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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773886/pretreatment-with-broad-spectrum-antibiotics-alters-the-pharmacokinetics-of-major-constituents-of-shaoyao-gancao-decoction-in-rats-after-oral-administration
#1
Meng Liu, Jie Yuan, Wen-Juan Hu, Chang-Qiang Ke, Yi-Fan Zhang, Yang Ye, Da-Fang Zhong, Guang-Rong Zhao, Sheng Yao, Jia Liu
The influence of broad-spectrum antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of major constituents of Shaoyao-Gancao decoction (SGD) in rats was investigated. The pharmacokinetic behaviors of paeoniflorin (PF), albiflorin (AF), liquiritin (LT), isoliquiritin (ILT), liquiritin apioside (LA), isoliquiritin apioside (ILA), and glycyrrhizic acid (GL), seven major constituents of SGD, as well as glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a major metabolite of GL, were analyzed. A 1-week pretreatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics (ampicillin, metronidazole, neomycin, 1 g L-1 ; and vancomycin, 0...
May 17, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768433/the-long-term-outcomes-of-epilepsy-surgery
#2
Midhun Mohan, Simon Keller, Andrew Nicolson, Shubhabrata Biswas, David Smith, Jibril Osman Farah, Paul Eldridge, Udo Wieshmann
OBJECTIVE: Despite modern anti-epileptic drug treatment, approximately 30% of epilepsies remain medically refractory and for these patients, epilepsy surgery may be a treatment option. There have been numerous studies demonstrating good outcome of epilepsy surgery in the short to median term however, there are a limited number of studies looking at the long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to ascertain the long-term outcome of resective epilepsy surgery in a large neurosurgery hospital in the U...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745235/synthesis-of-2-4-5-trisubstituted-oxazoles-with-complementary-regioselectivity-from-%C3%AE-oxoketene-dithioacetals-and-%C3%AE-methylthio-%C3%AE-het-aryl-2-propenones
#3
Siripuram Vijay Kumar, Anand Acharya, Hiriyakkanavar Ila
An efficient protocol for the synthesis of 2,5-substituted 4-acyloxazoles and the related 2,4-substituted 5-acyloxazoles with complementary regioselectivity from the corresponding α-oxoketene dithioacetals or β-(het)aryl/(methylthio)enone precursors has been reported. In the first protocol, the α-oxoketene dithioacetals or β-(methylthio)enones were converted to the corresponding α-bromo-β-(methylthio)enones followed by copper catalyzed inter/intramolecular annulation of these intermediates with various primary amides affording 2-(het)aryl/alkyl-4-(het)aroyl-5-(methylthio)/(het)aryloxazoles via concomitant formation of C4-N and C5-O bond via enamide intermediates...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744220/principles-and-indications-of-extracorporeal-life-support-in-general-thoracic-surgery
#4
REVIEW
Karen McRae, Marc de Perrot
The role of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has expanded rapidly over the past 15 years to become an important tool in advanced general thoracic surgery practice. Intra-operative and in some cases continued post-operative ECLS is redefining the scope of complex surgical care. ECLS encompasses a spectrum of temporary mechanical support that may remove CO2 , oxygenate or provide hemodynamic support or a combination thereof. The most common modalities used in general thoracic surgery include extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), interventional lung assist device (iLA® Novalung® , Heilbronn, Germany), and extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2 R)...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741207/genetic-generalized-epilepsies
#5
Saul A Mullen, Samuel F Berkovic
The genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs) are mainly genetically determined disorders. Although inheritance in most cases appears to be complex, involving multiple genes, variants of a number of genes are known to contribute. Pathogenic variants of SLC2A1 leading to autosomal-dominant GLUT1 deficiency account for up to 1% of cases, increasing to 10% of those with absence seizures starting before age 4 years. Copy number variants are found in around 3% of cases, acting as risk alleles. Copy number variation is much more common in those with comorbid learning disability...
May 9, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739903/identification-of-the-intragenomic-promoter-controlling-hepatitis-e-virus-subgenomic-rna-transcription
#6
Qiang Ding, Ila Nimgaonkar, Nicholas F Archer, Yaron Bram, Brigitte Heller, Robert E Schwartz, Alexander Ploss
Approximately 20 million hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections occur annually in both developing and industrialized countries. Most infections are self-limiting, but they can lead to chronic infections and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients, and death in pregnant women. The mechanisms of HEV replication remain incompletely understood due to scarcity of adequate experimental platforms. HEV undergoes asymmetric genome replication, but it produces an additional subgenomic (SG) RNA encoding the viral capsid and a viroporin in partially overlapping open reading frames...
May 8, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716649/preexisting-radiological-interstitial-lung-abnormalities-are-a-risk-factor-for-severe-radiation-pneumonitis-in-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer-after-thoracic-radiation-therapy
#7
Fangjuan Li, Ziyang Zhou, Ailu Wu, Yong Cai, Hongyu Wu, Ming Chen, Shixiong Liang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that patients with preexisting radiological interstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) were more susceptible to developing radiation pneumonitis (RP) after thoracic radiation therapy (TRT). The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence and predictors of RP after TRT in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) with or without preexisting radiological ILAs. METHODS: A total of 95 consecutive patients with SCLC between January 2015 and December 2015, who were treated with thoracic intensity-modulated radiation therapy at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital,Tongji University School of Medicine, were analyzed...
