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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934772/local-and-regional-smokefree-and-tobacco-free-action-in-new-zealand-highlights-and-directions
#1
George Thomson, Nick Wilson
In this viewpoint we highlight and discuss some recent local and regional level advances in tobacco control in Aotearoa/New Zealand. In this country a wide range of local actors are helping drive smokefree and tobacco-free policies, with an increasing presence of businesses in this field. There has been progress in the areas of smokefree dining, large outdoor worksites and ski fields, and parts of downtown areas such as squares and streets. In 2015 and 2016, three councils (Palmerston North, Napier and Hastings) have used pavement lease policies and bylaws to start introducing an element of requirement into smokefree outdoor dining...
September 22, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934269/should-i-drink-responsibly-safely-or-properly-confusing-messages-about-reducing-alcohol-related-harm
#2
Sandra C Jones, Sabine Hall, Kypros Kypri
'Responsible drinking' campaigns emerged in the early 1970s as a means of addressing hazardous drinking and its related consequences. While these were initially the product of public health agencies and health-related NGOs, they are increasingly being developed and disseminated by the alcohol industry. There is considerable debate as to whether industry-generated campaigns are designed to reduce hazardous drinking and related problems (as argued by their developers) or are designed to avoid government regulation or even to increase sales...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934143/involuntary-smoking-in-adolescents-their-awareness-of-its-harmfulness-and-attitudes-towards-smoking-in-the-presence-of-non-smokers
#3
Dorota Kaleta, Kinga Polanska, Piotr Wojtysiak, Franciszek Szatko
The aim of the study was to examine involuntary smoking among young people, their awareness of its harmfulness and the factors associated with attitudes towards smoking in the presence of non-smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3552 students from a socially disadvantaged rural area in central Poland. Almost 40% of the participants were exposed to involuntary smoking at home and 60% outside of home on a daily or almost daily basis. More than 80% of the students felt that smoking should be banned around children at home, 59% thought it should be banned in vehicles, and 41% in the presence of non-smokers...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934079/direct-marketing-promotion-and-electronic-cigarette-use-among-us-adults-national-adult-tobacco-survey-2013-2014
#4
Hongying Dai, Jianqiang Hao
INTRODUCTION: The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among US adults has increased since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of direct marketing promotion of e-cigarettes and its association with e-cigarette use among US adults. METHODS: We used using data from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) to estimate prevalence of e-cigarette promotions received by mail or email. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between e-cigarette promotions and the prevalence and frequency of e-cigarette use among US adults...
September 21, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933976/the-social-context-of-adolescent-co-use-of-cigarillos-and-marijuana-blunts
#5
Elizabeth Antognoli, Sarah Koopman Gonzalez, Erika Trapl, David Cavallo, Rock Lim, Brittany Lavanty, Susan Flocke
BACKGROUND: The use of cigarillos for smoking as a tobacco product and for making marijuana blunts is increasing among adolescents. Previous research has documented the co-use of these products, however little is known about the contextual features that generate and sustain this practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aims for a deeper understanding of why and how co-use of cigarillos and marijuana blunts occurs. METHODS: Between December 2015 and April 2016, we conducted in-depth interviews with 30 adolescents aged 14-18 who reported smoking ≥1 cigarillo per week...
September 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933924/a-revolutionary-attack-on-tobacco-bolshevik-antismoking-campaigns-in-the-1920s
#6
Tricia A Starks
Using archival records of the Commissariat of Public Health, journals, and propaganda materials from the antismoking campaign of the Soviet 1920s, this article argues that the revolutionary state pursued an antitobacco policy unique in the world in its attack on tobacco use at a national scale. The commissar of public health, Nikolai Alexandrovich Semashko, attempted to severely curtail tobacco cultivation and production, limit tobacco sales, and create a public opinion against tobacco with a propaganda campaign...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932148/correlation-of-environmental-tobacco-smoke-to-gingival-pigmentation-and-salivary-alpha-amylase-in-young-adults
#7
Deepa Ponnaiyan, Priyanka Chillara, Yuvasri Palani
OBJECTIVE: Passive smoking leads to melanin pigmentation on gingiva. However, documentation of gingival pigmentation and salivary amylase activity in passive smokers relative to the duration of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), is incomplete and requires further investigation. Thus, this study aimed to assess effects of ETS exposure on gingival pigmentation in young adults. In addition, to correlate a number of years of exposure to an extent, the intensity of gingival pigmentation and salivary amylase activity...
