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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226447/automatic-tissue-characterization-of-air-trapping-in-chest-radiographs-using-deep-neural-networks
#1
Awais Mansoor, Geovanny Perez, Gustavo Nino, Marius George Linguraru, Awais Mansoor, Geovanny Perez, Gustavo Nino, Marius George Linguraru, Geovanny Perez, Marius George Linguraru, Gustavo Nino, Awais Mansoor
Significant progress has been made in recent years for computer-aided diagnosis of abnormal pulmonary textures from computed tomography (CT) images. Similar initiatives in chest radiographs (CXR), the common modality for pulmonary diagnosis, are much less developed. CXR are fast, cost effective and low-radiation solution to diagnosis over CT. However, the subtlety of textures in CXR makes them hard to discern even by trained eye. We explore the performance of deep learning abnormal tissue characterization from CXR...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196935/air-stacking-a-detailed-look-into-physiological-acute-effects-on-cough-peak-flow-and-chest-wall-volumes-of-healthy-subjects
#2
Antonio Sarmento, Armèle F Dornelas de Andrade, Íllia Nadinne Df Lima, Andrea Aliverti, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas Fregonezi, Vanessa R Resqueti
BACKGROUND: Air stacking (AS) is a lung insufflation method that requires the use of a manual insufflator to provide air volumes higher than inspiratory capacity. Neuromuscular patients benefit the most from the maneuver; however, the acute effects of AS in healthy subjects are still unclear. METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects (8 males) were studied by optoelectronic plethysmography to investigate the immediate effects of AS on cough peak flow, operational volume variations, distribution of these volumes in the chest wall compartments (pulmonary rib cage, abdominal rib cage, and abdominal), breathing pattern, and shortening velocity of the respiratory muscles during a protocol that included vital capacity maneuvers and spontaneous coughs before and after AS...
February 14, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194037/franckeite-as-a-naturally-occurring-van-der-waals-heterostructure
#3
Aday J Molina-Mendoza, Emerson Giovanelli, Wendel S Paz, Miguel Angel Niño, Joshua O Island, Charalambos Evangeli, Lucía Aballe, Michael Foerster, Herre S J van der Zant, Gabino Rubio-Bollinger, Nicolás Agraït, J J Palacios, Emilio M Pérez, Andres Castellanos-Gomez
The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other)...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170350/an-air-gap-moderates-the-performance-of-nanowire-array-transistors
#4
Tong Yang, Jeremy S Mehta, Jeffrey M Mativetsky
Solution-processed nanowires are promising for low-cost and flexible electronics. When depositing nanowires from solution, due to stacking of the nanowires, an air gap exists between the substrate and much of the active material. Here, using confocal Raman spectroscopy, we quantify the thickness of the air gap in transistors comprising organic semiconductor nanowires. The average air gap thickness is found to be unexpectedly large, being at least three times larger than the nanowire diameter, leading to a significant impact on transistor performance...
February 7, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152310/interface-defect-hydrogen-depassivation-and-capacitance-voltage-hysteresis-of-al2o3-ingaas-gate-stacks
#5
Kechao Tang, Felix Roberto Palumbo, Liangliang Zhang, Ravi Droopad, Paul C McIntyre
We investigate the effects of pre- and postatomic layer deposition (ALD) defect passivation with hydrogen on the trap density and reliability of Al2O3/InGaAs gate stacks. Reliability is characterized by capacitance-voltage hysteresis measurements on samples prepared using different fabrication procedures and having different initial trap densities. Despite its beneficial capability to passivate both interface and border traps, a final forming gas (H2/N2) anneal (FGA) step is correlated with a significant hysteresis...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117164/modelling-of-hydrogen-sulfide-dispersion-from-the-geothermal-power-plants-of-tuscany-italy
#6
Renato Somma, Domenico Granieri, Claudia Troise, Carlo Terranova, Giuseppe De Natale, Maria Pedone
We applied the Eulerian code DISGAS (DISpersion of GAS) to investigate the dispersion of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from 32 geothermal power plants (out of 35 active) belonging to the geothermal districts of Larderello, Travale-Radicondoli and Monte Amiata, in Tuscany (Italy). An updated geographic database, for use in a GIS environment, was realized in order to process input data required by the code and to handle the outputs. The results suggest that H2S plumes emitted from geothermal power plants are mainly concentrated around the stacks of emission (H2S concentration up to 1100μg/m(3)) and rapidly dilute along the dominant local wind direction...