May 2, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701852/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-cryptosporidiosis-in-children-from-eight-low-income-sites-results-from-the-mal-ed-study
#8
Poonum S Korpe, Cristian Valencia, Rashidul Haque, Mustafa Mahfuz, Monica McGrath, Eric Houpt, Margaret Kosek, Benjamin J J McCormick, Pablo Penataro Yori, Sudhir Babji, Gagandeep Kang, Dennis Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Amidou Samie, Pascal Bessong, A S G Faruque, Esto Mduma, Rosemary Nshama, Alexandre Havt, Ila F N Lima, Aldo A M Lima, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Ashish Shreshtha, William A Petri, Tahmeed Ahmed, Priya Duggal
Background: Cryptosporidium spp are enteric protozoa that cause significant morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. We characterized the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in children from eight resource-limited sites of the MAL-ED study. Methods: Children were enrolled within 17 days of birth, and followed twice weekly for 24 months. Diarrheal and monthly surveillance stool samples were tested for Cryptosporidium by ELISA. Socioeconomic data were collected by survey and anthropometry was measured monthly...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699925/discovery-of-d-amino-acid-oxidase-inhibitors-based-on-virtual-screening-against-the-lid-open-enzyme-conformation
#9
Bence Szilágyi, Žiga Skok, Anita Rácz, Rok Frlan, György G Ferenczy, Janez Ilaš, György M Keserű
d-Amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitors are typically small polar compounds with often suboptimal pharmacokinetic properties. Features of the native binding site limit the operational freedom of further medicinal chemistry efforts. We therefore initiated a structure based virtual screening campaign based on the X-ray structures of DAAO complexes where larger ligands shifted the loop (lid opening) covering the native binding site. The virtual screening of our in-house collection followed by the in vitro test of the best ranked compounds led to the identification of a new scaffold with micromolar IC50 ...
April 20, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680783/arabidopsis-ilithyia-protein-is-necessary-for-proper-chloroplast-biogenesis-and-root-development-independent-of-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation
#10
I Faus, R Niñoles, V Kesari, P Llabata, E Tam, S G Nebauer, J Santiago, M T Hauser, J Gadea
One of the main mechanisms blocking translation after stress situations is mediated by phosphorylation of the α-subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2), performed in Arabidopsis by the protein kinase GCN2 which interacts and is activated by ILITHYIA(ILA). ILA is involved in plant immunity and its mutant lines present phenotypes not shared by the gcn2 mutants. The functional link between these two genes remains elusive in plants. In this study, we show that, although both ILA and GCN2 genes are necessary to mediate eIF2α phosphorylation upon treatments with the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis inhibitor glyphosate, their mutants develop distinct root and chloroplast phenotypes...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674967/no-acute-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-the-sleep-wake-cycle-of-healthy-subjects-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#11
Ila M P Linares, Francisco S Guimaraes, Alan Eckeli, Ana C S Crippa, Antonio W Zuardi, Jose D S Souza, Jaime E Hallak, José A S Crippa
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a component of Cannabis sativa that has a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects in neuropsychiatric and other disorders. However, few studies have investigated the possible interference of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a clinically anxiolytic dose of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of healthy subjects in a crossover, double-blind design. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were selected and allocated to receive either CBD (300 mg) or placebo in the first night in a double-blind randomized design (one volunteer withdrew from the study)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665572/diagnostic-and-treatment-practices-for-psychogenic-nonepileptic-and-epileptic-seizures-in-namibia
#12
Anina du Toit, Chrisma Pretorius
PURPOSE: Information about existing healthcare resources for the management of seizures in developing countries is lacking. These countries are often poorly equipped to deal with the immense burden of costs, mortality, stigma, seizure-related disability, and comorbidities presented by seizure disorders. This study aimed to contribute to the goals of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) by investigating the resources available for patients with seizure in Namibia. METHODS: Two separate surveys on the diagnostic and treatment practices for epileptic seizures (ES) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) were administered to private healthcare practitioners (HCPs) in Namibia...
April 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644921/cognitive-frailty-and-its-association-with-all-cause-mortality-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-in-taiwan-results-from-i-lan-longitudinal-aging-study
#13
Li-Kuo Liu, Wei-Ju Lee, Yi-Hui Wu, An-Chun Hwang, Ming-Hsien Lin, Hiroyuki Shimada, Li-Ning Peng, Ching-Hui Loh, Hidenori Arai, Liang-Kung Chen
BACKGROUND: The definition of cognitive frailty and its prediction for adverse outcome of community-living older adults remains controversial. This study aims to evaluate the association between cognitive frailty and all-cause mortality among community-living older adults. METHODS: Data of the I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study (ILAS) were retrieved for study. Frailty was defined by Fried's criteria, and a series of neuropsychological assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Center for Epidemiology Studies-Depression (CES-D), the delay free recall in the Chinese Version Verbal Learning Test, the Boston Naming Test, the category (animal) Verbal Fluency Test, the Taylor Complex Figure Test, the digital backward and the Clock Drawing Test were performed...
