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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092630/comparative-monte-carlo-study-on-the-performance-of-integration-and-list-mode-detector-configurations-for-carbon-ion-computed-tomography
#1
Sebastian Meyer, Chiara Gianoli, Lorena Magallanes, Benedikt Kopp, Thomas Tessonnier, Guillaume Landry, George Dedes, Bernd Voss, Katia Parodi
Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of a highly conformal tumor-dose distribution; however, this technique is extremely sensitive to inaccuracies in the treatment procedures. Ambiguities in the conversion of Hounsfield units of the treatment planning x-ray CT to relative stopping power (RSP) can cause uncertainties in the estimated ion range of up to several millimeters. Ion CT (iCT) represents a favorable solution allowing to directly assess the RSP. In this simulation study we investigate the performance of the integration-mode configuration for carbon iCT, in comparison with a single-particle approach under the same set-up...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071776/%C3%AF-%C3%AF-stacking-of-imidazolium-cations-enhances-molecular-layering-of-room-temperature-ionic-liquids-at-their-interfaces
#2
Fujie Tang, Tatsuhiko Ohto, Taisuke Hasegawa, Mischa Bonn, Yuki Nagata
The interfacial structure of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) controls many of the unique properties of RTILs, such as the high capacitance of RTILs and the efficiency of charge transport between RTILs and electrodes. RTILs have been experimentally shown to exhibit interfacial molecular layering structures over a 10 Å length scale. However, the driving force behind the formation of these layered structures has not been resolved. Here, we report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of imidazolium RTIL/air and RTIL/graphene interfaces along with force field molecular dynamics simulations...
January 10, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054766/uv-visible-infrared-light-driven-thermocatalysis-for-environmental-purification-on-ramsdellite-mno2-hollow-spheres-considerably-promoted-by-a-novel-photoactivation
#3
Yi Yang, Yuanzhi Li, Mingyang Mao, Min Zeng, Xiujian Zhao
Novel ramsdellite MnO2 hollow spheres consisting of closely stacked nanosheets (R-MnO2-HS) were synthesized by a facile method. The R-MnO2-HS sample was characterized with SEM, XRD, TEM, BET, XPS, diffusive reflectance UV-vis-IR absorption, etc. Remarkably, R-MnO2-HS exhibits highly efficient catalytic activity for the purification of benzene (a carcinogenic air pollutant) under the full solar spectrum or visible-infrared irradiation, even under the infrared irradiation. Its catalytic activity (initial CO2 production rate) under the full solar spectrum irradiation is as high as 210...
January 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035608/emission-and-distribution-of-pcdd-fs-chlorobenzenes-chlorophenols-and-pahs-from-stack-gas-of-a-fluidized-bed-and-a-stoker-waste-incinerator-in-china
#4
Tianjiao Wang, Tong Chen, Xiaoqing Lin, Mingxiu Zhan, Xiaodong Li
The concentrations, homologue, and congener profiles, as well as the gas/particle distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs), chlorophenols (CPhs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack gas of two different municipal solid waste incinerators in China, were characterized. The incinerators were a stoker furnace incinerator equipped with the advanced air pollution control device (APCD) and a common circulating fluidized bed (CFB) furnace. The concentration of PCDD/Fs in the stack gas of the stoker incinerator ranged 0...
