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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108215/tobacco-smoke-it-is-time-for-pediatricians-to-feel-directly-concerned
#1
Luis Garcia-Marcos, Manuel Sanchez-Solis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108053/graphic-health-warnings-as-activators-of-social-networks-a-field-experiment-among-individuals-of-low-socioeconomic-position
#2
Shoba Ramanadhan, Rebekah H Nagler, Rachel McCloud, Racquel Kohler, Kasisomayajula Viswanath
RATIONALE: Graphic health warnings (GHWs) on cigarette packages present an important tobacco control opportunity, particularly for vulnerable populations suffering a disproportionate tobacco burden. One mechanism by which GHWs may influence smoking outcomes is by prompting interpersonal discussions within health discussion networks (the set of personal contacts with whom an individual discusses health issues). OBJECTIVE: The study examined the association between GHW-prompted conversations within health discussion networks and key tobacco-related outcomes, with attention to valence and content of the discussions...
January 5, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107740/ambient-air-pollution-and-primary-liver-cancer-incidence-in-four-european-cohorts-within-the-escape-project
#3
Marie Pedersen, Zorana J Andersen, Massimo Stafoggia, Gudrun Weinmayr, Claudia Galassi, Mette Sørensen, Kirsten T Eriksen, Anne Tjønneland, Steffen Loft, Andrea Jaensch, Gabriele Nagel, Hans Concin, Ming-Yi Tsai, Sara Grioni, Alessandro Marcon, Vittorio Krogh, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta Sacerdote, Andrea Ranzi, Ranjeet Sokhi, Roel Vermeulen, Kees de Hoogh, Meng Wang, Rob Beelen, Paolo Vineis, Bert Brunekreef, Gerard Hoek, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of cancer in the liver, but little is known about the possible risk associated with exposure to ambient air pollution. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between residential exposure to air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence. METHODS: We obtained data from four cohorts with enrolment during 1985-2005 in Denmark, Austria and Italy. Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOX), particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10µm (PM10), less than 2...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107699/analysis-of-n-nitrosonornicotine-enantiomers-in-human-urine-by-chiral-stationary-phase-liquid-chromatography-nanoelectrospray-ionization-high-resolution-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Jing Yang, Steven G Carmella, Stephen S Hecht
We have developed a chiral stationary phase liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-NSI-HRMS/MS) method to investigate the enantiomeric composition of low parts per trillion amounts of the carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in the urine of cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco users. (S)-NNN is the major enantiomer in tobacco and is more carcinogenic than (R)-NNN in rats, but no data are available on the enantiomeric composition of NNN in humans. The method used [(13)C6]NNN as an internal standard and [pyridine-D4]nornicotine to monitor possible artifactual formation of NNN, which was found to be less than 2% of the quantified NNN...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107552/reflections-on-the-history-of-indoor-air-science-focusing-on-the-last-50-years
#5
Jan Sundell
The scientific articles and Indoor Air conference publications of the indoor air sciences (IAS) during the last 50 years are summarized. In total 7524 presentations, from 79 countries, have been made at Indoor Air conferences held between 1978 (49 presentations) and 2014 (1049 presentations). In the Web of Science 26,992 articles on indoor air research (with the word "indoor" as a search term) have been found (as of 1 Jan 2016) of which 70% were published during the last 10 years. The modern scientific history started in the 1970s with a question: "did indoor air pose a threat to health as did outdoor air?" Soon it was recognized that indoor air is more important, from a health point of view, than outdoor air...
January 20, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107430/discontinuation-from-antiretroviral-therapy-a-continuing-challenge-among-adults-in-hiv-care-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael Hajito, Garumma Tolu Feyissa, Leila Mohammadi, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the immunological benefit of treatment and increases complications related to human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). However, the risk factors for ART discontinuation are poorly understood in developing countries particularly in Ethiopia. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding risk factors for ART discontinuation in Ethiopia. METHODS: Quantitative studies conducted in Ethiopia between 2002 and 2015 that evaluated factors associated with ART discontinuation were sought across six major databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106937/naltrexone-for-the-treatment-of-comorbid-tobacco-and-pornography-addiction
#7
Noah A Capurso
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Co-occurring addictive disorders are common, however treatment strategies for this population have not been extensively studied. This is especially the case for behavioral addictions. METHODS: We present a patient (N = 1) with tobacco use disorder and problematic pornography use treated with naltrexone. RESULTS: Naltrexone treatment resulted in a decrease in pornography viewing and cigarette smoking, however had the adverse effect of anhedonia...
