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Air stacking

Hiroki Kinoshita, Il Jeon, Mina Maruyama, Kenji Kawahara, Yuri Terao, Dong Ding, Rika Matsumoto, Yutaka Matsuo, Susumu Okada, Hiroki Ago
Bilayer graphene (BLG) comprises a 2D nanospace sandwiched by two parallel graphene sheets that can be used to intercalate molecules or ions for attaining novel functionalities. However, intercalation is mostly demonstrated with small, exfoliated graphene flakes. This study demonstrates intercalation of molybdenum chloride (MoCl5 ) into a large-area, uniform BLG sheet, which is grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This study reveals that the degree of MoCl5 intercalation strongly depends on the stacking order of the graphene; twist-stacked graphene shows a much higher degree of intercalation than AB-stacked...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Xuejiao Wang, Maxim Molokeev, Qi Zhu, Ji-Guang Li
The anhydrous hydroxyl sulfates of Ln2(OH)4SO4 (Ln=Eu-Lu and Y) were hydrothermally synthesized as a new family of layered rare-earth hydroxide (LRH). The compounds were analyzed to crystallize in the monoclinic system (space group: C2/m), with the structure built up via alternative stacking of the interlayer SO42- and the two-dimensional host layer, composed of three-capped [LnO9] trigonal prisms, along the a-axis. Distinctly different from the recently discovered hydrated LRH of Ln2(OH)4SO4*2H2O (only existing for Ln=La-Dy), the host layers of the anhydrous phase are linked together via sharing edges instead of O node of the SO42- tetrahedron...
September 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Manisha Hariram, Ravi Sahu, Suresh Pandian Elumalai
Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category...
September 6, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Cong Lin, Jian Li, Fengjuan Pan, Yifang Zhao, Le Xu, Yanquan Yang, Xin Du, Xiaohuan Lin, Fuhui Liao, Jianhua Lin, Tao Yang, Junliang Sun
AlPO4-5 is the most extensively studied material in exploring the crystallization mechanism of aluminophosphate molecular sieves, and it can be synthesized using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as an organic structure-directing agent (OSDA). Achieving the AlPO4-5 intermediate in the crystalline form would be of great importance and significance for this purpose. In this study, we proposed a concept that by carefully regulating the synthesis conditions, crystalline alumimophosphate intermediates could be rationally prepared...
September 6, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Gregory J Silverberg, Chad D Vecitis
Crumples, wrinkles, and other three-dimensional topographical features in graphene oxide (GO) have been of recent interest as these features have improved material performance for a variety of applications. However, wrinkling of monolayer GO films has yet to be reported. Herein, we demonstrate wrinkling and folding of monolayer GO using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique for the first time. First, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and GO are deposited on the air-water interface and uniaxially compressed to form a monolayer...
September 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Madhur Mangalam, Sophie A Barton, Jeffrey B Wagman, Dorothy M Fragaszy, Karl M Newell
Rotational inertia-a mechanical quantity that describes the differential resistance of an object to angular acceleration in different directions-has been shown to support perception of the properties of that object through dynamic touch (wielding). The goal of the present study was to examine if perception of the length of an object through dynamic touch depends on its rotational inertia, independent of the medium in which it is wielded. The participants (n = 14) wielded 12 different objects held in air or completely immersed in water and reported perceived lengths of those objects...
August 24, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
J Moreno, N de Hart, M Saakes, K Nijmeijer
When natural feed waters are used in the operation of a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack, severe fouling on the ion exchange membranes and spacers occurs. Fouling of the RED stack has a strong influence on the gross power density output; which can decrease up to 50%. Moreover, an increase in the pressure loss occurs between the feed water inlet and outlet, increasing the pumping energy and thus decreasing the net power density that can be obtained. In this work, we extensively investigated the use of CO2 saturated water as two-phase flow cleaning for fouling mitigation in RED using natural feed waters...
August 9, 2017: Water Research
Yuki Murata, Yuta Nakashoji, Masaki Kondo, Yugo Tanaka, Masahiko Hashimoto
We previously developed a technique that enabled automatic creation of monodisperse water-in-oil droplets with the use of an air-evacuated PDMS microfluidic device. Although the device generated droplets over a long-time period, the production rate was slow (∼10 droplets per second). In the current study, we aimed to improve this rate, using the same fluid pumping principle described in our previous work, by remodeling our device configuration. To achieve this aim, we developed a new device with a much larger PDMS surface area-to-volume ratio within the air-trapping void space (178 cm(-1) ), than that of our earlier device (5...
