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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632501/evaluation-of-automatic-dose-rate-control-for-flat-panel-imaging-using-a-spatial-frequency-domain-figure-of-merit
#1
Michiel Dehairs, Hilde Bosmans, Walter Desmet, Nicholas W Marshall
Current automatic dose rate controls (ADRCs) of dynamic x-ray imaging systems adjust acquisition parameters in response to changes in patient thickness in order to achieve a constant signal level in the image receptor. This work compares a 3 parameter (3P) ADRC control to a more flexible 5-parameter (5P) method to meet this goal. A phantom composed of 15 composite poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA)/aluminium (Al) plates was imaged on a Siemens Artis Q dynamic system using standard 3P and 5P ADRC technique. Phantom thickness covered a water equivalent thickness range of 2...
June 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613008/n-channel-organic-semiconductors-derived-from-air-stable-four-coordinate-boron-complexes-of-substituted-thienylthiazoles
#2
Reinhard Hecht, Juliane Kade, David Schmidt, Agnieszka Nowak-Król
Three acceptor-π-bridge-acceptor (A-π-A) molecules derived from 2-(3-boryl-2-thienyl)thiazole have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized. Incorporation of a B-N unit into thienylthiazole and attachment of suitable acceptor moieties allowed to obtain ambient-stable A-π-A molecules with low-lying LUMO levels. Their potential for applications in organic electronics was tested in vacuum-deposited organic thin film transistors (OTFT). The OTFT device based on boryl-thienylthiazole donor and 1,1-dicyanomethylene-3-indandione (DCIND) acceptor moieties showed an electron mobility of ~1...
June 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605195/flexible-and-lightweight-fuel-cell-with-high-specific-power-density
#3
Fandi Ning, Xudong He, Yangbin Shen, Hehua Jin, Qingwen Li, Da Li, Shuping Li, Yulu Zhan, Ying Du, Jingjing Jiang, Hui Yang, Xiaochun Zhou
Flexible devices have been attracting great attention recently due to their numerous advantages. But the energy densities of current energy sources are still not high enough to support flexible devices for a satisfactory length of time. Although proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) do have a high-energy density, traditional PEMFCs are usually too heavy, rigid, and bulky to be used in flexible devices. In this research, we successfully invented a light and flexible air-breathing PEMFC by using a new design of PEMFC and a flexible composite electrode...
June 12, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570073/efficient-and-stable-ternary-organic-solar-cells-based-on-two-planar-nonfullerene-acceptors-with-tunable-crystallinity-and-phase-miscibility
#4
Jialin Wang, Jiajun Peng, Xiaoyu Liu, Ziqi Liang
Planar perylene diimides (PDIs), when used as nonfullerene acceptors for organic photovoltaics, are constrained by their large π-aggregation in solid state. To tackle this issue, another planar nonfullerene acceptor 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone)-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (ITIC) with weak crystallinity and near-infrared light absorption is introduced into the PTB7-Th:PDI binary blend to fabricate efficient and stable ternary solar cells...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558216/effect-of-substituents-on-the-bond-strength-of-air-stable-dicyanomethyl-radical-thermochromes
#5
Joshua P Peterson, Margarita R Geraskina, Rui Zhang, Arthur H Winter
A series of substituted aryl dicyanomethyl radicals were synthesized, and the bonding thermodynamic parameters for self-dimerization were determined from van't Hoff plots obtained from variable-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. At low temperatures, the radicals dimerize, but the colored, air-stable free radicals return upon heating. Heating and cooling cycles (5-95 °C) can be repeated without radical degradation and with striking thermochromic behavior. We find a linear free energy relationship between the Hammett para substituent parameter and the dimerization equilibrium constant, with para electron-donating substituents leading to a weaker bond and electron-withdrawing substituents leading to stronger bonds, following a captodative effect...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542014/oak-ridge-reservation-environmental-protection-rad-neshaps-radionuclide-inventory-web-database-and-rad-neshaps-source-and-dose-database
#6
Patricia A Scofield, Linda L Smith, David N Johnson
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated national emission standards for emissions of radionuclides other than radon from US Department of Energy facilities in Chapter 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H. This regulatory standard limits the annual effective dose that any member of the public can receive from Department of Energy facilities to 0.1 mSv. As defined in the preamble of the final rule, all of the facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, i.e., the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, East Tennessee Technology Park, and any other U...
July 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526483/effects-of-air-stacking-maneuver-on-cough-peak-flow-and-chest-wall-compartmental-volumes-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-subjects
#7
Antonio Sarmento, Vanessa Regiane Resqueti, Mario Emílio Teixeira Dourado-Júnior, Lailane Saturnino, Andrea Aliverti, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas Fregonezi, Armele de Fátima Dornelas de Andrade
OBJECTIVES: To assess the acute effects of air stacking on cough peak flow (CPF) and chest wall compartmental volumes of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) versus healthy controls positioned at 45° body inclination. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with a matched-pair design. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve persons with ALS and twelve age-matched healthy. MAIN OUTCOMES: CPF, chest wall compartmental inspiratory capacity (ICCW), vital capacity (VCCW), tidal volume (VTCW) and operational volumes, breathing pattern and percentage of contribution of the compartments to the inspired volume were measured by optoelectronic plethysmography...