January 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092630/comparative-monte-carlo-study-on-the-performance-of-integration-and-list-mode-detector-configurations-for-carbon-ion-computed-tomography
#7
Sebastian Meyer, Chiara Gianoli, Lorena Magallanes, Benedikt Kopp, Thomas Tessonnier, Guillaume Landry, George Dedes, Bernd Voss, Katia Parodi
Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of a highly conformal tumor-dose distribution; however, this technique is extremely sensitive to inaccuracies in the treatment procedures. Ambiguities in the conversion of Hounsfield units of the treatment planning x-ray CT to relative stopping power (RSP) can cause uncertainties in the estimated ion range of up to several millimeters. Ion CT (iCT) represents a favorable solution allowing to directly assess the RSP. In this simulation study we investigate the performance of the integration-mode configuration for carbon iCT, in comparison with a single-particle approach under the same set-up...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071776/%C3%AF-%C3%AF-stacking-of-imidazolium-cations-enhances-molecular-layering-of-room-temperature-ionic-liquids-at-their-interfaces
#8
Fujie Tang, Tatsuhiko Ohto, Taisuke Hasegawa, Mischa Bonn, Yuki Nagata
The interfacial structure of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) controls many of the unique properties of RTILs, such as the high capacitance of RTILs and the efficiency of charge transport between RTILs and electrodes. RTILs have been experimentally shown to exhibit interfacial molecular layering structures over a 10 Å length scale. However, the driving force behind the formation of these layered structures has not been resolved. Here, we report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of imidazolium RTIL/air and RTIL/graphene interfaces along with force field molecular dynamics simulations...
January 10, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054766/uv-visible-infrared-light-driven-thermocatalysis-for-environmental-purification-on-ramsdellite-mno2-hollow-spheres-considerably-promoted-by-a-novel-photoactivation
#9
Yi Yang, Yuanzhi Li, Mingyang Mao, Min Zeng, Xiujian Zhao
Novel ramsdellite MnO2 hollow spheres consisting of closely stacked nanosheets (R-MnO2-HS) were synthesized by a facile method. The R-MnO2-HS sample was characterized with SEM, XRD, TEM, BET, XPS, diffusive reflectance UV-vis-IR absorption, etc. Remarkably, R-MnO2-HS exhibits highly efficient catalytic activity for the purification of benzene (a carcinogenic air pollutant) under the full solar spectrum or visible-infrared irradiation, even under the infrared irradiation. Its catalytic activity (initial CO2 production rate) under the full solar spectrum irradiation is as high as 210...
January 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035608/emission-and-distribution-of-pcdd-fs-chlorobenzenes-chlorophenols-and-pahs-from-stack-gas-of-a-fluidized-bed-and-a-stoker-waste-incinerator-in-china
#10
Tianjiao Wang, Tong Chen, Xiaoqing Lin, Mingxiu Zhan, Xiaodong Li
The concentrations, homologue, and congener profiles, as well as the gas/particle distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs), chlorophenols (CPhs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack gas of two different municipal solid waste incinerators in China, were characterized. The incinerators were a stoker furnace incinerator equipped with the advanced air pollution control device (APCD) and a common circulating fluidized bed (CFB) furnace. The concentration of PCDD/Fs in the stack gas of the stoker incinerator ranged 0...
December 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000613/a-depth-of-interaction-pet-detector-using-a-stair-shaped-reflector-arrangement-and-a-single-ended-scintillation-light-readout
#11
Jeong-Whan Son, Min Sun Lee, Jae Sung Lee
Positron emission tomography (PET) detectors with the ability to encode depth-of-interaction (DOI) information allow us to simultaneously improve the spatial resolution and sensitivity of PET scanners. In this study, we propose a DOI PET detector based on a stair-pattern reflector arrangement inserted between pixelated crystals and a single-ended scintillation light readout. The main advantage of the proposed method is its simplicity; DOI information is decoded from a flood map and the data can be simply acquired by using a single-ended readout system...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989480/atmospheric-occurrence-and-health-risks-of-pcdd-fs-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-polychlorinated-naphthalenes-by-air-inhalation-in-metallurgical-plants
#12
Lili Yang, Guorui Liu, Minghui Zheng, Rong Jin, Qingqing Zhu, Yuyang Zhao, Xian Zhang, Yang Xu
Metallurgical plants are important sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). It is significant to evaluate the air levels and human risks of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs in metallurgical plants considering their adverse effects on human health and thousands of metallurgical plants being in operation in China. The estimated inhalation intakes of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PCNs together in eight iron ore sintering plants, three secondary copper plants, four secondary aluminum plants, and one secondary lead plant were 4...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966907/ultrafast-interfacial-self-assembly-of-2d-transition-metal-dichalcogenides-monolayer-films-and-their-vertical-and-in-plane-heterostructures
#13
Taeyeong Yun, Jong-Seon Kim, Jongwon Shim, Dong Sung Choi, Kyung Eun Lee, Sung Hwan Koo, InHo Kim, Hong Ju Jung, Hae-Wook Yoo, Hee-Tae Jung, Sang Ouk Kim
Cost effective scalable method for uniform film formation is highly demanded for the emerging applications of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). We demonstrate a reliable and fast interfacial self-assembly of TMD thin films and their heterostructures. Large-area 2D TMD monolayer films are assembled at air-water interface in a few minutes by simple addition of ethyl acetate (EA) onto dilute aqueous dispersions of TMDs. Assembled TMD films can be directly transferred onto arbitrary nonplanar and flexible substrates...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958756/high-efficiency-and-air-stable-perovskite-quantum-dots-light-emitting-diodes-with-an-all-inorganic-heterostructure
#14
Zhifeng Shi, Ying Li, Yuantao Zhang, Yongsheng Chen, Xinjian Li, Di Wu, Tingting Xu, Chongxin Shan, Guotong Du
Perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs), because of its fundamental scientific importance and practical applications in the fields of low-cost light source or display applications, have drawn worldwide attention in recent years. However, PeLEDs available today suffer from a compromise in their emission efficiency and operation stability. In this study, we designed and fabricated a stacking all-inorganic multilayer structure by using inorganic perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) as the emissive layer and inorganic n-type MgZnO and p-type MgNiO as the carrier injectors, respectively...
