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Track and field

Shidong Fan, Cheng Liu, Zhouqing Xie, Yunsheng Dong, Qihou Hu, Guangqiang Fan, Zhengyi Chen, Tianshu Zhang, Jingbo Duan, Pengfei Zhang, Jianguo Liu
In recent years, China has experienced heavy air pollution, especially haze caused by particulate matter (PM). The compositions, horizontal distributions, transport, and chemical formation mechanisms of PM and its precursors have been widely investigated in China based on near-ground measurements. However, the understanding of the distributions and physical and chemical processes of PM in the vertical direction remains limited. In this study, an elastic lidar was employed to investigate the vertical profiles of aerosols along the Yangtze River during the Yangtze River Campaign of winter 2015...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
U Mansmann
BACKGROUND: Over the past 100 years, evidence-based medicine has undergone several fundamental changes. Through the field of physiology, medical doctors were introduced to the natural sciences. Since the late 1940s, randomized and epidemiological studies have come to provide the evidence for medical practice, which led to the emergence of clinical epidemiology as a new field in the medical sciences. Within the past few years, big data has become the driving force behind the vision for having a comprehensive set of health-related data which tracks individual healthcare histories and consequently that of large populations...
February 16, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Laura Panattoni, Catherine Fedorenko, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, Karma Kreizenbeck, Julia R Walker, Renato Martins, Keith D Eaton, John W Rieke, Ted Conklin, Bruce Smith, Gary Lyman, Scott D Ramsey
PURPOSE: As new quality metrics and interventions for potentially preventable emergency department (ED) visits are implemented, we sought to compare methods for evaluating the prevalence and costs of potentially preventable ED visits that were related to cancer and chronic disease among a commercially insured oncology population in the year after treatment initiation. METHODS: We linked SEER records in western Washington from 2011 to 2016 with claims from two commercial insurers...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Michele Perni, Pavan K Challa, Julius B Kirkegaard, Ryan Limbocker, Mandy Koopman, Maarten C Hardenberg, Pietro Sormanni, Thomas Müller, Kadi L Saar, Lianne W Y Roode, Johnny Habchi, Giulia Vecchi, Nilumi W Fernando, Samuel Casford, Ellen A A Nollen, Michele Vendruscolo, Christopher M Dobson, Tuomas P J Knowles
BACKGROUND: The nematode worm C. elegans is a model organism widely used for studies of genetics and of human disease. The health and fitness of the worms can be quantified in different ways, such as by measuring their bending frequency, speed or lifespan. Manual assays, however, are time consuming and limited in their scope providing a strong motivation for automation. NEW METHOD: We describe the development and application of an advanced machine vision system for characterizing the behaviour of C...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Peter H Sönksen, Richard I G Holt, Walailuck Böhning, Nishan Guha, David A Cowan, Christiaan Bartlett, Dankmar Böhning
Background: Endocrine profiles have been measured on blood samples obtained immediately post-competition from 693 elite athletes from 15 Olympic Sports competing at National or International level; four were subsequently excluded leaving 689 for the current analysis. Methods: Body composition was measured by bioimpedance in a sub-set of 234 (146 men and 88 women) and from these data a regression model was constructed that enabled 'estimated' lean body mass and fat mass to be calculated on all athletes...
2018: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
Stanislaw Makarchuk, Nicolas Beyer, Christian Gaiddon, Wilfried Grange, Pascal Hébraud
Traction Force Microscopy (TFM) computes the forces exerted at the surface of an elastic material by measuring induced deformations in volume. It is used to determine the pattern of the adhesion forces exerted by cells or by cellular assemblies grown onto a soft deformable substrate. Typically, colloidal particles are dispersed in the substrate and their displacement is monitored by fluorescent microscopy. As with any other fluorescent techniques, the accuracy in measuring a particule's position is ultimately limited by the number of evaluated fluorescent photons...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adam M Fudickar, Ellen D Ketterson
Ongoing changes to global weather patterns and human modifications of the environment have altered the breeding and non-breeding ranges of migratory species, the timing of their migrations, and even whether they continue to migrate at all. Animal movements are arguably one of the most difficult behaviours to study, particularly in smaller birds that migrate tens to thousands of kilometres seasonally, often moving hundreds of kilometres each day. The recent miniaturization of tracking and logging devices has led to a radical transformation in our understanding of avian migratory behaviour and migratory connectivity...
