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Maria Carmo P Nunes, Luigi Paolo Badano, J Antonio Marin-Neto, Thor Edvardsen, Covadonga Fernández-Golfín, Chiara Bucciarelli-Ducci, Bogdan A Popescu, Richard Underwood, Gilbert Habib, Jose Luis Zamorano, Roberto Magalhães Saraiva, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Fernando A Botoni, Márcia Melo Barbosa, Marcio Vinicius L Barros, Eduardo Falqueto, Marcus Vinicius Simões, André Schmidt, Carlos Eduardo Rochitte, Manoel Otávio Costa Rocha, Antonio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro, Patrizio Lancellotti
Aims: To develop a document by Brazilian Cardiovascular Imaging Department (DIC) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) to review and summarize the most recent evidences about the non-invasive assessment of patients with Chagas disease, with the intent to set up a framework for standardized cardiovascular imaging to assess cardiovascular morphologic and functional disturbances, as well as to guide the subsequent process of clinical decision-making. Methods and results: Chagas disease remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in Latin America, and has become a health problem in non-endemic countries...
September 25, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Carlos Cornejo, Zamara Cuadros, Ricardo Morales, Javiera Paredes
Research regarding interpersonal coordination can be traced back to the early 1960s when video recording began to be utilized in communication studies. Since then, technological advances have extended the range of techniques that can be used to accurately study interactional phenomena. Although such a diversity of methods contributes to the improvement of knowledge concerning interpersonal coordination, it has become increasingly difficult to maintain a comprehensive view of the field. In the present article, we review the main capture methods by describing their major findings, levels of description and limitations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Diego Cardeñosa, Andrew Fields, Debra Abercrombie, Kevin Feldheim, Stanley K H Shea, Demian D Chapman
Protecting sharks from overexploitation has become global priority after widespread population declines have occurred. Tracking catches and trade on a species-specific basis has proven challenging, in part due to difficulties in identifying processed shark products such as fins, meat, and liver oil. This has hindered efforts to implement regulations aimed at promoting sustainable use of commercially important species and protection of imperiled species. Genetic approaches to identify shark products exist but are typically based on sequencing or amplifying large DNA regions and may fail to work on heavily processed products in which DNA is degraded...
2017: PloS One
Jürgen Vogel, Andreas Auinger, René Riedl, Harald Kindermann, Markus Helfert, Helmuth Ocenasek
Research has shown that physical activity is essential in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease (CVD). Smart wearables (e.g., smartwatches) are increasingly used to foster and monitor human behaviour, including physical activity. However, despite this increased usage, little evidence is available on the effects of smart wearables in behaviour change. The little research which is available typically focuses on the behaviour of healthy individuals rather than patients. In this study, we investigate the effects of using smart wearables by patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation...
2017: PloS One
Daniel Marchalik
The rapid explosion of medical knowledge of the 19th and 20th centuries required a transformation in medical education, which, to that point, had been marked by low educational standards. To combat the lack of regulation, the 1910 Flexner Report recommended sweeping reforms. By 1930, students hoping to enroll in a medical school would need to complete courses in chemistry, physics, and biology, leaving little room for the liberal arts.Medicine is once again changing. The impact of artificial intelligence is being felt across all medical fields, and the nature of physicians' jobs in the new landscape of intelligent machines will inevitably also have to change...