April 12, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620013/the-2017-ilae-classification-of-seizure-types-and-the-epilepsies-what-do-people-with-epilepsy-and-their-caregivers-need-to-know
#14
Martin J Brodie, Sameer M Zuberi, Ingrid E Scheffer, Robert S Fisher
The International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) published in the April 2017 edition of Epilepsia three companion articles on the classification of seizures and the epilepsies. These represent a long-awaited update on the original 1981 and 1989 publications and provide a modern descriptive template. The new classification presents three levels of terminology, involving seizure types, epilepsy types, and syndromes. In this fourth paper, we present an interpretation of these new concepts for people with epilepsy and those who care for them, as well as for young medical doctors not specialized in epilepsy and nurses...
April 5, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605213/interstitial-lung-abnormality-is-prevalent-and-associated-with-worse-outcome-in-patients-undergoing-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#15
Michael Kadoch, Aleksandar Kitich, Shehabaldin Alqalyoobi, Elyse Lafond, Elena Foster, Maya Juarez, Cesar Mendez, Thomas W Smith, Garrett Wong, Walter D Boyd, Jeffrey Southard, Justin M Oldham
BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung abnormality (ILA) is found in 5-10% of the general population and is associated with increased mortality risk. Risk factors for ILA, including advanced age and smoking history also increase the risk for aortic stenosis (AS). Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become an increasingly utilized intervention for patients with severe AS, and requires a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest to assess aortic valve dimensions. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and clinical significance of ILA on HRCT performed in patients referred for TAVR...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603703/radiographic-assessment-of-anatomy-of-nasopalatine-canal-for-dental-implant-placement-a-cone-beam-computed-tomographic-study
#16
Jaligama B Rao, Pramod Tatuskar, Ashwini Pulla, Naveen Kumar, Swati C Patil, Ila Tiwari
AIM: The aim of this study is to assess the morphology of nasopalatine canal (NPC) with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 460 subjects of both genders were subjected to CBCT with NewTom machine, and sagittal and coronal sections were used for evaluation of the shape of NPC and width of buccal cortical plate. Types of NPC were also assessed. RESULTS: Of 460 subjects, males were 210 and females were 250...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602963/evaluation-of-superior-concha-bullosa-by-computed-tomography
#17
Kadri İla, Nihat Yilmaz, Serkan Öner, Efser Başaran, Zülal Öner
OBJECTIVE: Concha bullosa is generally regarded as pneumatisation of the middle turbinate in the nose. However, pneumatisation may also be seen in the superior and inferior turbinate. Computed tomography (CT) of paranasal sinuses is extremely helpful for the examination of this inaccessible area. Coronal CT sections of paranasal sinuses are particularly useful for surgical anatomy, as these images show nearly the same regions as the endoscopic examinations. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the presence, incidence and unilaterality-bilaterality of superior turbinate pneumatisation and concomitant nasal pathologies...
March 30, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602081/juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-refractory-to-treatment-in-a-tertiary-referral-center
#18
Gonçalo Cação, Joana Parra, Shahidul Mannan, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Josemir W Sander
INTRODUCTION: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is an epileptic syndrome often regarded as one in which seizures are relatively easy to control. Individuals with JME, however, often require lifelong therapy to remain seizure-free, and a few have refractory epilepsy. We ascertained a population with JME and characterized a subgroup with refractory epilepsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We audited and reviewed clinical records of individuals diagnosed with JME identified via a sample of 6600 individuals in a clinical database from a specialized epilepsy clinic at a tertiary referral center...
March 26, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588959/pnes-around-the-world-where-we-are-now-and-how-we-can-close-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-gaps-an-ilae-pnes-task-force-report
#19
Kousuke Kanemoto, W Curt LaFrance, Roderick Duncan, David Gigineishvili, Sung-Pa Park, Yukari Tadokoro, Hiroko Ikeda, Ravi Paul, Dong Zhou, Go Taniguchi, Mike Kerr, Tomohiro Oshima, Kazutaka Jin, Markus Reuber
An international consensus clinical practice statement issued in 2011 ranked psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) among the top three neuropsychiatric problems. An ILAE PNES Task Force was founded and initially charged with summarizing the current state of the art in terms of diagnosis and treatment, resulting in two publications. The first described different levels of diagnostic certainty. The second summarized current knowledge of management approaches. The present paper summarizes an international workshop of the ILAE PNES Task Force that focused on the current understanding and management of PNES around the world...
September 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572865/hippocampal-subfield-segmentation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-relation-to-outcomes
#20
B A K Kreilkamp, B Weber, S B Elkommos, M P Richardson, S S Keller
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and surgical outcome correlates of preoperative hippocampal subfield volumes in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) multisequence segmentation technique. METHODS: We recruited 106 patients with TLE and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who underwent conventional T1-weighted and T2 short TI inversion recovery MRI. An automated hippocampal segmentation algorithm was used to identify twelve subfields in each hippocampus...
March 23, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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