January 20, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106732/familial-lung-cancer-a-brief-history-from-the-earliest-work-to-the-most-recent-studies
#8
REVIEW
Anthony M Musolf, Claire L Simpson, Mariza de Andrade, Diptasri Mandal, Colette Gaba, Ping Yang, Yafang Li, Ming You, Elena Y Kupert, Marshall W Anderson, Ann G Schwartz, Susan M Pinney, Christopher I Amos, Joan E Bailey-Wilson
Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer in the United States, killing roughly one of four cancer patients in 2016. While it is well-established that lung cancer is caused primarily by environmental effects (particularly tobacco smoking), there is evidence for genetic susceptibility. Lung cancer has been shown to aggregate in families, and segregation analyses have hypothesized a major susceptibility locus for the disease. Genetic association studies have provided strong evidence for common risk variants of small-to-moderate effect...
January 17, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105000/determining-non-cigarette-tobacco-alcohol-and-substance-use-typologies-across-menthol-and-non-menthol-smokers-using-latent-class-analysis
#9
Amy Cohn, Amanda Johnson, Jennifer Pearson, Shyanika Rose, Sarah Ehlke, Ollie Ganz, Raymond Niaura
BACKGROUND: Substance use and mental health are robustly associated with smoking and poor cessation outcomes, but not often examined in combination with menthol cigarette smoking, which is also associated with lower quit rates. This study identified classes of Black and White menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers based on demographics, alcohol, drug, and other tobacco use behaviors. METHODS: Using screening data from two studies, latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to classify n = 1177 menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers on demographic characteristics, heavy smoking, alcohol and drug use, desire to quit smoking, other tobacco product use, and use of psychotropic medication...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104712/secondhand-smoke-risk-perception-and-smoke-free-rules-in-homes-a-cross-sectional-study-in-barcelona-spain
#10
Cristina Lidón-Moyano, Jose M Martínez-Sánchez, Marcela Fu, Montse Ballbè, Juan Carlos Martín-Sánchez, Cristina Martínez, Esteve Fernández
OBJECTIVE: To describe the voluntary adoption of smoke-free homes in Spain among general population and to identify variables associated with its voluntary adoption. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=731) of the adult population (>26 years) of Barcelona, Spain, in 2013-2014. We defined smoking rules inside the households as complete indoor rules (when smoking was not allowed inside the house), and partial or absent indoor rules (when smoking was allowed in some designated places inside the house or when smoking was allowed everywhere) and described them according to the perceived risk of the secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure...
January 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104708/prevalence-and-determinants-of-current-and-secondhand-smoking-in-greece-results-from-the-global-adult-tobacco-survey-gats-study
#11
George Rachiotis, Anastasia Barbouni, Antonis Katsioulis, Eleni Antoniadou, Konstantinos Kostikas, Kyriakoula Merakou, Kallirrhoe Kourea, Rula N Khoury, Agis Tsouros, Jenny Kremastinou, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
OBJECTIVES: Greece is one of the leading tobacco-producing countries in European Union, and every year over 19 000 Greeks die from tobacco-attributable diseases. The aim of the present study was to provide nationally representative estimates on current and secondhand smoking prevalence in Greece and their determinants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Greece. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4359 individuals participated in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a household survey of adults ≥15 years old (overall response rate 69%)...
January 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104489/changes-and-factors-associated-with-tobacco-counseling-results-from-the-aap-periodic-survey
#12
Robert McMillen, Karen G O'Connor, Judith Groner, Susanne Tanski, Elyse R Park, Jonathan D Klein
INTRODUCTION: The AAP advises pediatricians to counsel parents and patients who use tobacco to quit. This study assesses changes in counseling between 2004 and 2010, and factors associated with counseling in 2010. METHODS: In 2004 and 2010, the Periodic Survey, a national survey of AAP members, inquired about tobacco counseling. Chi-square tests were performed to compare responses by survey year. Bivariate and multivariable analyses examined factors associated with counseling...