August 16, 2017: Electrophoresis
Stefan Cwik, Sebastian M J Beer, Stefanie Hoffmann, Michael Krasnopolski, Detlef Rogalla, Hans-Werner Becker, Daniel Peeters, Andreas Ney, Anjana Devi
The application potential of rare earth nitride (REN) materials has been limited due to their high sensitivity to air and moisture leading to facile oxidation upon exposure to ambient conditions. For the growth of device quality films, physical vapor deposition methods, such as molecular beam epitaxy, have been established in the past. In this regard, aluminum nitride (AlN) has been employed as a capping layer to protect the functional gadolinium nitride (GdN) from interaction with the atmosphere. In addition, an AlN buffer was employed between a silicon substrate and GdN serving as a seeding layer for epitaxial growth...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jiajia Xue, Jingwei Xie, Wenying Liu, Younan Xia
Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique that relies on the electrostatic repulsion between surface charges to continuously draw nanofibers from a viscoelastic fluid. It has been applied to successfully produce nanofibers, with diameters down to tens of nanometers, from a rich variety of materials, including polymers, ceramics, small molecules, and their combinations. In addition to solid nanofibers with a smooth surface, electrospinning has also been adapted to generate nanofibers with a number of secondary structures, including those characterized by a porous, hollow, or core-sheath structure...
August 4, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Mihails Kusnezoff, Nikolai Trofimenko, Martin Müller, Alexander Michaelis
The solid oxide cell is a basis for highly efficient and reversible electrochemical energy conversion. A single cell based on a planar electrolyte substrate as support (ESC) is often utilized for SOFC/SOEC stack manufacturing and fulfills necessary requirements for application in small, medium and large scale fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Thickness of the electrolyte substrate, and its ionic conductivity limits the power density of the ESC. To improve the performance of this cell type in SOFC/SOEC mode, alternative fuel electrodes, on the basis of Ni/CGO as well as electrolytes with reduced thickness, have been applied...
November 8, 2016: Materials
Olusola Adedayo Adesina, Jacob Ademola Sonibare, Paul N Diagboya, Adesuji Adejuwon, Temitope Famubode, Josiah O Bello
Due to the subtle occurrence of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) pollution from incinerators, it is seldom considered a significant source of PAH pollution. However, considering the recent build-up of toxics in urban air, this may be a serious concern around the incinerator vicinity due to the potential consequences of PAHs on human health. Hence, this study determined 11 alkyl-naphthalene contributions from a hospital waste incinerator (HWI_0) into ambient air receptor points (HWI_1 to HWI_5) for a 1-year period: June 2014-May 2015...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Edson Baltazar Estrada-Arriaga, Yvonne Guillen-Alonso, Cornelio Morales-Morales, Liliana García-Sánchez, Erick Obed Bahena-Bahena, Oscar Guadarrama-Pérez, Félix Loyola-Morales
Two different air-cathode stacked microbial fuel cell (MFC) configurations were evaluated under continuous flow during the treatment of municipal wastewater and electricity production at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3, 1, and 0.5 d. Stacked MFC 1 was formed by 20 individual air-cathode MFC units. The second stacked MFC (stacked MFC 2) consisted of 40 air-cathode MFC units placed in a shared reactor. The maximum voltages produced at closed circuit (1,000 Ω) were 170 mV for stacked MFC 1 and 94 mV for stacked MFC 2...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Aidan P Rooney, Aleksey Kozikov, Alexander N Rudenko, Eric Prestat, Matthew J Hamer, Freddie Withers, Yang Cao, Kostya S Novoselov, Mikhail I Katsnelson, Roman Gorbachev, Sarah J Haigh
Vertically stacked van der Waals heterostructures are a lucrative platform for exploring the rich electronic and optoelectronic phenomena in two-dimensional materials. Their performance will be strongly affected by impurities and defects at the interfaces. Here we present the first systematic study of interfaces in van der Waals heterostructure using cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) imaging. By measuring interlayer separations and comparing these to density functional theory (DFT) calculations we find that pristine interfaces exist between hBN and MoS2 or WS2 for stacks prepared by mechanical exfoliation in air...