July 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932135/effectiveness-of-two-interactive-educational-methods-to-teach-tobacco-cessation-counseling-for-senior-dental-students
#8
Mina Ahmadian, Mohammad Reza Khami, Arezoo Ebn Ahamdi, Samaneh Razeghi, Reza Yazdani
OBJECTIVE: Nowadays, one of the major health problems in many countries is tobacco use. Dental professionals are in a unique position to promote smoking cessation since they have the opportunity for regular interaction with their patients. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two educational methods to teach tobacco cessation counseling (TCC) in dental practice for senior dental students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this interventional study, 93 eligible senior dental students from two dental schools in Tehran, Iran were randomly divided into two groups...
July 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931379/the-effects-of-a-rise-in-cigarette-price-on-cigarette-consumption-tobacco-taxation-revenues-and-of-smoking-related-deaths-in-28-eu-countries-applying-threshold-regression-modelling
#9
Chun-Yuan Yeh, Christian Schafferer, Jie-Min Lee, Li-Ming Ho, Chi-Jung Hsieh
BACKGROUND: European Union public healthcare expenditure on treating smoking and attributable diseases is estimated at over €25bn annually. The reduction of tobacco consumption has thus become one of the major social policies of the EU. This study investigates the effects of price hikes on cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenues and smoking-caused deaths in 28 EU countries. METHODS: Employing panel data for the years 2005 to 2014 from Euromonitor International, the World Bank and the World Health Organization, we used income as a threshold variable and applied threshold regression modelling to estimate the elasticity of cigarette prices and to simulate the effect of price fluctuations...
September 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930054/impact-of-substance-messages-in-music-videos-on-youth-beware-the-influence-of-connectedness-and-its-potential-prevention-shielding-effect
#10
Cristel Antonia Russell, Véronique Régnier-Denois, Boris Chapoton, Denise Buhrau
OBJECTIVE: Two studies were conducted to investigate the role of connectedness with music videos in affecting youths' beliefs about substances (alcohol and tobacco) embedded therein and the potential for a prevention message to limit the impact of these images. METHOD: The first study used cross-sectional data from a national sample of 1,023 adolescents (54.3% male) to evaluate the relationship between youths' consumption of music videos and their beliefs about the consequences of consuming alcohol and tobacco...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929489/association-between-long-term-low-intensity-cigarette-smoking-and-incidence-of-smoking-related-cancer-in-the-national-institutes-of-health-aarp-cohort
#11
Maki Inoue-Choi, Patricia Hartge, Linda M Liao, Neil Caporaso, Neal D Freedman
An increasing proportion of US smokers smoke ≤10 cigarettes per day (CPD) or do not smoke every day, yet the health effects of low-intensity smoking are poorly understood. We identified lifelong smokers of <1 or 1-10 CPD and evaluated risk of incident cancer among 238,525 cancer-free adults, aged 59-82, in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. A questionnaire administered in 2004-2005 assessed CPD during nine age-periods (<15 to ≥70). We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression with age as the underlying time metric...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928322/assessment-of-urinary-cotinine-levels-in-women-with-gynecological-complaints-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-a-pilot-study
#12
A G Radhika, Sruthi Bhaskaran, Jagdish Kaur, Anshuja Singla, Tusha Sharma, B D Banerjee
Gynecological effects due to smokeless tobacco exposure are not well studied. This cross-sectional study was undertaken with the objective to evaluate the urinary cotinine levels in women of reproductive age with gynecological complaints. The study was conducted in 2015 at the outpatient clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi. A total of 192 consecutive women presenting with gynecological complaints (pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, and menstrual abnormality) were recruited...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928320/tobacco-use-among-young-adolescents-in-myanmar-findings-from-global-youth-tobacco-survey
#13
Nyein Aye Tun, Thuzar Chittin, Naveen Agarwal, Mya Lay New, Yamin Thaung, Pyi Pyi Phyo
BACKGROUND: Tobacco consumption among youths poses significant public health problem in developing countries. This study utilized the available data of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) to assess the prevalence of tobacco use among Myanmar adolescents. OBJECTIVES: We have conducted the fourth round of the GYTS in Myanmar during 2016 to monitor trends in tobacco use. METHODS: We have selected 51 schools using random sampling based on probability proportional to school enrollment...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928319/effect-of-a-brief-smoking-cessation-intervention-on-adult-tobacco-smokers-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-from-north-india
#14
Sonu Goel, Jeyashree Kathiresan, Preeti Singh, Rana J Singh
