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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235166/the-south-african-universal-preschool-year-a-case-study-of-policy-development-and-implementation
#1
L Richter, M-L Samuels
BACKGROUND: South Africa is the first sub-Saharan African country to legislate, fund and implement free preschool education. Human rights and restitution were at the forefront of the political struggle for democracy in South Africa. Levelling the playing fields by improving the school readiness of children disadvantaged by the racist policies of Apartheid is essential to the transformation of South African society. METHODS: A review of published and unpublished documents on Grade R was undertaken, and access and enrolment data come from the National Department of Basic Education's Education Management Information System (EMIS)...
January 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234662/surgical-treatment-of-rectus-femoris-injury-in-soccer-playing-athletes-report-of-two-cases
#2
Leandro Girardi Shimba, Gabriel Carmona Latorre, Alberto de Castro Pochini, Diego Costa Astur, Carlos Vicente Andreoli
Muscle injury is the most common injury during sport practice. It represents 31% of all lesions in soccer, 16% in track and field, 10.4% in rugby, 17.7% in basketball, and between 22% and 46% in American football. The cicatrization with the formation of fibrotic tissue can compromise the muscle function, resulting in a challenging problem for orthopedics. Although conservative treatment presents adequate functional results in the majority of the athletes who have muscle injury, the consequences of treatment failure can be dramatic, possibly compromising the return to sport practice...
November 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234074/motion-guided-spatiotemporal-sparsity-for-high-quality-4d-cbct-reconstruction
#3
Yang Liu, Xi Tao, Jianhua Ma, Zhaoying Bian, Dong Zeng, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen, Hua Zhang
Conventional cone-beam computed tomography is often deteriorated by respiratory motion blur, which negatively affects target delineation. On the other side, the four dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) can be considered to describe tumor and organ motion. But for current on-board CBCT imaging system, the slow rotation speed limits the projection number at each phase, and the associated reconstructions are contaminated by noise and streak artifacts using the conventional algorithm. To address the problem, we propose a novel framework to reconstruct 4D-CBCT from the under-sampled measurements-Motion guided Spatiotemporal Sparsity (MgSS)...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232754/-measurement-of-the-strength-of-human-musculus-orbicularis-oculi-using-video-analysis
#4
Anita Koschmieder, Phillip Pisowocki, Carmen Zietz, Rainer Bader, Oliver Stachs, Anselm Jünemann
Introduction Current methods to measure the of strength of the musculus orbicularis oculi are limited by high proneness to examiner error or by their complex and impracticable set-ups. Our aim was to develop a simple and practicable method to measure eye lid power via video analysis. Methods 50 healthy subjects were included. A deformable single use lid speculum was used. Forced maximum lid closure was recorded via a video slit lamp. Analysis of the video data was performed with open source tracking software...
December 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232054/high-speed-microscopy-for-in-vivo-monitoring-of-lymph-dynamics
#5
Mustafa Sarimollaoglu, Amanda J Stolarz, Dmitry A Nedosekin, Brittney R Garner, Terry W Fletcher, Ekaterina I Galanzha, Nancy J Rusch, Vladimir P Zharov
The lymphatic system contributes to body homeostasis by clearing fluid, lipids, plasma proteins, and immune cells from the interstitial space. Many studies have been performed to understand lymphatic function under normal conditions and during disease. Nevertheless, a further improvement in quantification of lymphatic behavior is needed. Here, we present advanced bright-field microscopy for in vivo imaging of lymph vessels and automated quantification of lymphatic function at temporal resolution of 2 ms. Full frame videos were compressed and recorded continuously at up to 540 frames per second...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230871/prospective-motion-correction-enables-highest-resolution-time-of-flight-angiography-at-7t
#6
Hendrik Mattern, Alessandro Sciarra, Frank Godenschweger, Daniel Stucht, Falk Lüsebrink, Georg Rose, Oliver Speck
PURPOSE: Higher magnetic field strengths enable time-of-flight (TOF) angiography with higher resolution to depict small-vessel pathologies. However, this potential is limited by the subject's ability to remain motionless. Even small-scale, involuntary motion can degrade vessel depiction, thus limiting the effective resolution. The aim of this study was to overcome this resolution limit by deploying prospectively motion-corrected (PMC) TOF. METHODS: An optical, marker-based, in-bore tracking system was used to update the imaging volume prospectively according to the subject's head motion...
