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Air stacking

Yue Cai, Zhengyu Huang, Michelle Hoi Ching Cheung, Vincent Motto-Ros, Po-Chun Chu, Yuanwei Wang, Haoyi Zhong, Ronald Yuen, Kelvin Sze-Yin Leung, Judy T S Lum, Sut Kam Phoebe Ho, Nai Ho H Cheung
Chemical analysis of Chinese black ink on xuan paper is useful for the authentication of Asian artwork. The analysis has to be non-destructive and has to accommodate artworks of all sizes. We apply three analytical techniques, ArF laser-induced plume fluorescence, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) to analyze five commercial Chinese black inks on two kinds of xuan paper. The FTIR signal is found to be interfered by the substrate which is inevitable because the pigments diffuse extensively into the xuan fiber network...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Siran Wang, Chiara E Ghezzi, Rachel Gomes, Rachel E Pollard, James L Funderburgh, David L Kaplan
The interactions between corneal nerve, epithelium, and stroma are essential for maintaining a healthy cornea. Thus, corneal tissue models that more fully mimic the anatomy, mechanical properties and cellular components of corneal tissue would provide useful systems to study cellular interactions, corneal diseases and provide options for improved drug screening. Here a corneal tissue model was constructed to include the stroma, epithelium, and innervation. Thin silk protein film stacks served as the scaffolding to support the corneal epithelial and stromal layers, while a surrounding silk porous sponge supported neuronal growth...
October 4, 2016: Biomaterials
Xiang Li, Ling Peng, Yuan Hu, Jing Shao, Tianhe Chi
With the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization, many developing countries are suffering from heavy air pollution. Governments and citizens have expressed increasing concern regarding air pollution because it affects human health and sustainable development worldwide. Current air quality prediction methods mainly use shallow models; however, these methods produce unsatisfactory results, which inspired us to investigate methods of predicting air quality based on deep architecture models. In this paper, a novel spatiotemporal deep learning (STDL)-based air quality prediction method that inherently considers spatial and temporal correlations is proposed...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dorothy Louise Fibiger, Meredith G Hastings
The nitrogen isotopic composition (δ(15)N) of NOx (NO + NO2) was measured during the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4). The δ(15)N-NOx produced by burning a variety of biomass types ranged from -7 to +12‰ (vs. air N2). The variation in δ(15)N-NOx is primarily driven by variations in the biomass types burned (i.e. δ(15)N-biomass). In the laboratory experiments, two types of emissions were sampled: stack fires where the emissions were measured within a few seconds of production from the fire and chamber fires where the emissions were held in a room for 1-2 hours and sampled continuously...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Konrad Meister, Alexander Bäumer, Geza R Szilvay, Arja Paananen, Huib J Bakker
We use surface-specific vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG) to study the structure and self-assembling mechanism of the class I hydrophobin SC3 from Schizophyllum commune and the class II hydrophobin HFBI from Trichoderma reesei. We find that both hydrophobins readily accumulate at the water-air interface and form rigid, highly ordered protein films that give rise to prominent VSFG signals. We identify several resonances that are associated with β-sheet structures and assign them to the central β-barrel core present in both proteins...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Gregory I Peterson, Johanna J Schwartz, Di Zhang, Benjamin M Weiss, Mark A Ganter, Duane W Storti, Andrew J Boydston
We describe an efficient method to produce objects comprising spatially controlled and graded cross-link densities using vat photopolymerization additive manufacturing (AM). Using a commercially available diacrylate-based photoresin, 3D printer, and digital light processing (DLP) projector, we projected grayscale images to print objects in which the varied light intensity was correlated to controlled cross-link densities and associated mechanical properties. Cylinder and bar test specimens were used to establish correlations between light intensities used for printing and cross-link density in the resulting specimens...
October 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
J Matthew Barnett, Xiao-Ying Yu, Kurtis P Recknagle, John A Glissmeyer
A planned laboratory space and exhaust system modification to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Material Science and Technology Building indicated that a new evaluation of the mixing at the air sampling system location would be required for compliance to ANSI/HPS N13.1-2011. The modified exhaust system would add a third fan, thereby increasing the overall exhaust rate out the stack, thus voiding the previous mixing study. Prior to modifying the radioactive air emissions exhaust system, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics computer model was used to evaluate the mixing at the sampling system location...