BACKGROUND: An association between smoking and poor tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes has been globally established. Various smoking cessation interventions (SCIs) have been proven worldwide to curb smoking behavior. There is a need for evidence to assess if SCI increases the chance of successful treatment outcome among TB patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of a brief SCI; The Ask, Brief, Cessation support (ABC) package, on treatment outcomes and smoking cessation in smear-positive adult pulmonary TB patients...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928318/tobacco-use-among-thai-students-results-from-the-2015-global-youth-tobacco-survey
#15
Pantip Chotbenjamaporn, Vilailak Haruhansapong, Pensom Jumriangrit, Siriwan Pitayarangsarit, Naveen Agarwal, Renu Garg
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use often starts in adolescence and is a leading cause of premature mortality. Two previous rounds of the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) found that a significant proportion of Thai youth currently smoke. OBJECTIVES: We conducted the third round of GYTS in Thailand in 2015 to monitor trends in tobacco use. METHODS: We selected 31 public and private secondary schools using random sampling based on probability proportional to school enrolment...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928316/integrated-brief-tobacco-and-alcohol-cessation-intervention-in-a-primary-health-care-setting-in-karnataka
#16
O T Sabari Sridhar, Pratima Murthy, K V Kishore Kumar
BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol use are important preventable risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and need to be addressed in primary health care. OBJECTIVES: To find the effectiveness of Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST)-based brief intervention for alcohol and tobacco in a primary health-care setting in Karnataka. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2012 where one primary health center (PHC) in Karnataka was an intervention site and other the control site...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928313/youth-tobacco-use-in-south-east-asia-implications-for-tobacco-epidemic-and-options-for-its-control-in-the-region
#17
REVIEW
Manju Rani, Thaksaphon Thamarangsi, Naveen Agarwal
Nearly half of all male population and two in every five females in the WHO South-East Asia Region (SEAR) consume some form of tobacco. Preventing initiation among adolescents is critical for overall tobacco control. We assessed the trends in youth tobacco use and policies in SEAR. Data are used from school-based youth (Global Youth Tobacco Survey and global school student-based health survey) and adult (Global Adult Tobacco Survey, STEPS) tobacco surveys and the WHO Framework of Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation database...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928312/getting-real-with-the-upcoming-challenge-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-the-way-forward-for-the-south-east-asia-region
#18
REVIEW
Jagdish Kaur, Arvind Vashishta Rinkoo
Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are being marketed to tobacco smokers for use in places where smoking is not allowed or as aids similar to pharmaceutical nicotine products to help cigarette smokers quit tobacco use. These are often flavored to make them more attractive for youth - ENDS use may lead young nonsmokers to take up tobacco products. Neither safety nor efficacy as a cessation aid of ENDS has been scientifically demonstrated. The adverse health effects of secondhand aerosol cannot be ruled out...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928033/linking-the-generation-of-dna-adducts-to-lung-cancer
#19
Marcello Ceppi, Armelle Munnia, Filippo Cellai, Marco Bruzzone, Marco E M Peluso
Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. DNA adducts are considered a reliable biomarker that reflects carcinogen exposure to tobacco smoke, but the central question is what is the relationship of DNA adducts and cancer? Therefore, we investigated this relationship by a meta-analysis of twenty-two studies with bronchial adducts for a total of 1,091 subjects, 887 lung cancer cases and 204 apparently healthy individuals with no evidence of lung cancer. Our study shows that these adducts are significantly associated to increase lung cancer risk...
September 16, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927533/from-sperm-to-offspring-assessing-the-heritable-genetic-consequences-of-paternal-smoking-and-potential-public-health-impacts
#20
REVIEW
Marc A Beal, Carole L Yauk, Francesco Marchetti
Individuals who smoke generally do so with the knowledge of potential consequences to their own health. What is rarely considered are the effects of smoking on their future children. The objective of this work was to review the scientific literature on the effects of paternal smoking on sperm and assess the consequences to offspring. A literature search identified over 200 studies with relevant data in humans and animal models. The available data were reviewed to assess the weight of evidence that tobacco smoke is a human germ cell mutagen and estimate effect sizes...
July 2017: Mutation Research
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