October 10, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Zhiqiang Tan, Yongguang Yin, Xiaoru Guo, Meseret Amde, Myeong Hee Moon, Jing-Fu Liu, Guibin Jiang
It is a great challenge to monitor the physical and chemical transformation of nanoparticles at environmentally relevant concentration levels, mainly because the commonly used techniques like dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope are unable to characterize and quantify trace level nanoparticles in complex matrices. Herein, we demonstrate the on-line coupled system of hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation (HF5), mini-column concentration and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detection as an efficient approach to study the aggregation, and chemical transformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ionic Ag species in the aqueous environment at ng/mL levels...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Shinya Komata, Chung-Ping Lin, Teiji Sota
Tracking allele frequencies is essential for understanding how polymorphisms of adaptive traits are maintained. In Papilio memnon butterflies, which exhibit a female-limited Batesian mimicry polymorphism (wing-pattern polymorphism), two alleles at the doublesex (dsx) locus correspond to mimetic and non-mimetic forms in females; males carry both dsx alleles but display only the non-mimetic form. This polymorphism is thought to be maintained by a negative frequency-dependent selection. By tracking dsx allele frequencies in both sexes at a Taiwanese site over four years, we found that the mimetic allele persists at intermediate frequencies even when the unpalatable model papilionid butterflies (Pachliopta and Atrophaneura species) were very rare or absent...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Renate List, Barbara Postolka, Pascal Schütz, Marco Hitz, Peter Schwilch, Hans Gerber, Stephen J Ferguson, William R Taylor
Videofluoroscopy has been shown to provide essential information in the evaluation of the functionality of total knee arthroplasties. However, due to the limitation in the field of view, most systems can only assess knee kinematics during highly restricted movements. To avoid the limitations of a static image intensifier, a moving fluoroscope has been presented as a standalone system that allows tracking of the knee during multiple complete cycles of level- and downhill-walking, as well as stair descent, in combination with the synchronous assessment of ground reaction forces and whole body skin marker measurements...
2017: PloS One
Giulia Matrone, Alessandro Ramalli, Alessandro Stuart Savoia, Fabio Quaglia, Gloria Castellazzi, Patrizia Morbini, Marco Piastra
The possibility to perform an early and repeatable assessment of imaging performance is fundamental in the design and development process of new ultrasound (US) probes. Particularly, a more realistic analysis with application-specific imaging targets can be extremely valuable to assess the expected performance of US probes in their potential clinical field of application. The experimental protocol presented in this work was purposely designed to provide an application-specific assessment procedure for newly-developed US probe prototypes based on Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) technology in relation to brain imaging...
September 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mingze Li, Xiaoli Zhuang, Wenxing Liu, Pengcheng Zhang
This study aims to explore the influence of co-author network on team knowledge creation. Integrating the two traditional perspectives of network relationship and network structure, we examine the direct and interactive effects of tie stability and structural holes on team knowledge creation. Tracking scientific articles published by 111 scholars in the research field of human resource management from the top 8 American universities, we analyze scholars' scientific co-author networks. The result indicates that tie stability changes the teams' information processing modes and, when graphed, results in an inverted U-shape relationship between tie stability and team knowledge creation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Martin Bulla, Thomas Oudman, Allert I Bijleveld, Theunis Piersma, Charalambos P Kyriacou
Marine organisms adapt to complex temporal environments that include daily, tidal, semi-lunar, lunar and seasonal cycles. However, our understanding of marine biological rhythms and their underlying molecular basis is mainly confined to a few model organisms in rather simplistic laboratory settings. Here, we use new empirical data and recent examples of marine biorhythms to highlight how field ecologists and laboratory chronobiologists can complement each other's efforts. First, with continuous tracking of intertidal shorebirds in the field, we reveal individual differences in tidal and circadian foraging rhythms...
November 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Davide M Dominoni, Susanne Åkesson, Raymond Klaassen, Kamiel Spoelstra, Martin Bulla
Chronobiological research has seen a continuous development of novel approaches and techniques to measure rhythmicity at different levels of biological organization from locomotor activity (e.g. migratory restlessness) to physiology (e.g. temperature and hormone rhythms, and relatively recently also in genes, proteins and metabolites). However, the methodological advancements in this field have been mostly and sometimes exclusively used only in indoor laboratory settings. In parallel, there has been an unprecedented and rapid improvement in our ability to track animals and their behaviour in the wild...
November 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Christopher Neil Passmore, Mirela Kirr
One of the main goals for Radiation Safety Professionals is to help maintain radiation worker doses below administrative control levels. In the radiation safety field there is an increasing recognition of the value of dosimetry-related data that can be used to enhance safety programs and regulatory compliance. Mining radiation dosimetry data and rendering results in the form of dashboards provides insights for the Radiation Safety Professionals that could help improve the radiological protection programs effectiveness, enhances quality, and reduces cost...