February 2018: Biology Letters
Daniel Koutny, David Palousek, Libor Pantelejev, Christian Hoeller, Rudolf Pichler, Lukas Tesicky, Jozef Kaiser
This paper deals with various selective laser melting (SLM) processing strategies for aluminum 2618 powder in order to get material densities and properties close to conventionally-produced, high-strength 2618 alloy. To evaluate the influence of laser scanning strategies on the resulting porosity and mechanical properties a row of experiments was done. Three types of samples were used: single-track welds, bulk samples and samples for tensile testing. Single-track welds were used to find the appropriate processing parameters for achieving continuous and well-shaped welds...
February 14, 2018: Materials
Zhihua Lin, Xinjian Fan, Mengmeng Sun, Changyong Gao, Qiang He, Hui Xie
We report a magnetically-actuated, peanut-shaped hematite colloid motor that can not only move in a rolling or wobbling mode in fluids but also perform single-cell manipulation and patterning in a non-contact manner. The peanut motor in the rolling mode can reach a maximal velocity of 10.6 μm s-1 under a rotating magnetic field of 130 Hz and 6.3 mT and can achieve a more precisely controllable motion in predefined tracks. By comparison, the peanut motor in the wobbling mode can reach a maximal velocity of 14...
February 14, 2018: ACS Nano
Christopher Gloschat, Kedar Aras, Shubham Gupta, N Rokhaya Faye, Hanyu Zhang, Roman A Syunyaev, Roman A Pryamonosov, Jack Rogers, Matthew W Kay, Igor R Efimov
Fluorescence optical imaging techniques have revolutionized the field of cardiac electrophysiology and advanced our understanding of complex electrical activities such as arrhythmias. However, traditional monocular optical mapping systems, despite having high spatial resolution, are restricted to a two-dimensional (2D) field of view. Consequently, tracking complex three-dimensional (3D) electrical waves such as during ventricular fibrillation is challenging as the waves rapidly move in and out of the field of view...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Raven Garvey
Archaeology has much to contribute to the study of cultural evolution. Empirical data at archaeological timescales are uniquely well suited to tracking rates of cultural change, detecting phylogenetic signals among groups of artefacts, and recognizing long-run effects of distinct cultural transmission mechanisms. Nonetheless, these are still relatively infrequent subjects of archaeological analysis and archaeology's potential to help advance our understanding of cultural evolution has thus far been largely unrealized...
April 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Dolors Bosch, Marcela A Rodríguez, Laura Depalo, Jesús Avilla
The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest on pome fruit and walnut orchards worldwide. Its resistance to available insecticides has been widely reported. Chlorantraniliprole is an anthranilic diamide that was introduced in European countries in 2008-2009 and acts by activating the insect's ryanodine receptors. The aims of this study were to determine the baseline susceptibility of European populations of C. pomonella to chlorantraniliprole, to establish the discriminant concentrations (DC) to check the possible development of resistance, and to know the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) in the possible susceptibility decrease of field populations to the insecticide...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Lijun He, Xiaoya Qiao, Shuai Wen, Fan Li
Object tracking is an important research direction in computer vision and is widely used in video surveillance, security monitoring, video analysis and other fields. Conventional tracking algorithms perform poorly in specific scenes, such as a target with fast motion and occlusion. The candidate samples may lose the true target due to its fast motion. Moreover, the appearance of the target may change with movement. In this paper, we propose an object tracking algorithm based on motion consistency. In the state transition model, candidate samples are obtained by the target state, which is predicted according to the temporal correlation...