September 13, 2017: Nano Letters
Hui Li, Mallory E DeCoster, Robert M Ireland, Jian Song, Patrick E Hopkins, Howard E Katz
Four p-type polymers were synthesized by modifying poly(bisdodecylquaterthiophene) (PQT12) to increase oxidizability by p-dopants. A sulfur atom is inserted between the thiophene rings and dodecyl chains, and/or 3,4-ethylenedioxy groups are appended to thiophene rings of PQT12. Doped with NOBF4, PQTS12 (with sulfur in side chains) shows a conductivity of 350 S cm(-1), the highest reported nonionic conductivity among films made from dopant-polymer solutions. Doped with tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ), PDTDE12 (with 3,4-ethylenedioxy groups on thiophene rings) shows a conductivity of 140 S cm(-1)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lei Xu, Yaqian Zhao, Tongyue Wang, Ranbin Liu, Fei Gao
To improve the sustainability of constructed wetlands (CWs), a novel tiered wetland system integrated with a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed in this study. Compared to the single stage CW, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was improved from 83.2% to 88.7%. More significantly, this tiered system significantly enhanced total nitrogen removal efficiency (an increase from 53.1% to 75.4%). In terms of MFC integration, a gradually decreased performance in electricity production was observed during its 3 months of operation (the voltage dropped from nearly 600 mV to less than 300 mV), which resulted in a reduction of power density from around 2 W/m(3) to less than 0...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Francisca Segura, Veronica Bartolucci, José Manuel Andújar
This work presents a hardware/software data acquisition system developed for monitoring the temperature in real time of the cells in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (AC-PEFC). These fuel cells are of great interest because they can carry out, in a single operation, the processes of oxidation and refrigeration. This allows reduction of weight, volume, cost and complexity of the control system in the AC-PEFC. In this type of PEFC (and in general in any PEFC), the reliable monitoring of temperature along the entire surface of the stack is fundamental, since a suitable temperature and a regular distribution thereof, are key for a better performance of the stack and a longer lifetime under the best operating conditions...
July 9, 2017: Sensors
Peng Yu, Wei Fu, Qingsheng Zeng, Junhao Lin, Cheng Yan, Zhuangchai Lai, Bijun Tang, Kazu Suenaga, Hua Zhang, Zheng Liu
Compared with 2D S-based and Se-based transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), Te-based TMDs display much better electrical conductivities, which will be beneficial to enhance the capacitances in supercapacitors. However, to date, the reports about the applications of Te-based TMDs in supercapacitors are quite rare. Herein, the first supercapacitor example of the Te-based TMD is reported: the type-II Weyl semimetal 1Td WTe2 . It is demonstrated that single crystals of 1Td WTe2 can be exfoliated into the nanosheets with 2-7 layers by liquid-phase exfoliation, which are assembled into air-stable films and further all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors...
September 2017: Advanced Materials
O Connan, D Hébert, L Solier, D Maro, G Pellerin, C Voiseux, M Lamotte, P Laguionie
In-air tritium measurements were conducted around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant, as well as on other sites that are not impacted by the nuclear industry in northwest of France. The results indicate that the dominant tritium form around the AREVA site is HT (86%). HT and HTO levels are lower than 5 and 1 Bq. m(-3) for hourly samples taken in the plume. No tritiated organic molecules (TOM) were detected. 26 measurement campaigns were performed and links were established between near-field (85)Kr, HT and HTO activities...
October 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M Dehairs, H Bosmans, W Desmet, N W Marshall
Current automatic dose rate controls (ADRCs) of dynamic x-ray imaging systems adjust their acquisition parameters in response to changes in patient thickness in order to achieve a constant signal level in the image receptor. This work compares a 3 parameter (3P) ADRC control to a more flexible 5-parameter (5P) method to meet this goal. A phantom composed of 15 composite poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA)/aluminium (Al) plates was imaged on a Siemens Artis Q dynamic system using standard 3P and 5P ADRC techniques...
July 31, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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