December 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000613/a-depth-of-interaction-pet-detector-using-a-stair-shaped-reflector-arrangement-and-a-single-ended-scintillation-light-readout
#5
Jeong-Whan Son, Min Sun Lee, Jae Sung Lee
Positron emission tomography (PET) detectors with the ability to encode depth-of-interaction (DOI) information allow us to simultaneously improve the spatial resolution and sensitivity of PET scanners. In this study, we propose a DOI PET detector based on a stair-pattern reflector arrangement inserted between pixelated crystals and a single-ended scintillation light readout. The main advantage of the proposed method is its simplicity; DOI information is decoded from a flood map and the data can be simply acquired by using a single-ended readout system...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989480/atmospheric-occurrence-and-health-risks-of-pcdd-fs-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-polychlorinated-naphthalenes-by-air-inhalation-in-metallurgical-plants
#6
Lili Yang, Guorui Liu, Minghui Zheng, Rong Jin, Qingqing Zhu, Yuyang Zhao, Xian Zhang, Yang Xu
Metallurgical plants are important sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). It is significant to evaluate the air levels and human risks of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs in metallurgical plants considering their adverse effects on human health and thousands of metallurgical plants being in operation in China. The estimated inhalation intakes of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PCNs together in eight iron ore sintering plants, three secondary copper plants, four secondary aluminum plants, and one secondary lead plant were 4...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966907/ultrafast-interfacial-self-assembly-of-2d-transition-metal-dichalcogenides-monolayer-films-and-their-vertical-and-in-plane-heterostructures
#7
Taeyeong Yun, Jong-Seon Kim, Jongwon Shim, Dong Sung Choi, Kyung Eun Lee, Sung Hwan Koo, InHo Kim, Hong Ju Jung, Hae-Wook Yoo, Hee-Tae Jung, Sang Ouk Kim
Cost effective scalable method for uniform film formation is highly demanded for the emerging applications of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). We demonstrate a reliable and fast interfacial self-assembly of TMD thin films and their heterostructures. Large-area 2D TMD monolayer films are assembled at air-water interface in a few minutes by simple addition of ethyl acetate (EA) onto dilute aqueous dispersions of TMDs. Assembled TMD films can be directly transferred onto arbitrary nonplanar and flexible substrates...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958756/high-efficiency-and-air-stable-perovskite-quantum-dots-light-emitting-diodes-with-an-all-inorganic-heterostructure
#8
Zhifeng Shi, Ying Li, Yuantao Zhang, Yongsheng Chen, Xinjian Li, Di Wu, Tingting Xu, Chongxin Shan, Guotong Du
Perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs), because of its fundamental scientific importance and practical applications in the fields of low-cost light source or display applications, have drawn worldwide attention in recent years. However, PeLEDs available today suffer from a compromise in their emission efficiency and operation stability. In this study, we designed and fabricated a stacking all-inorganic multilayer structure by using inorganic perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) as the emissive layer and inorganic n-type MgZnO and p-type MgNiO as the carrier injectors, respectively...
December 14, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958473/near-infrared-tunable-narrow-filter-in-a-periodic-multi-nanolayer-doped-by-a-superconductor-photonic-quantum-well
#9
Alireza Aghajamali
The transfer matrix method is employed to theoretically investigate the near-infrared (NIR) narrow filter properties in a one-dimensional defective symmetric photonic crystal with a superconductor photonic quantum-well defect (PQW). The study investigates how the wavelength of the defect mode is affected by the stack number of the PQW defect structure, the thicknesses of PQW layers, the polarization, and the angle of incidence as well as the operating temperature. The results also show that the period of the PQW defect structure and the number of defect modes are independent of one another...