December 11, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230656/development-of-gate-monte-carlo-simulation-for-a-csi-pixelated-gamma-camera-dedicated-to-high-resolution-animal-spect
#7
Payvand Taherparvar, Alireza Sadremomtaz
GATE is currently considered in scintigraphic imaging as a powerful tool to develop, design and optimize nuclear medicine modalities. This paper describes the GATE simulation of a pixelated gamma camera which is dedicated to high resolution of small animals imaging. It consists of a CsI(Na) crystal array coupled to position sensitive photomultiplier tube. The simulation model includes photon tracking through low energy high resolution hexagonal parallel holes collimator, CsI(Na) pixelated crystal, back-compartment, and camera shielding...
December 11, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229299/diffusion-mri-of-white-matter-microstructure-development-in-childhood-and-adolescence-methods-challenges-and-progress
#8
REVIEW
Christian K Tamnes, David R Roalf, Anne-Lise Goddings, Catherine Lebel
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) continues to grow in popularity as a useful neuroimaging method to study brain development, and longitudinal studies that track the same individuals over time are emerging. Over the last decade, seminal work using dMRI has provided new insights into the development of brain white matter (WM) microstructure, connections and networks throughout childhood and adolescence. This review provides an introduction to dMRI, both diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and other dMRI models, as well as common acquisition and analysis approaches...
December 7, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228097/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-clinical-immuno-oncology-landscape
#9
J Tang, A Shalabi, V M Hubbard-Lucey
Advances from immuno-oncology (IO) are changing the standard of care of many types of cancer, and the paradigm of cancer treatments and drug development is being rewritten on a regular basis. Moreover, an unprecedented number of new investigational agents and companies are entering the field of IO. As such, it has become challenging for oncology physicians conducting clinical trials, industry veterans developing IO drugs, and even regulators reviewing novel IO agents to keep track of the rapidly evolving landscape...
December 7, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221329/inter-hospital-transports-on-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-different-health-care-systems
#10
Lars Mikael Broman
The feasibility and the recognition of the possibility to transport patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) aroused in the 1970s. The number of transporting facilities worldwide was less than 20 in the beginning of the second Millennium. In 2009 the H1N1 pandemic and a publication showing survival benefit for adult patients transported to a hospital with ECMO resource increased both awareness and interest for ECMO treatment. The number of transport organizations increased rapidly. As of today, the number of transport organizations increases world-wide, though some centers where ECMO is an established treatment report decreasing numbers of transports...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221019/data-analysis-based-autonomic-bandwidth-adjustment-in-software-defined-multi-vendor-optical-transport-networks
#11
Yajie Li, Yongli Zhao, Jie Zhang, Xiaosong Yu, Ruiquan Jing
Network operators generally provide dedicated lightpaths for customers to meet the demand for high-quality transmission. Considering the variation of traffic load, customers usually rent peak bandwidth that exceeds the practical average traffic requirement. In this case, bandwidth provisioning is unmetered and customers have to pay according to peak bandwidth. Supposing that network operators could keep track of traffic load and allocate bandwidth dynamically, bandwidth can be provided as a metered service and customers would pay for the bandwidth that they actually use...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219655/track-to-the-future-historical-perspective-on-the-importance-of-radiation-track-structure-and-dna-as-a-radiobiological-target
#12
Mark A Hill
PURPOSE: Understanding the mechanisms behind induced biological response following exposure to ionizing radiation is not only important in assessing the risk associated with human exposure, but potentially can help identify ways of improving the efficacy of radiotherapy. Over the decades, there has been much discussion on what is the key biological target for radiation action and its associated size. It was already known in the 1930s that microscopic features of radiation significantly influenced biological outcomes...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219219/ultrahigh-magnitude-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-scan-on-rhesus-monkeys-with-implanted-deep-brain-stimulation-hardware
#13
Jun-Ju Li, Lin Shi, Ying-Chuan Chen, Guan-Yu Zhu, Jian-Guo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Patients with implanted deep brain stimulation (DBS) hardware are prohibited from undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at magnitudes greater than 1.5 T to avoid potential MRI-related heating injury. Whether DBS devices are compatible with higher field MRI scanning is unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether 7.0 T and 3.0 T MRI scans can be safely performed on rhesus monkeys with implanted DBS devices. METHODS: Eight male rhesus monkeys were included in this study and stereotactically implanted with DBS devices in the left anterior thalamus...