November 2016: Health Physics
N F Santos-Sánchez, R Valadez-Blanco, B Hernández-Carlos, A Torres-Ariño, P C Guadarrama-Mendoza, R Salas-Coronado
Despite microalgae recently receiving enormous attention as a potential source of biodiesel, their use is still not feasible as an alternative to fossil fuels. Recently, interest in microalgae has focused on the production of bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which provide microalgae a high added value. Several considerations need to be assessed for optimizing PUFA production from microalgae. Firstly, a microalgae species that produces high PUFA concentrations should be selected, such as Nannochloropsis gaditana, Isochrysis galbana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Crypthecodinium cohnii, with marine species gaining more attention than do freshwater species...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Mustafa Odabasi, Yetkin Dumanoglu, Melik Kara, Hasan Altiok, Tolga Elbir, Abdurrahman Bayram
Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) emissions of scrap iron processing steel plants were explored by measuring concentrations in stack gases of five plants, in the atmosphere (n=11) at a site close to those plants, and in soil at several sites in the region (n=40) in Aliaga, Izmir, Turkey. Observed stack-gas Σ32PCN levels from the plants without scrap preheating (189±157ngNm(-3), average±SD, n=4) showed that they are substantial PCN emitting sources. Stack-gas Σ32PCN level for the plant with scrap preheating was considerably higher (1262ngNm(-3))...
September 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Michael Chiou, John R Bach, Lavina Jethani, Michael F Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: To consider the effect of active lung volume recruitment ("air stacking") on rate of decline in vital capacity. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional design. PATIENTS: People with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. METHODS: Vital capacity was measured at every patient visit and then graphed. Air stacking using volume-preset ventilation or manual resuscitator bag was introduced to all patients after their vital capacity plateaued (reached a lifetime maximum)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Jaehun Lee, Ik Rang Choe, Nak-Kyoon Kim, Won-Je Kim, Hyung-Seok Jang, Yoon-Sik Lee, Ki Tae Nam
One of the important challenges in the development of protein-mimetic materials is understanding the sequence-specific assembly behavior and dynamic folding change. Conventional strategies for constructing two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures from peptides have been limited to using β-sheet forming sequences as building blocks due to their natural tendency to form sheet-like aggregations. We have identified a peptide sequence (YFCFY) that can form dimers via a disulfide bridge, fold into a helix, and assemble into macroscopic flat sheets at the air/water interface...
September 27, 2016: ACS Nano
Hadis Zarrin, Serubbabel Sy, Jing Fu, Gaopeng Jiang, Keunwoo Kang, Yun-Seok Jun, Aiping Yu, Michael Fowler, Zhongwei Chen
Acquiring reliable and efficient wearable electronics requires the development of flexible electrolyte membranes (EMs) for energy storage systems with high performance and minimum dependency on the operating conditions. Herein, a freestanding graphene oxide (GO) EM is functionalized with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (HMIM) molecules via both covalent and noncovalent bonds induced by esterification reactions and electrostatic πcation-π stacking, respectively. Compared to the commercial polymeric membrane, the thin HMIM/GO membrane demonstrates not only slightest performance sensitivity to the operating conditions but also a superior hydroxide conductivity of 0...
September 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ping Zhang, Ling Li, Yun Zhao, Zeyun Tian, Yumei Qin, Jun Lu
The fluorescent dye 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) is a widely used fluorescent probe molecule for biochemistry analysis. This paper reported the fabrication of ANS/layered double hydroxide nanosheets (ANS/LDH)n ultrathin films (UTFs) via the layer-by-layer small anion assembly technique based on electrostatic interaction and two possible weak interactions: hydrogen-bond and induced electrostatic interactions between ANS and positive-charged LDH nanosheets. The obtained UTFs show a long-range-ordered periodic layered stacking structure and weak fluorescence in dry air or water, but it split into three narrow strong peaks in a weak polarity environment induced by the two-dimensional (2D) confinement effect of the LDH laminate; the fluorescence intensity increases with decreasing the solvent polarity, concomitant with the blue shift of the emission peaks, which show good sensoring reversibility...
September 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Juliano Ferreira Arcuri, Ebun Abarshi, Nancy J Preston, Jenny Brine, Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: Respiratory secretions impact negatively on palliative patients. Unfortunately, a gold standard therapy is not yet available. The purpose of this study was to identify which interventions are in use to control respiratory secretions in patients with chronic disease with a poor prognosis and verify their effects on outcomes relevant for palliative care patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature with narrative summary was conducted. We searched eight electronic databases in April (6th), 2016...
