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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644579/pairing-field-methods-to-improve-inference-in-wildlife-surveys-while-accommodating-detection-covariance
#1
John Clare, Shawn T McKinney, John E DePue, Cynthia S Loftin
It is common to use multiple field sampling methods when implementing wildlife surveys to compare method efficacy or cost-efficiency, integrate distinct pieces of information provided by separate methods, or evaluate method-specific biases and misclassification error. Existing models that combine information from multiple field methods or sampling devices permit rigorous comparison of method-specific detection parameters, enable estimation of additional parameters such as false-positive detection probability, and improve occurrence or abundance estimates, but with the assumption that the separate sampling methods produce detections independently of one another...
June 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643408/the-effect-of-concomitant-fields-in-fast-spin-echo-acquisition-on-asymmetric-mri-gradient-systems
#2
Shengzhen Tao, Paul T Weavers, Joshua D Trzasko, John Huston, Yunhong Shu, Erin M Gray, Thomas K F Foo, Matt A Bernstein
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of the asymmetric gradient concomitant fields (CF) with zeroth and first-order spatial dependence on fast/turbo spin-echo acquisitions, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of their real-time compensation. METHODS: After briefly reviewing the CF produced by asymmetric gradients, the effects of the additional zeroth and first-order CFs on these systems are investigated using extended-phase graph simulations. Phantom and in vivo experiments are performed to corroborate the simulation...
June 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641542/functional-nanoparticles-and-their-interactions-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Weiwei Wang, Zijun Deng, Xun Xu, Zhengdong Li, Friedrich Jung, Nan Ma, Andreas Lendlein
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have become one of the most important cell sources for regenerative medicine. However, some mechanisms of MSC-based therapy are still not fully understood. The clinical outcome may be restricted by some MSC-related obstacles such as the low survival rate, differentiation into undesired lineages and malignant transformation. In recent years, with the emergence of nanotechnology, various types of multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) have been designed, prepared and explored for bio-related applications...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640758/consecutive-ultra-short-term-heart-rate-variability-to-track-dynamic-changes-in-autonomic-nervous-system-during-and-after-exercise
#4
Xiang Chen, Ruijie Yao, Gezhen Yin, Jin Li
OBJECTIVE: Quantitative measurement of the dynamic changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) during and after exercise has great significance in clinical, sports training and other fields. A consecutive ultra-short-term (30 s, UST) heart rate variability (HRV) method was proposed to track the exercise-induced autonomic control of heart rate (HR). APPROACH: Twenty-three healthy young men participated in the study. The first four stages of the Modified Bruce Protocol (S0-S3) were performed...
June 22, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638389/recognition-of-orobanche-cumana-below-ground-parasitism-through-physiological-and-hyper-spectral-measurements-in-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-l
#5
Amnon Cochavi, Tal Rapaport, Tania Gendler, Arnon Karnieli, Hanan Eizenberg, Shimon Rachmilevitch, Jhonathan E Ephrath
Broomrape (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) parasitism is a severe problem in many crops worldwide, including in the Mediterranean basin. Most of the damage occurs during the sub-soil developmental stage of the parasite, by the time the parasite emerges from the ground, damage to the crop has already been done. One feasible method for sensing early, below-ground parasitism is through physiological measurements, which provide preliminary indications of slight changes in plant vitality and productivity. However, a complete physiological field survey is slow, costly and requires skilled manpower...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638364/impact-of-neuronal-membrane-damage-on-the-local-field-potential-in-a-large-scale-simulation-of-cerebral-cortex
#6
David L Boothe, Alfred B Yu, Pawel Kudela, William S Anderson, Jean M Vettel, Piotr J Franaszczuk
