%). Mercury removal efficiencies (MRE) of the tested incinerators were in the range of 33...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Dalong Zheng, Liping Ma, Rongmou Wang, Jie Yang, Quxiu Dai
Phosphogypsum is a solid industry by-product generated when sulphuric acid is used to process phosphate ore into fertiliser. Phosphogypsum stacks without pretreatment are often piled on the land surface or dumped in the sea, causing significant environmental damage. This study examined the reaction characteristics of phosphogypsum, when decomposed in a multi-atmosphere fluidised bed. Phosphogypsum was first dried, sieved and mixed proportionally with lignite at the mass ratio of 10:1, it was then immersed in 0...
February 2018: Waste Management & Research
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