2016: BMC Palliative Care
John Turner, Hua Lu, Ian White, John C King, Tony Phillips, J Scott Hosking, Thomas J Bracegirdle, Gareth J Marshall, Robert Mulvaney, Pranab Deb
Since the 1950s, research stations on the Antarctic Peninsula have recorded some of the largest increases in near-surface air temperature in the Southern Hemisphere. This warming has contributed to the regional retreat of glaciers, disintegration of floating ice shelves and a 'greening' through the expansion in range of various flora. Several interlinked processes have been suggested as contributing to the warming, including stratospheric ozone depletion, local sea-ice loss, an increase in westerly winds, and changes in the strength and location of low-high-latitude atmospheric teleconnections...
July 21, 2016: Nature
Jacek Pniewski, Tomasz Stefaniuk, Hieu Le Van, Van Cao Long, Lanh Chu Van, Rafał Kasztelanic, Grzegorz Stępniewski, Aleksandr Ramaniuk, Marek Trippenbach, Ryszard Buczyński
We present a numerical study of the dispersion characteristic modification of nonlinear photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with liquids. A photonic crystal fiber based on the soft glass PBG-08, infiltrated with 17 different organic solvents, is proposed. The glass has a light transmission window in the visible-mid-IR range of 0.4-5 μm and has a higher refractive index than fused silica, which provides high contrast between the fiber structure and the liquids. A fiber with air holes is designed and then developed in the stack-and-draw process...
July 1, 2016: Applied Optics
Byeong-Uk Kim, Okgil Kim, Hyun Cheol Kim, Soontae Kim
UNLABELLED: The South Korean government plans to reduce region-wide annual PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) concentrations in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA) from 2010 levels of 27 µg/m(3) to 20 µg/m(3) by 2024. At the same time, it is inevitable that emissions from fossil-fuel power plants will continue to increase if electricity generation expands and the generation portfolio remains the same in the future. To estimate incremental PM2.5 contributions due to projected electricity generation growth in South Korea, we utilized an ensemble forecasting member of the Integrated Multidimensional Air Quality System for Korea based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model...
September 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Guo-Yi Shiu, Kuei-Ting Chen, Feng-Hsu Fan, Kun-Pin Huang, Wei-Ju Hsu, Jing-Jie Dai, Chun-Feng Lai, Chia-Feng Lin
InGaN light emitting diodes (LED) structure with an embedded 1/4λ-stack nanoporous-GaN/undoped-GaN distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) structure have been demonstrated. Si-heavily doped GaN epitaxial layers (n(+)-GaN) in the 12-period n(+)-GaN/u-GaN stack structure are transformed into low refractive index nanoporous GaN structure through the doping-selective electrochemical wet etching process. The central wavelength of the nanoporous DBR structure was located at 442.3 nm with a 57 nm linewidth and a 97...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tongbo Wei, Jiankun Yang, Yang Wei, Ziqiang Huo, Xiaoli Ji, Yun Zhang, Junxi Wang, Jinmin Li, Shoushan Fan
We report a novel method to fabricate high quality 2-inch freestanding GaN substrate grown on cross-stacked carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs) coated sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). As nanoscale masks, these CSCNTs can help weaken the interface connection and release the compressive stress by forming voids during fast coalescence and also block the propagation of threading dislocations (TDs). During the cool-down process, thermal stress-induced cracks are initiated at the CSCNTs interface with the help of air voids and propagated all over the films which leads to full self-separation of FS-GaN substrate...
2016: Scientific Reports
Chad W Milando, Sheena E Martenies, Stuart A Batterman
In air quality management, reducing emissions from pollutant sources often forms the primary response to attaining air quality standards and guidelines. Despite the broad success of air quality management in the US, challenges remain. As examples: allocating emissions reductions among multiple sources is complex and can require many rounds of negotiation; health impacts associated with emissions, the ultimate driver for the standards, are not explicitly assessed; and long dispersion model run-times, which result from the increasing size and complexity of model inputs, limit the number of scenarios that can be evaluated, thus increasing the likelihood of missing an optimal strategy...
September 2016: Environment International
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