December 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942954/assessment-of-gas-compression-and-lung-volume-during-air-stacking-maneuver
#10
A Sarmento, V R Resqueti, G A F Fregonezi, A Aliverti
PURPOSE: We reasoned that the application of positive pressure through air stacking (AS) technique could cause gas compression and the absolute lung volumes could be estimated. The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of gas compression (ΔV comp) during AS in healthy subjects positioned at 45° trunk inclination and verify if the simultaneous measurements of chest wall volume changes (ΔV CW), by optoelectronic plethysmography, and changes in lung volume (ΔV ao), by pneumotachograph, combined with pressure variation at the airways opening (ΔP ao) during AS are able to provide reliable data on absolute lung volumes...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936659/hexaaminobenzene-as-a-building-block-for-a-family-of-2d-coordination-polymers
#11
Nabajit Lahiri, Neda Lotfizadeh, Ryuichi Tsuchikawa, Vikram V Deshpande, Janis Louie
A family of 2D coordination polymers were successfully synthesized through "bottom-up" techniques using Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), and hexaaminobenzene. Liquid-liquid and air-liquid interfacial reactions were used to realize thick (∼1-2 μm) and thin (<10 nm) stacked layers of nanosheet, respectively. Atomic-force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy both revealed the smooth and flat nature of the nanosheets. Selected area diffraction was used to elucidate the hexagonal crystal structure of the framework...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935700/a-life-cycle-assessment-case-study-of-coal-fired-electricity-generation-with-humidity-swing-direct-air-capture-of-co2-versus-mea-based-postcombustion-capture
#12
Coen van der Giesen, Christoph J Meinrenken, René Kleijn, Benjamin Sprecher, Klaus S Lackner, Gert Jan Kramer
Most carbon capture and storage (CCS) envisions capturing CO2 from flue gas. Direct air capture (DAC) of CO2 has hitherto been deemed unviable because of the higher energy associated with capture at low atmospheric concentrations. We present a Life Cycle Assessment of coal-fired electricity generation that compares monoethanolamine (MEA)-based postcombustion capture (PCC) of CO2 with distributed, humidity-swing-based direct air capture (HS-DAC). Given suitable temperature, humidity, wind, and water availability, HS-DAC can be largely passive...
December 23, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934139/synthesis-structural-characterization-and-field-effect-transistor-properties-of-n-channel-semiconducting-polymers-containing-five-membered-heterocyclic-acceptors-superiority-of-thiadiazole-compared-with-oxadiazole
#13
Huajie Chen, Zhaoxia Liu, Zhiyuan Zhao, Liping Zheng, Songting Tan, Zhihong Yin, Chunguang Zhu, Yunqi Liu
Five-membered 1,3,4-oxadiazole (OZ) and 1,3,4-thiadiazole (TZ) heterocycle-based copolymers as active layer have long been ignored in solution-processable n-channel polymer field-effect transistors (PFETs) despite the long history of using OZ or TZ derivatives as the electron-injecting materials in organic light-emitting devices and their favorable electron affinities. Herein, we first report the synthesis and PFETs performance of two n-channel conjugated polymers bearing OZ- or TZ-based acceptor moieties, i...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913187/molecular-recognition-of-a-lipophilic-guanosine-derivative-in-langmuir-films-at-the-air-water-interface
#14
Lucija Čoga, Lea Spindler, Stefano Masiero, Irena Drevenšek-Olenik
Molecular recognition of a lipophilic deoxyguanosine derivative at the air-water interface was investigated by film balance experiments and Brewster Angle Microscopy. Results showed that guanosine, despite strong tendency towards self-assembly, interacts with both complementary and noncomplementary liponucleosides (lipophilic derivatives of deoxycytidine and deoxythymidine). At surface pressures below 17mN/m, attractive and repulsive interactions were present in case of both mixed monolayers and were the strongest at guanosine molar fractions of 0...
November 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876224/microenvironmental-air-quality-impact-of-a-commercial-scale-biomass-heating-system
#15
Zheming Tong, Bo Yang, Philip K Hopke, K Max Zhang
Initiatives to displace petroleum and climate change mitigation have driven a recent increase in space heating with biomass combustion. However, there is ample evidence that biomass combustion emits significant quantities of health damaging pollutants. We investigated the near-source micro-environmental air quality impact of a biomass-fueled combined heat and power system equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in Syracuse, NY. Two rooftop sampling stations with PM2.5 and CO2 analyzers were established in such that one could capture the plume while the other one served as the background for comparison depending on the wind direction...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872793/improved-methods-to-produce-tissue-engineered-skin-substitutes-suitable-for-the-permanent-closure-of-full-thickness-skin-injuries
#16
Danielle Larouche, Laurence Cantin-Warren, Maxime Desgagné, Rina Guignard, Israël Martel, Akram Ayoub, Amélie Lavoie, Robert Gauvin, François A Auger, Véronique J Moulin, Lucie Germain
There is a clinical need for skin substitutes to replace full-thickness skin loss. Our group has developed a bilayered skin substitute produced from the patient's own fibroblasts and keratinocytes referred to as Self-Assembled Skin Substitute (SASS). After cell isolation and expansion, the current time required to produce SASS is 45 days. We aimed to optimize the manufacturing process to standardize the production of SASS and to reduce production time. The new approach consisted in seeding keratinocytes on a fibroblast-derived tissue sheet before its detachment from the culture plate...