October 5, 2017: Health Physics
Juan Fernandez-Ruiz, Alicia J Peltsch, Nadia Alayhane, Donald C Brien, Brian C Coe, Angeles Garcia, Douglas P Munoz
Cognitive decline during aging includes impairments in frontal executive functions like reduced inhibitory control. However, decline is not uniform across the population, suggesting individual brain response variability to the aging process. Here we tested the hypothesis, within the oculomotor system, that older adults compensate for age-related neural alterations by changing neural activation levels of the oculomotor areas, or even by recruiting additional areas to assist with cognitive performance. We established that the observed changes had to be related to better cognitive performance to be considered as compensatory...
October 5, 2017: NeuroImage
Shuang Song, Changchun Zhang, Li Liu, Max Q-H Meng
PURPOSE: Flexible surgical robot can work in confined and complex environments, which makes it a good option for minimally invasive surgery. In order to utilize flexible manipulators in complicated and constrained surgical environments, it is of great significance to monitor the position and shape of the curvilinear manipulator in real time during the procedures. In this paper, we propose a magnetic tracking-based planar shape sensing and navigation system for flexible surgical robots in the transoral surgery...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Jubong Han, K B Lee, Jong-Man Lee, S H Lee, Tae Soon Park, J S Oh
A 24 segmented HPGe coaxial detector was set up with a digitized data acquisition system (DAQ). The DAQ was composed of a digitizer (5 × 10(7)sampling/s), a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and a real time operating system. The Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM), rise time, signal characteristics, and spectra of a (137)Cs source were evaluated. The data were processed using an in-house developed gamma-ray tracking system.
September 12, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Daniel Leclair, Jeffrey M Farber, Franco Pagotto, Sandy Suppa, Bill Doidge, John W Austin
Botulism in Nunavik, Quebec is associated with the consumption of aged marine mammal meat and fat. The objective was to identify meat handling practices presenting a risk of contamination of seal meat with C. botulinum. Potential sources of contamination were assessed through interviews with igunaq producers from five communities of Nunavik. These sources were verified by detection and isolation of C. botulinum from igunaq prepared in the field from seal carcasses. Interviews indicated practices presenting a risk for contamination included: placing meat or fat on coastal rocks, using seawater for rinsing, and ageing meat in inverted seal skin pouches...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
P Bilski, B Marczewska, W Gieszczyk, M Klosowski, T Nowak, M Naruszewicz
Radiophotoluminescence signal of LiF crystals was found to be sufficiently strong to visualize tracks of a single charged particle. This was achieved with a wide-field fluorescent microscope equipped with a ×100 objective and LiF single crystals grown with the Czochralski method at IFJ PAN. The tracks of alpha particles, protons, as well as products of 6Li(n,α)3H reaction with thermal neutrons (moderated Pu/Be source), were observed. These encouraging results are the first steps towards practical use of LiF as fluorescent nuclear track detectors...
August 30, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Nobuyasu Awano, Soichiro Ikushima, Takehiro Izumo, Mari Tone, Kensuke Fukuda, Shingo Miyamoto, Yuan Bae, Toshio Kumasaka, Yuriko Terada, Yoshiaki Furuhata, Ryutaro Nomura, Kengo Sato
Background: CyberKnife® (CK) is a new, advanced radiotherapy technique. This study aimed to evaluate its efficacy and toxicity in Japanese patients with early-stage primary lung tumor who were medically unfit and inoperable. Methods: This retrospective study investigated patients who received CK treatment for medically inoperable Stage І primary lung tumor at the Japanese Red Cross Medical Center between June 2011 and September 2016. Each patient received a total of 36-48 Gy (median, 43 Gy) administered by CK in 4-5 fractions...
October 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Armin Rund, Christoph Stefan Aigner, Karl Kunisch, Rudolf Stollberger
Optimal control approaches have proved useful in designing RF pulses for large tip-angle applications. A typical challenge for optimal control design is the inclusion of constraints resulting from physiological or technical limitations, that assure the realizability of the optimized pulses. In this work we show how to treat such inequality constraints, in particular, amplitude constraints on the B1 field, the slice-selective gradient and its slew rate, as well as constraints on the slice profile accuracy. For the latter a pointwise profile error and additional phase constraints are prescribed...
October 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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