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Track and field

Ulysse Gimenez, Hélène Lajous, Michèle El Atifi, Marie Bidart, Vincent Auboiroux, Pascal Henry Fries, François Berger, Hana Lahrech
Cellular MRI, which visualizes magnetically labelled cells (cells*), is an active research field for in vivo cell therapy and tracking. The simultaneous relaxation rate measurements (R2 *, R2 , R1 ) are the basis of a quantitative cellular MRI method proposed here. U937 cells were labelled with Molday ION Rhodamine B, a bi-functional superparamagnetic and fluorescent nanoparticle (U937*). U937* viability and proliferation were not affected in vitro. In vitro relaxometry was performed in a cell concentration range of [2...
October 21, 2016: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Ingo Schiffner, Susanne Denzau, Dennis Gehring, Roswitha Wiltschko
To analyse the effect of magnetic and olfactory deprivation on the homing flight of pigeons, we released birds from a familiar site with either their upper beak or their nostrils anaesthetized. The tracks were analysed by time lag embedding to calculate the short-term correlation dimension, a variable that reflects the degrees of freedom and thus the number of factors involved in a system. We found that higher natural fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field characterized by A P-indices of 8 and above caused a reduction of the correlation dimension of the control birds...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Karen Peynshaert, Stefaan J Soenen, Bella B Manshian, Shareen H Doak, Kevin Braeckmans, Stefaan C De Smedt, Katrien Remaut
: In the last decade the interest in autophagy got an incredible boost and the phenomenon quickly turned into an extensive research field. Interestingly, dysfunction of this cytoplasmic clearance system has been proposed to lie at the root of multiple diseases including cancer. We therefore consider it crucial from a toxicological point of view to investigate if nanomaterials that are developed for biomedical applications interfere with this cellular process. Here, we study the highly promising 'gradient alloyed' quantum dots (QDs) that differ from conventional ones by their gradient core composition which allows for better fluorescent properties...
October 17, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Noortje H Rijken, Remko Soer, Ewold de Maar, Hilco Prins, Wouter B Teeuw, Jan Peuscher, Frits G J Oosterveld
The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of an intervention consisting of mental coaching combined with either electro encephalogram (EEG) alpha power feedback or heart rate variability (HRV) feedback on HRV, EEG outcomes and self-reported factors related to stress, performance, recovery and sleep quality in elite athletes. A prospective pilot study was performed with two distinct cohorts. Soccer players were provided with four sessions of mental coaching combined with daily HRV biofeedback (Group A); track and field athletes were provided with four sessions of mental coaching in combination with daily neurofeedback (Group B)...
October 19, 2016: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Samuele Maramai, Sandra Gemma, Simone Brogi, Giuseppe Campiani, Stefania Butini, Holger Stark, Margherita Brindisi
D3 receptors represent a major focus of current drug design and development of therapeutics for dopamine-related pathological states. Their close homology with the D2 receptor subtype makes the development of D3 selective antagonists a challenging task. In this review, we explore the relevance and therapeutic utility of D3 antagonists or partial agonists endowed with multireceptor affinity profile in the field of central nervous system disorders such as schizophrenia and drug abuse. In fact, the peculiar distribution and low brain abundance of D3 receptors make them a valuable target for the development of drugs devoid of motor side effects classically elicited by D2 antagonists...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Noah Edward Jemison, Thomas M Johnson, Alyssa Shiel, Craig Lundstrom
Uranium groundwater contamination due to U mining and processing affects numerous sites globally. Bioreduction of soluble, mobile U(VI) to U(IV)-bearing solids is potentially a very effective remediation strategy. Uranium isotopes (238U/235U) have been utilized to track the progress of microbial reduction, with laboratory and field studies finding a ~1‰ isotopic fractionation, with the U(IV) product enriched in 238U. However, the isotopic fractionation produced by adsorption may complicate the use of 238U/235U to trace microbial reduction...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Tristan da Câmara Santa Clara Gomes, Joaquín De La Torre Medina, Matthieu Lemaitre, Luc Piraux