2016: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801561/chitin-nanofibers-extracted-from-crab-shells-in-broadband-visible-antireflection-coatings-with-controlling-layer-by-layer-deposition-and-the-application-for-durable-antifog-surfaces
#17
Kengo Manabe, Chie Tanaka, Yukari Moriyama, Mizuki Tenjimbayashi, Chiaki Nakamura, Yuki Tokura, Takeshi Matsubayashi, Kyu-Hong Kyung, Seimei Shiratori
Reflection from various surfaces of many optical systems, such as photovoltaics and displays, is a critical issue for their performance, and antireflection coatings play a pivotal role in a wide variety of optical technologies, reducing light reflectance loss and hence maximizing light transmission. With the current movement toward optically transparent polymeric media and coatings for antireflection technology, the need for economical and environmentally friendly materials and methods without dependence on shape or size has clearly been apparent...
November 23, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800680/highly-efficient-air-desulfurization-on-self-assembled-bundles-of-copper-hydroxide-nanorods
#18
Dimitrios A Giannakoudakis, Mingyung Jiang, Teresa J Bandosz
Copper hydroxide and copper hydroxyl nitrate were successfully synthesized from copper nitrate. A slight alteration of a base addition pathway led to entirely different chemical and crystal structures. Structural, morphological, and surface chemical features were analyzed using various physical and chemical methods. The copper hydroxide texture consists of self-assembled bundles of nanorods with a diameter between 15 and 40 nm. They are stack together forming platelet-like particles. In the case of the copper hydroxyl nitrate, platelet-like particles with a smooth surface were detected...
November 23, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750431/elemental-analysis-of-chinese-black-inks-on-xuan-paper-by-arf-laser-excited-plume-fluorescence
#19
Yue Cai, Zhengyu Huang, Michelle H C Cheung, Vincent Motto-Ros, Po-Chun Chu, Yuanwei Wang, Haoyi Zhong, Ronald Yuen, Kelvin S Y Leung, Judy T S Lum, Sut-Kam Ho, Nai-Ho Cheung
Chemical analysis of Chinese black ink on xuan paper is useful for the authentication of Asian artwork. The analysis has to be nondestructive and has to accommodate artworks of all sizes. We apply three analytical techniques, ArF laser-induced plume fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) to analyze five commercial Chinese black inks on two kinds of xuan paper. The FTIR signal is found to be interfered by the substrate which is inevitable because the pigments diffuse extensively into the xuan fiber network...
November 15, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741498/in%C3%A2-vitro-3d-corneal-tissue-model-with-epithelium-stroma-and-innervation
#20
Siran Wang, Chiara E Ghezzi, Rachel Gomes, Rachel E Pollard, James L Funderburgh, David L Kaplan
The interactions between corneal nerve, epithelium, and stroma are essential for maintaining a healthy cornea. Thus, corneal tissue models that more fully mimic the anatomy, mechanical properties and cellular components of corneal tissue would provide useful systems to study cellular interactions, corneal diseases and provide options for improved drug screening. Here a corneal tissue model was constructed to include the stroma, epithelium, and innervation. Thin silk protein film stacks served as the scaffolding to support the corneal epithelial and stromal layers, while a surrounding silk porous sponge supported neuronal growth...
January 2017: Biomaterials
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