December 14, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958473/near-infrared-tunable-narrow-filter-in-a-periodic-multi-nanolayer-doped-by-a-superconductor-photonic-quantum-well
#15
Alireza Aghajamali
The transfer matrix method is employed to theoretically investigate the near-infrared (NIR) narrow filter properties in a one-dimensional defective symmetric photonic crystal with a superconductor photonic quantum-well defect (PQW). The study investigates how the wavelength of the defect mode is affected by the stack number of the PQW defect structure, the thicknesses of PQW layers, the polarization, and the angle of incidence as well as the operating temperature. The results also show that the period of the PQW defect structure and the number of defect modes are independent of one another...
December 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942954/assessment-of-gas-compression-and-lung-volume-during-air-stacking-maneuver
#16
A Sarmento, V R Resqueti, G A F Fregonezi, A Aliverti
PURPOSE: We reasoned that the application of positive pressure through air stacking (AS) technique could cause gas compression and the absolute lung volumes could be estimated. The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of gas compression (ΔV comp) during AS in healthy subjects positioned at 45° trunk inclination and verify if the simultaneous measurements of chest wall volume changes (ΔV CW), by optoelectronic plethysmography, and changes in lung volume (ΔV ao), by pneumotachograph, combined with pressure variation at the airways opening (ΔP ao) during AS are able to provide reliable data on absolute lung volumes...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936659/hexaaminobenzene-as-a-building-block-for-a-family-of-2d-coordination-polymers
#17
Nabajit Lahiri, Neda Lotfizadeh, Ryuichi Tsuchikawa, Vikram V Deshpande, Janis Louie
A family of 2D coordination polymers were successfully synthesized through "bottom-up" techniques using Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), and hexaaminobenzene. Liquid-liquid and air-liquid interfacial reactions were used to realize thick (∼1-2 μm) and thin (<10 nm) stacked layers of nanosheet, respectively. Atomic-force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy both revealed the smooth and flat nature of the nanosheets. Selected area diffraction was used to elucidate the hexagonal crystal structure of the framework...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935700/a-life-cycle-assessment-case-study-of-coal-fired-electricity-generation-with-humidity-swing-direct-air-capture-of-co2-versus-mea-based-postcombustion-capture
#18
Coen van der Giesen, Christoph J Meinrenken, René Kleijn, Benjamin Sprecher, Klaus S Lackner, Gert Jan Kramer
Most carbon capture and storage (CCS) envisions capturing CO2 from flue gas. Direct air capture (DAC) of CO2 has hitherto been deemed unviable because of the higher energy associated with capture at low atmospheric concentrations. We present a Life Cycle Assessment of coal-fired electricity generation that compares monoethanolamine (MEA)-based postcombustion capture (PCC) of CO2 with distributed, humidity-swing-based direct air capture (HS-DAC). Given suitable temperature, humidity, wind, and water availability, HS-DAC can be largely passive...
December 23, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934139/synthesis-structural-characterization-and-field-effect-transistor-properties-of-n-channel-semiconducting-polymers-containing-five-membered-heterocyclic-acceptors-superiority-of-thiadiazole-compared-with-oxadiazole
#19
Huajie Chen, Zhaoxia Liu, Zhiyuan Zhao, Liping Zheng, Songting Tan, Zhihong Yin, Chunguang Zhu, Yunqi Liu
Five-membered 1,3,4-oxadiazole (OZ) and 1,3,4-thiadiazole (TZ) heterocycle-based copolymers as active layer have long been ignored in solution-processable n-channel polymer field-effect transistors (PFETs) despite the long history of using OZ or TZ derivatives as the electron-injecting materials in organic light-emitting devices and their favorable electron affinities. Herein, we first report the synthesis and PFETs performance of two n-channel conjugated polymers bearing OZ- or TZ-based acceptor moieties, i...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913187/molecular-recognition-of-a-lipophilic-guanosine-derivative-in-langmuir-films-at-the-air-water-interface
#20
Lucija Čoga, Lea Spindler, Stefano Masiero, Irena Drevenšek-Olenik
Molecular recognition of a lipophilic deoxyguanosine derivative at the air-water interface was investigated by film balance experiments and Brewster Angle Microscopy. Results showed that guanosine, despite strong tendency towards self-assembly, interacts with both complementary and noncomplementary liponucleosides (lipophilic derivatives of deoxycytidine and deoxythymidine). At surface pressures below 17mN/m, attractive and repulsive interactions were present in case of both mixed monolayers and were the strongest at guanosine molar fractions of 0...
November 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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