Track-etched polymer membranes with crossed nanochannels have been revealed to be most suitable as templates to produce large surface area and mechanically stable 3D interconnected nanowire (NW) networks by electrodeposition. Geometrically controlled NW superstructures made of NiCo ferromagnetic alloys exhibit appealing magnetoresistive properties. The combination of exact alloy compositions with the spatial arrangement of NWs in the 3D network is decisive to obtain specific magnetic and magneto-transport behavior...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Na Kyung Lee, Hyeong Seop Kim, Dongkyeom Yoo, Jung Won Hwang, Soo Jin Choi, Wonil Oh, Jong Wook Chang, Duk L Na
The success of stem cell therapy is highly dependent on accurate delivery of stem cells to the target site of interest. Possible ways to track the distribution of MSCs in vivo include the use of reporter genes or nanoparticles. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ferumoxytol (Feraheme® [USA], Rienso® [UK]) as a treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Ferumoxytol is an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO) that has recently been used to track the fate of transplanted cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 18, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
Caleb M Adler, Melissa P DelBello, Wade Weber, Miranda Williams, Luis Rodrigo Patino Duran, David Fleck, Erin Boespflug, James Eliassen, Stephen M Strakowski, Jon Divine
OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of participating in collegiate football on neural health several years after retirement. We hypothesized that relative cortical thinning and loss of white matter integrity would be observed in former players. DESIGN: Former NCAA Division I football players were compared with demographically similar track-and-field athletes with regard to cortical thickness and white matter integrity. SETTING: Participants participated in MRI scans at the Center for Imaging Research at the University of Cincinnati...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Mónica Rouco, Sheean T Haley, Harriet Alexander, Samuel T Wilson, David M Karl, Sonya T Dyhrman
Populations of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the genus Trichodesmium are critical to ocean ecosystems, yet predicting patterns of Trichodesmium distribution and their role in ocean biogeochemistry is an ongoing challenge. This may, in part, be due to differences in the physiological ecology of Trichodesmium species, which are not typically considered independently in field studies. In this study, the abundance of the two dominant Trichodesmium clades (Clade I and Clade III) was investigated during a survey at Station ALOHA in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) using a clade-specific qPCR approach...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Jan-Dieter Ludwigs, Markus Ebeling, Timothy B Fredricks, Roger C Murfitt, Steven Kragten
The registration of pesticides follows guidance published by the European Food Safety Authority, EFSA. As a default, the EFSA guidance document on risk assessment for birds and mammals assumes that animals feed exclusively on pesticide-treated fields. However, the guidance document suggests refining the risk via the proportion of food animals obtain from a treated field or specific crop (expressed via the so-called PT value). The EFSA guidance equalizes the portion of food taken from a treated area per day with the portion of time spent potentially foraging over the course of a day within this area...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sitah F Alanazi, Khalid S Alzimami, Magdy M Ghannam, Ibrahim J Aljammaz, Faisal Alrumayan, Salem A Sassi
PURPOSE: Interest in PET imaging using zirconium-89 (Zr) (t1/2=78.41 h)-labeled tracers for the tracking and quantification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is growing, mainly because of its well-matched physical half-life with the biological half-life of intact mAbs. This study aims to evaluate the imaging characteristics of Zr-PET in comparison with those obtained using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET (gold standard tracer in PET imaging) using a Time-Of-Flight (TOF) PET/computed tomography (CT) scanner...
October 4, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Debbie Van Biesen, Florentina Hettinga, Katina McCulloch, Yves C Vanlandewijck
PURPOSE: To understand how athletes invest their energy over a race, differences in pacing ability between athletes with and without intellectual impairment (II) were explored using a novel field test. METHODS: Well-trained runners (n=67) participated in this study, including 34 runners with II (age = 24.4 ± 4.5 years; IQ = 63.1 ± 7.7) and 33 runners without II (age = 31.4 ± 11.2 years). The ability to perform at a pre-planned submaximal pace was assessed. Two 400m running trials were performed on an athletics track, with an individually standardized velocity...