Within multiscale brain dynamics, the structure-function relationship between cellular changes at a lower scale and coordinated oscillations at a higher scale is not well understood. This relationship may be particularly relevant for understanding functional impairments after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when current neuroimaging methods do not reveal morphological changes to the brain common in moderate to severe TBI such as diffuse axonal injury or gray matter lesions. Here, we created a physiology-based model of cerebral cortex using a publicly released modeling framework (GEneral NEural SImulation System) to explore the possibility that performance deficits characteristic of blast-induced mTBI may reflect dysfunctional, local network activity influenced by microscale neuronal damage at the cellular level...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630887/calculation-of-the-entrance-skin-dose-distribution-for-fluoroscopically-guided-interventions-using-a-pencil-beam-backscatter-model
#7
Sarath Vijayan, Zhenyu Xiong, Stephen Rudin, Daniel R Bednarek
Radiation backscattered from the patient can contribute substantially to skin dose in fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGIs). The distribution of backscatter is not spatially uniform, and use of a single backscatter factor cannot provide an accurate determination of skin dose. This study evaluates a method to determine the backscatter spatial distribution through convolution of a backscatter-to-primary (BP) point spread function (PSFn). The PSFn is derived for a pencil beam using EGSnrc Monte Carlo software and is convolved with primary distributions using a dose-tracking system...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630546/the-battle-over-abortion-rights-in-brazil-s-state-arenas-1995-2006
#8
Marta Rodriguez De Assis Machado, Débora Alves Maciel
This article proposes a relational approach to the study of abortion law reform in Brazil. It focuses on the interaction of pro-choice and anti-abortion movements in different state arenas and political contexts. It details the emergence of a strategic action field on abortion during the Brazilian re-democratization process and the National Constituent Assembly. We offer analysis on pro-choice and anti-abortion mobilization in state arenas-mainly in the executive and legislative powers-during the two terms of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC), 1995-1998 and 1999-2002, and the first term of President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula), 2003-2006...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630338/self-affirmation-facilitates-minority-middle-schoolers-progress-along-college-trajectories
#9
J Parker Goyer, Julio Garcia, Valerie Purdie-Vaughns, Kevin R Binning, Jonathan E Cook, Stephanie L Reeves, Nancy Apfel, Suzanne Taborsky-Barba, David K Sherman, Geoffrey L Cohen
Small but timely experiences can have long-term benefits when their psychological effects interact with institutional processes. In a follow-up of two randomized field experiments, a brief values affirmation intervention designed to buffer minority middle schoolers against the threat of negative stereotypes had long-term benefits on college-relevant outcomes. In study 1, conducted in the Mountain West, the intervention increased Latino Americans' probability of entering a college readiness track rather than a remedial one near the transition to high school 2 y later...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629142/a-source-anonymity-based-lightweight-secure-aodv-protocol-for-fog-based-manet
#10
Weidong Fang, Wuxiong Zhang, Jinchao Xiao, Yang Yang, Wei Chen
Fog-based MANET (Mobile Ad hoc networks) is a novel paradigm of a mobile ad hoc network with the advantages of both mobility and fog computing. Meanwhile, as traditional routing protocol, ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol has been applied widely in fog-based MANET. Currently, how to improve the transmission performance and enhance security are the two major aspects in AODV's research field. However, the researches on joint energy efficiency and security seem to be seldom considered. In this paper, we propose a source anonymity-based lightweight secure AODV (SAL-SAODV) routing protocol to meet the above requirements...
June 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628945/precise-spike-timing-dynamics-of-hippocampal-place-cell-activity-sensitive-to-cholinergic-disruption
#11
Ehren L Newman, Sarah Jo C Venditto, Jason R Climer, Elijah A Petter, Shea N Gillet, Sam Levy
New memory formation depends upon both the hippocampus and modulatory effects of acetylcholine. The mechanism by which acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus enable new encoding remains poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cholinergic modulation supports memory formation by leading to structured spike timing in the hippocampus. Specifically, we tested if phase precession in dorsal CA1 was reduced under the influence of a systemic cholinergic antagonist. Unit and field potential was recorded from the dorsal CA1 of rats as they completed laps on a circular track for food rewards before and during the influence of the systemically administered acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine...