February 13, 2018: Sensors
Qingqing Han, Meng Niu, Hongshan Zhong, Qirun Wu
With the development of nanomaterials, nanoparticle-based therapeutics have found increasing application in various fields, including clinical and basic medicine. Real-time monitoring of nanoparticle-based therapeutics is considered critical to both pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. In this review, we discuss the different methods of real-time monitoring of nanoparticle-based therapeutics comprising different types of nanoparticle carriers, such as metal nanoparticles, inorganic nonmetallic nanoparticles, biodegradable polymer nanoparticles, and biological nanoparticles...
February 11, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Hannah J O'Kelly, J Marcus Rowcliffe, Sarah Durant, E J Milner-Gulland
Hunting with wire snares is rife within many tropical forest systems, and constitutes one of the severest threats to a wide range of vertebrate taxa. As for all threats, reliable monitoring of snaring levels is critical for assessing the relative effectiveness of management interventions. However, snares pose a particular challenge in terms of tracking spatial or temporal trends in their prevalence because they are extremely difficult to detect, and are typically spread across large, inaccessible areas. As with cryptic animal targets, any approach used to monitor snaring levels must address the issue of imperfect detection, but no standard method exists to do so...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Shun-Chuan Chang
In basketball games, whenever players successfully shoot in streaks, they are expected to demonstrate heightened performance for a stretch of time. Streak shooting in basketball has been debated for more than three decades, but most studies have provided little significant statistical evidence and have labeled random subjective judgments the "hot hand fallacy." To obtain a broader perspective of the hot hand phenomenon and its accompanying influences on the court, this study uses field goal records and optical tracking data from the official NBA database for the entire 2015-2016 season to analyze top-scoring leaders' shooting performances...
2018: PloS One
Valeria Rodríguez-Fajardo, Vanesa Sanz, Ignacio de Miguel, Johann Berthelot, Srdjan S Aćimović, Rafael Porcar-Guezenec, Romain Quidant
Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) supporting localized surface plasmon resonances are widely used in the context of biotechnology as optical and absorption contrast agents with great potential applicability to both diagnostics and less invasive therapies. In this framework, it is crucial to have access to simple and reliable microscopy techniques to monitor the NPs that have internalized into cells. While dark field (DF) microscopy takes advantage of the enhanced NP scattering at their plasmon resonance, its use in cells is limited by the large scattering background from the internal cell compartments...
February 12, 2018: Nanoscale
Ou Tan, Liang Liu, Li Liu, David Huang
Purpose: To devise a method to quantify nerve fibers over their arcuate courses over an extended peripapillary area using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: Participants were imaged with 8 × 8-mm volumetric OCT scans centered at the optic disc. A new quantity, nerve fiber flux (NFF), represents the cross-sectional area transected perpendicular to the nerve fibers. The peripapillary area was divided into 64 tracks with equal flux. An iterative algorithm traced the trajectory of the tracks assuming that the relative distribution of the NFF was conserved with compensation for fiber connections to ganglion cells on the macular side...
February 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Fan Xiao, Ximiao Wen, Xing Haw Marvin Tan, Pei-Yu Chiou
A plasmonic micropillar platform with self-organized gold nanospheres is reported for the precision cell traction force measurement across a large field-of-view (FOV). Gold nanospheres were implanted into the tips of polymer micropillars by annealing gold microdisks with nanosecond laser pulses. Each gold nanosphere is physically anchored in the center of a pillar tip and serves as a strong, point-source-like light scattering center for each micropillar. This allows a micropillar to be clearly observed and precisely tracked even under a low magnification objective lens for the concurrent and precision measurement across a large FOV...
January 15, 2018: Applied Physics Letters
T Nagy-Simon, M Potara, A-M Craciun, E Licarete, S Astilean
Due to the good transparency of the human tissue in the biological spectral window, near-infrared (NIR)-dye loaded nanosystems enable more effective light-activated therapy and better contrast imaging with major impact on nanomedicine. Herein, we prepare Pluronic coated gold nanoparticles incorporating the hydrophobic NIR dye, IR780 iodide (GNP-Plu-IR780) to provide water-solubility and stability and demonstrate the proficiency of combining photodynamic and photothermal therapeutic activity with surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) imaging facility...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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