December 8, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218857/the-combined-effect-of-thermal-and-chemotherapy-on-hela-cells-using-magnetically-actuated-smart-textured-fibrous-system
#14
Pranav Tiwari, Sakshi Agarwal, Sachchidanand Srivastava, Shilpee Jain
Thermal therapy combined with chemotherapy is one of the advanced and efficient methods to eradicate cancer. In this work, we fabricated magnetically actuated smart textured (MAST) fibrous systems and studied their candidacy for cancer treatment. The polycaprolactone-Fe3 O4 based MAST fibers were fabricated using electrospinning technique. These MAST fibrous systems contained carbogenic quantum dots as a tracking agent and doxorubicin hydrochloride anticancer drug. Additionally, as fabricated MAST fibrous systems were able to deliver anticancer drug and heat energy simultaneously to kill HeLa cells in a 10 min period in vitro...
January 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217994/local-fields-in-human-subthalamic-nucleus-track-the-lead-up-to-impulsive-choices
#15
John M Pearson, Patrick T Hickey, Shivanand P Lad, Michael L Platt, Dennis A Turner
The ability to adaptively minimize not only motor but cognitive symptoms of neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's Disease (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), is a primary goal of next-generation deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices. On the basis of studies demonstrating a link between beta-band synchronization and severity of motor symptoms in PD, the minimization of beta band activity has been proposed as a potential training target for closed-loop DBS. At present, no comparable signal is known for the impulsive side effects of PD, though multiple studies have implicated theta band activity within the subthalamic nucleus (STN), the site of DBS treatment, in processes of conflict monitoring and countermanding...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217532/imaging-detected-acute-muscle-injuries-in-athletes-participating-in-the-rio-de-janeiro-2016-summer-olympic-games
#16
Michel D Crema, Mohamed Jarraya, Lars Engebretsen, Frank W Roemer, Daichi Hayashi, Romulo Domingues, Abdalla Y Skaf, Ali Guermazi
BACKGROUND: Acute muscle injuries in elite athletes are responsible for a large portion of time loss injuries. AIM: To describe the frequency, the anatomic distribution, and severity of imaging-detected acute muscle injuries among athletes who competed in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympics. METHODS: We recorded all sports injuries reported by the National Olympic Committee medical teams and the Organising Committee medical staff during the 2016 Summer Olympics...
December 7, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216055/unscented-information-filtering-phase-unwrapping-algorithm-for-interferometric-fringe-patterns
#17
Xianming Xie, Gaoxing Dai
This paper proposes a new phase unwrapping (PU) algorithm based on an unscented information filter for interferometric fringes. The proposed algorithm is the result of combining an unscented information filter with a Levenberg-Marquardt method, a robust phase gradient estimator called the amended matrix pencil model, and an efficient quality-guided strategy based on heapsort. The unscented information filter, a new type of filter that has recently been well applied to traditional nonlinear object tracking fields, is introduced to estimate the unambiguous unwrapped phase of wrapped phase images for the first time, to the best of our knowledge...
December 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215082/the-myokinetic-control-interface-tracking-implanted-magnets-as-a-means-for-prosthetic-control
#18
S Tarantino, F Clemente, D Barone, M Controzzi, C Cipriani
Upper limb amputation deprives individuals of their innate ability to manipulate objects. Such disability can be restored with a robotic prosthesis linked to the brain by a human-machine interface (HMI) capable of decoding voluntary intentions, and sending motor commands to the prosthesis. Clinical or research HMIs rely on the interpretation of electrophysiological signals recorded from the muscles. However, the quest for an HMI that allows for arbitrary and physiologically appropriate control of dexterous prostheses, is far from being completed...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214421/interpreting-activation-mapping-of-atrial-fibrillation-a-hybrid-computational-physiological-study
#19
Francisco Sahli Costabal, Junaid A B Zaman, Ellen Kuhl, Sanjiv M Narayan
Atrial fibrillation is the most common rhythm disorder of the heart associated with a rapid and irregular beating of the upper chambers. Activation mapping remains the gold standard to diagnose and interpret atrial fibrillation. However, fibrillatory activation maps are highly sensitive to far-field effects, and often disagree with other optical mapping modalities. Here we show that computational modeling can identify spurious non-local components of atrial fibrillation electrograms and improve activation mapping...
December 6, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214150/the-physiocam-a-novel-non-contact-sensor-to-measure-heart-rate-variability-in-clinical-and-field-applications
#20
Maria I Davila, Gregory F Lewis, Stephen W Porges
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable indicator of health status and a sensitive index of autonomic stress reactivity. Stress negatively affects physical and psychological wellness by decreasing cardiovascular health and reducing quality of life. Wearable sensors have made it possible to track HRV during daily activity, and recent advances in mobile technology have reduced the cost and difficulty of applying this powerful technique. Although advances have made sensors smaller and lighter, some burden on the subject remains...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
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