October 5, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ashley V Makela, Donna H Murrell, Katie M Parkins, Jenna Kara, Jeffrey M Gaudet, Paula J Foster
Cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an evolving field of imaging with strong translational and research potential. The ability to detect, track, and quantify cells in vivo and over time allows for studying cellular events related to disease processes and may be used as a biomarker for decisions about treatments and for monitoring responses to treatments. In this review, we discuss methods for labeling cells, various applications for cellular MRI, the existing limitations, strategies to address these shortcomings, and clinical cellular MRI...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Sabina Cauci, Cinzia Buligan, Micaela Marangone, Maria Pia Francescato
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress in female athletes is understudied. We investigated oxidative stress in sportswomen of different disciplines according to combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and lifestyle/alimentary habits. METHODS: Italian sportswomen (n = 144; mean age 23.4 ± 4.2 years; body mass index 21.2 ± 2.2 kg m(-2); sport activity 9.2 ± 4.1 h week(-1)) were analyzed; 48 % were volleyball players, 12.5 % soccer players, 10.4 % track-and-field sports, and followed by other disciplines' athletes...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Samuel A Neymotin, Zoe N Talbot, Jeeyune Q Jung, André A Fenton, William W Lytton
BACKGROUND: Correlated neuronal activity in the brain is hypothesized to contribute to information representation, and is important for gauging brain dynamics in health and disease. Due to high dimensional neural datasets, it is difficult to study temporal variations in correlation structure. NEW METHOD: We developed a multiscale method, Population Coordination (PCo), to assess neural population structure in multiunit single neuron ensemble and multi-site local field potential (LFP) recordings...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Ghislain Djiokeng Paka, Charles Ramassamy
One major challenge in the field of nanotherapeutics is to increase the selective delivery of cargo to targeted cells. Using Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA), we recently highlighted the importance of polymer composition in the biological fate of the nanodrug delivery systems. However the route of internalisation of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) is another key component to consider in the elaboration of modern and targeted devices. For that purpose, herein, we effectively synthesized and characterised glutathione- functionalized PLGA-nanoparticles (GSH-NPs) loaded with curcumin (GSH-NPs-Cur), using thiol-maleimide click reaction and determined their physicochemical properties...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Jonathan C Niclis, Carlos W Gantner, Walaa F Alsanie, Stuart J McDougall, Chris R Bye, Andrew G Elefanty, Edouard G Stanley, John M Haynes, Colin W Pouton, Lachlan H Thompson, Clare L Parish
: : Recent studies have shown evidence for the functional integration of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived ventral midbrain dopamine (vmDA) neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Although these cells present a sustainable alternative to fetal mesencephalic grafts, a number of hurdles require attention prior to clinical translation. These include the persistent use of xenogeneic reagents and challenges associated with scalability and storage of differentiated cells. In this study, we describe the first fully defined feeder- and xenogeneic-free protocol for the generation of vmDA neurons from hPSCs and utilize two novel reporter knock-in lines (LMX1A-eGFP and PITX3-eGFP) for in-depth in vitro and in vivo tracking...
October 14, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Amin Chabchoub
Breather solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) are known to be considered as backbone models for extreme events in the ocean as well as in Kerr media. These exact deterministic rogue wave (RW) prototypes on a regular background describe a wide range of modulation instability configurations. Alternatively, oceanic or electromagnetic wave fields can be of chaotic nature and it is known that RWs may develop in such conditions as well. We report an experimental study confirming that extreme localizations in an irregular oceanic Joint North Sea Wave Project wave field can be tracked back to originate from exact NLSE breather solutions, such as the Peregrine breather...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
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