June 19, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626796/determining-underground-mining-work-postures-using-motion-capture-and-digital-human-modeling
#12
Timothy J Lutz, Joseph P DuCarme, Adam K Smith, Dean Ambrose
According to Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) data, during 2008-2012 in the U.S., there were, on average, 65 lost-time accidents per year during routine mining and maintenance activities involving remote-controlled continuous mining machines (CMMs). To address this problem, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is currently investigating the implementation and integration of existing and emerging technologies in underground mines to provide automated, intelligent proximity detection (iPD) devices on CMMs...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Environment and Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625988/modification-of-a-pollen-trap-design-to-capture-airborne-conidia-of-entomophaga-maimaiga-and-detection-by-quantitative-pcr
#13
Tonya D Bittner, Ann E Hajek, Andrew M Liebhold, Harold Thistle
The goal of this study was to develop effective and practical field sampling methods for quantifying aerial deposition of airborne conidia of Entomophaga maimaiga over space and time. This important fungal pathogen is a major cause of larval mortality in invasive gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) populations in the United States. Airborne conidia of this pathogen are relatively large (similar in size to pollen) with unusual characteristics, requiring specialized methods for collection and quantification. Initially, dry sampling (settling of spores from the air onto a dry surface) was used to confirm the detectability of E...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625951/evaluation-of-supplementing-active-peptide-s-effect-on-recovering-skeletal-muscle-micro-injury-after-track-and-field-exercises
#14
Caifeng Li, Zongyou Yang
To explore the effect of supplementing active peptide on recovering skeletal muscle injury after track and field exercises. METHOD: choose 80 patients (contain teenagers) with skeletal muscle micro-injury after the track and field exercises from March 2015 to July 2016, divide them into two groups. Normal treatment of micro-injury of skeletal muscle is given to the control group while active peptide is supplemented to the experimental group based on normal treatment. Compare the two groups to find the differences in relevant indexes of skeletal muscle after track and field exercises...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623479/fast-calibration-of-electromagnetically-tracked-oblique-viewing-rigid-endoscopes
#15
Xinyang Liu, Christina E Rice, Raj Shekhar
PURPOSE: The oblique-viewing (i.e., angled) rigid endoscope is a commonly used tool in conventional endoscopic surgeries. The relative rotation between its two moveable parts, the telescope and the camera head, creates a rotation offset between the actual and the projection of an object in the camera image. A calibration method tailored to compensate such offset is needed. METHODS: We developed a fast calibration method for oblique-viewing rigid endoscopes suitable for clinical use...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620411/vicar-an-adaptive-and-landmark-free-registration-of-time-lapse-image-data-from-microfluidics-experiments
#16
Georges Hattab, Jan-Philip Schlüter, Anke Becker, Tim W Nattkemper
In order to understand gene function in bacterial life cycles, time lapse bioimaging is applied in combination with different marker protocols in so called microfluidics chambers (i.e., a multi-well plate). In one experiment, a series of T images is recorded for one visual field, with a pixel resolution of 60 nm/px. Any (semi-)automatic analysis of the data is hampered by a strong image noise, low contrast and, last but not least, considerable irregular shifts during the acquisition. Image registration corrects such shifts enabling next steps of the analysis (e...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617657/national-institutes-of-health-research-plan-on-rehabilitation
#17
Nih Medical Rehabilitation Coordinating Committee
One in five Americans experiences disability that affects their daily function because of impairments in mobility, cognitive function, sensory impairment, or communication impairment. The need for rehabilitation strategies to optimize function and reduce disability is a clear priority for research to address this public health challenge. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a Research Plan on Rehabilitation that provides a set of priorities to guide the field over the next 5 years. The plan was developed with input from multiple Institutes and Centers within the NIH, the National Advisory Board for Medical Rehabilitation Research, and the public...
2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616948/sub-diffraction-limit-localization-imaging-of-a-plasmonic-nanoparticle-pair-with-wavelength-resolved-dark-field-microscopy
#18
Lin Wei, Yanhong Ma, Xupeng Zhu, Jianghong Xu, Yaxin Wang, Huigao Duan, Lehui Xiao
In this work, with wavelength-resolved dark-field microscopy, the center-of-mass localization information from nanoparticle pairs (i.e., spherical (45 nm in diameter) and rod (45 × 70 nm) shaped gold nanoparticle pairs with different gap distances and orientations) was explored and compared with the results determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. When the gap distance was less than 20 nm, the scattering spectrum of the nanoparticle pair was seriously modulated by the plasmonic coupling effect...
June 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615334/diffusion-weighted-tractography-in-the-common-marmoset-monkey-at-9-4-t
#19
David J Schaeffer, Ramina Adam, Kyle M Gilbert, Joseph S Gati, Alex X Li, Ravi S Menon, Stefan Everling
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World primate that is becoming increasingly popular in the neurosciences as an animal model of preclinical human disease. With several major disorders characterized by alterations in neural white matter (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, schizophrenia) proposed to be transgenically modelled using marmosets, the ability to reliably isolate and characterize major white matter fiber tracts with MRI will be of utility for evaluating structural brain changes related to disease processes and symptomatology...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614710/anterior-cingulate-cortex-modulation-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-in-an-effort-task
#20
Thomas W Elston, David K Bilkey
Information gained during goal pursuit motivates adaptive behavior. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) supports adaptive behavior, but how ACC signals are translated into motivational signals remains unclear. Rats with implants in the ACC and ventral tegmental area (VTA), a dopaminergic brain area implicated in motivation, were trained to run laps around a rectangular track for a fixed reward, where each lap varied in physical effort (a 30-cm climbable barrier). Partial directed coherence analysis of local field potentials revealed that ACC theta (4-12 Hz) activity increased as rats entered the barrier-containing region of the maze in trials when the barrier was absent and predicted similar changes in VTA theta activity...
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
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