May 16, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516987/theoretical-investigations-into-the-charge-transfer-properties-of-thiophene-%C3%AE-substituted-naphthodithiophene-diimides-excellent-n-channel-and-ambipolar-organic-semiconductors
#8
Li-Fei Ji, Jian-Xun Fan, Shou-Feng Zhang, Ai-Min Ren
A theoretical study was carried out to investigate the electronic structures and the charge transport properties of a series of naphthodithiophene diimide (NDTI) thiophene α-substituted derivatives NDTI-X using density functional theory and classical Marcus charge transfer theory. This study deeply revealed the structure-property relationships by analyzing the intermolecular interactions in crystal structures of C8-NDTI and C8-NDTI-Cl thoroughly by using the Hirshfeld surface, QTAIM theories and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT)...
May 31, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501605/the-role-of-multilayers-in-preventing-the-premature-buckling-of-the-pulmonary-surfactant
#9
Mustafa Al-Saiedy, Ali Tarokh, Sultan Nelson, Kiavash Hossini, Francis Green, Chang-Chun Ling, Elmar J Prenner, Matthias Amrein
The pulmonary surfactant is a protein-lipid mixture that spreads into a film at the air-lung interface. The highly-compacted molecules of the film keep the interface from shrinking under the influence of otherwise high surface tension and thus prevent atelectasis. We have previously shown that for the film to withstand a high film pressure without collapsing it needs to assume a specific architecture of a molecular monolayer with islands of stacks of molecular multilayers scattered over the area. Surface activity was assessed in a captive bubble surfactometer (CBS) and the role of cholesterol and oxidation on surfactant function examined...
May 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485053/ink-free-reversible-optical-writing-in-monolayers-by-polymerization-of-a-trifunctional-monomer-toward-rewritable-molecular-paper
#10
Vivian Müller, Tim Hungerland, Milos Baljozovic, Thomas Jung, Nicholas D Spencer, Hadi Eghlidi, Payam Payamyar, A Dieter Schlüter
A Langmuir-Blodgett film consisting of a dense array of trifunctional monomers bearing three 1,8-diazaanthracene units is polymerized at an air/water interface or after transfer on solid substrates. The transfer does not affect the excimer fluorescence of the film, indicating that the monomers' packing with their diazaanthracene units stacked face-to-face is retained-a prerequisite for successful polymerization. The monomer film can be polymerized in confined areas on solid substrates by UV irradiation with a confocal microscope laser...
May 9, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481557/one-pot-metal-free-conversion-of-anilines-to-aryl-bromides-and-iodides
#11
Derek A Leas, Yuxiang Dong, Jonathan L Vennerstrom, Douglas E Stack
A metal-free synthesis of aryl bromides and iodides from anilines via halogen abstraction from bromotrichloromethane and diiodomethane is described. This one-pot reaction affords aryl halides from the corresponding anilines in moderate to excellent yields without isolation of diazonium salts. The transformation has short reaction times, a simple workup, and insensitivity to moisture and air and avoids excess halogenation. DFT calculations support a SRN1 mechanism. This method represents a convenient alternative to the classic Sandmeyer reaction...
May 8, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474388/color-change-photoswitching-of-an-alkynylpyrene-excimer-dye
#12
Ke Min Chan, Dominik K Kölmel, Shenliang Wang, Eric T Kool
We describe a photoswitchable DNA-based dimeric dye that visibly changes fluorescence from green to blue upon UV irradiation. A novel bis-alkyne-dependent [2+2+2] cycloaddition is proposed as a mechanism for the color change in air. The photoinduced structural switching results in spatial separation of stacked pyrene units, thereby causing selective loss of the excimer emission. We demonstrate and suggest several applications for this novel photoswitch.
June 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473202/determination-of-hexavalent-chromium-concentration-in-industrial-waste-incinerator-stack-gas-by-using-a-modified-ion-chromatography-with-post-column-derivatization-method
#13
Yuichi Miyake, Masahiro Tokumura, Yuta Iwazaki, Qi Wang, Takashi Amagai, Yuichi Horii, Hideyuki Otsuka, Noboru Tanikawa, Takeshi Kobayashi, Masahiro Oguchi
An ion chromatography with post-column derivatization with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (IC-DPC) analytical method was modified to enable measurement of trace-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in air. One of the difficulties in determining trace levels of Cr(VI) in air with conventional IC-DPC methods is co-elution of the solvent and ion peaks due to high concentrations of ionic compounds in the extract. However, by using gradient elution rather than isocratic elution we were able to fully resolve the Cr(VI) ion peak from the solvent peak without the need for diluting the extract, which would have reduced the minimum quantifiable level of the method...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470058/sputtered-inx-o-s-y-buffer-layers-for-cu-in-ga-se2-thin-film-solar-cells-engineering-of-band-alignment-and-interface-properties
#14
Wei-Hao Ho, Chia-Hao Hsu, Shih-Yuan Wei, Chung-Hao Cai, Wei-Chih Huang, Chih-Huang Lai
We propose a simple approach to engineering the sputtered Inx(O,S)y/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 heterojunction, in terms of band alignment and interface properties. The band alignment was tailored by tuning the base pressure of the sputtering deposition to incorporate oxygen into deposited In2S3 layers (termed as Inx(O,S)y). The interface properties were improved by optimizing the air-annealing temperature on Inx(O,S)y/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 stacked layers. Increasing the base pressure raises the O/(S + O) ratio contained in deposited Inx(O,S)y films and thus widens the band gaps...
May 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456038/characteristic-accumulation-of-pcdd-fs-in-pine-needles-near-an-mswi-and-emission-levels-of-the-mswi-in-pearl-river-delta-a-case-study
#15
Pei Chen, Xiao Xiao, Jun Mei, Ying Cai, Yuhui Tang, Ping'an Peng
Pine needle samples were collected near a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Pearl River Delta, southern China, as well as the stack gas and dust samples of the MSWI were simultaneously collected. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed following the USEPA Method 1613B. The concentration of PCDD/Fs in the pine needles (137-625 ng/kg, 25-51 ng I-TEQ/kg) is the highest level ever detected in China. Congener profile comparison and principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the MSWI as an important emission source of environmental PCDD/Fs...
April 22, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448484/tissue-engineered-3d-human-lymphatic-microvascular-network-for-in-vitro-studies-of-lymphangiogenesis
#16
Laure Gibot, Todd Galbraith, Jennifer Bourland, Anita Rogic, Mihaela Skobe, François A Auger
This protocol describes a unique in vitro method for the generation of a 3D human lymphatic network within native connective tissue devoid of any exogenous material such as scaffolds or growth factors. In this five-stage protocol, human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) cocultured with dermal fibroblasts spontaneously organize into a stable 3D lymphatic capillary network. Stage 1 involves the isolation of primary fibroblasts and LECs from human skin. Fibroblasts are then cultured to produce connective tissue rich in extracellular matrix (stage 2), onto which LECs are seeded to form a network (stage 3)...
May 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437902/high-performance-temperature-sensing-using-a-selectively-filled-solid-core-photonic-crystal-fiber-with-a-central-air-bore
#17
J Ma, H H Yu, X Jiang, D S Jiang
A high-performance temperature sensor based on mode-coupling principle is proposed using a selectively filled, solid-core photonic crystal fiber with a central air-bore. The fibers are fabricated using the "stack-and-draw" method, with a micro scale central bore deliberately kept during the drawing procedure. The addition of the central air-bore enhances the mode-coupling efficiency between the fundamental core mode and modes in the high-index liquid-filled holes in the fiber cladding, therefore, the fiber can be used for a novel sensing architecture, when cladding holes are selectively filled with temperature sensitive liquids...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427667/membrane-cleaning-with-ultrasonically-driven-bubbles
#18
Fabian Reuter, Sonja Lauterborn, Robert Mettin, Werner Lauterborn
A laboratory filtration plant for drinking water treatment is constructed to study the conditions for purely mechanical in situ cleaning of fouled polymeric membranes by the application of ultrasound. The filtration is done by suction of water with defined constant contamination through a membrane module, a stack of five pairs of flat-sheet ultrafiltration membranes. The short cleaning cycle to remove the cake layer from the membranes includes backwashing, the application of ultrasound and air flushing. A special geometry for sound irradiation of the membranes parallel to their surfaces is chosen...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421150/post-ercp-emphysematous-cholecystitis-in-a-young-woman-a-rare-and-potentially-fatal-complication
#19
Roisin Stack, Joseph McLoughlin, Amy Gillis, Barbara M Ryan
A 45-year-old woman with suspected Functional Biliary Sphincter Disorder (FBSD) developed Clostridium perfringens related emphysematous cholecystitis after ERCP. A low index of suspicion for emphysematous cholecystitis in this young, otherwise healthy woman led to a significant delay in making the correct diagnosis, and air in the gallbladder was wrongly attributed to a possible gallbladder perforation. ERCP is associated with significant risks, particularly in patients with FBSD, where diagnostic uncertainty renders the balance of risk versus benefit even more critical...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414220/alkane-shape-selective-vapochromic-behavior-based-on-crystal-state-host-guest-complexation-of-pillar-5-arene-containing-one-benzoquinone-unit
#20
Tomoki Ogoshi, Yasuo Shimada, Yoko Sakata, Shigehisa Akine, Tada-Aki Yamagishi
Colored crystals of pillar[5]arene containing one benzoquinone unit were found to exhibit alkane-shape-selective vapochromic behavior. Activated pillar[5]arene crystals, prepared by removing solvated methanol from pillar[5]arene crystals, changed color from dark-brown to light-red after exposure to linear alkane vapors; however, no color changes were observed on exposure to branched or cyclic alkanes. Uptake of methanol vapor by the activated crystals induced a different color change, from dark-brown to black...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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