January 16, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104186/effects-of-bidi-smoking-on-all-cause-mortality-and-cardiorespiratory-outcomes-in-men-from-south-asia-an-observational-community-based-substudy-of-the-prospective-urban-rural-epidemiology-study-pure
#13
MyLinh Duong, Sumathy Rangarajan, Xiaohe Zhang, Kieran Killian, Prem Mony, Sumathi Swaminathan, Ankalmadagu Venkatsubbareddy Bharathi, Sanjeev Nair, Krishnapillai Vijayakumar, Indu Mohan, Rajeev Gupta, Deepa Mohan, Shanthi Rani, Viswanathan Mohan, Romaina Iqbal, Khawar Kazmi, Omar Rahman, Rita Yusuf, Lakshmi Venkata Maha Pinnaka, Rajesh Kumar, Paul O'Byrne, Salim Yusuf
BACKGROUND: Bidis are minimally regulated, inexpensive, hand-rolled tobacco products smoked in south Asia. We examined the effects of bidi smoking on baseline respiratory impairment, and prospectively collected data for all-cause mortality and cardiorespiratory events in men from this region. METHODS: This substudy of the international, community-based Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study was done in seven centres in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103827/secondhand-smoke-exposure-at-home-among-middle-and-high-school-students-in-the-united-states-does-the-type-of-tobacco-product-matter
#14
Florian Fischer, Alexander Kraemer
BACKGROUND: A decline in the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has been observed in the United States of America (USA) during the past few decades. Nevertheless, nearly half of non-smoking students are still exposed to SHS. This paper aims to describe the factors associated with SHS exposure stratified by type of exposure (overall, cigarettes and electronic cigarettes). METHODS: The analysis is based on secondary data taken from the National Youth Tobacco Survey 2014...
January 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103253/polymorphisms-in-htr2a-and-drd4-predispose-to-smoking-and-smoking-quantity
#15
Gloria Pérez-Rubio, Alejandra Ramírez-Venegas, Valeri Noé Díaz, Leonor García Gómez, Karina Elvira Fabián, Salvador García Carmona, Luis A López-Flores, Enrique Ambrocio-Ortiz, Rocío Contreras Romero, Noé Alcantar-Ayala, Raúl H Sansores, Ramcés Falfán-Valencia
BACKGROUND: Genes encoding the receptors involved in the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways are potential candidates in the mechanisms of nicotine addiction. AIMS: To identify genetic variants in the promoter regions and exons of the DRD4 and HTR2A genes associated with tobacco smoking and the degree of nicotine addiction in Mexican mestizos. METHODS: The study included 438 non-smokers (NS) and 1,157 current smokers, ranked based on their consumption of cigarettes per day (cpd): 574 heavy smokers (HS, >20 cpd) and 583 light smokers (LS, 1-10 cpd)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103214/association-between-the-real-cost-media-campaign-and-smoking-initiation-among-youths-united-states-2014-2016
#16
Matthew C Farrelly, Jennifer C Duke, James Nonnemaker, Anna J MacMonegle, Tesfa N Alexander, Xiaoquan Zhao, Janine C Delahanty, Pamela Rao, Jane A Allen
In the United States, approximately 900,000 youths smoke their first cigarette each year (1). Health communication interventions are evidence-based strategies for preventing the initiation of tobacco use, promoting and facilitating cessation, and changing beliefs and attitudes about tobacco use (2,3). This report describes the association between the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) first national tobacco public education campaign, The Real Cost, and rates of smoking initiation among youths in the United States from 2014 to 2016...
January 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103063/delivering-on-the-promise-of-smoke-free-public-housing
#17
Douglas E Levy, Inez F Adams, Gary Adamkiewicz
On November 30, 2016, the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) published a final rule mandating that public housing authorities it supports prohibit all smoking on their residential premises, including within residents' apartments. The primary rationale for this action was to protect nonsmoking residents from the harms of tobacco smoke exposure. Although the harms of secondhand smoke are clear and the potential for reducing nonsmoking residents' exposure is real, it will be no simple matter to successfully implement the policy requirements set down by HUD...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102874/cardiorespiratory-hospitalisation-and-mortality-reductions-after-smoking-bans-in-switzerland
#18
Ana M Vicedo-Cabrera, Martin Röösli, Dragana Radovanovic, Leticia Grize, Fabienne Witassek, Christian Schindler, Laura Perez
INTRODUCTION: Smoking bans are considered one of the most effective policies to reduce population exposure to tobacco smoke and prevent adverse health outcomes. However, evidence on the effect of contextual variables on the effectiveness of smoking bans is still lacking. AIMS: The patchwork of cantonal smoke-free laws in Switzerland was used as a quasi-experimental setting to assess changes after their introduction in: hospitalisations and mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases in adults; total hospitalisations and hospitalisations due to respiratory disorders in children; and the modifying effects of contextual factors and the effectiveness of the laws...
January 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102331/investigating-causality-in-associations-between-smoking-initiation-and-schizophrenia-using-mendelian-randomization
#19
Suzanne H Gage, Hannah J Jones, Amy E Taylor, Stephen Burgess, Stanley Zammit, Marcus R Munafò
Smoking is strongly associated with schizophrenia. Although it has been widely assumed that this reflects self-medication, recent studies suggest that smoking may be a risk factor for schizophrenia. We performed two-sample bi-directional Mendelian randomization using summary level genomewide association data from the Tobacco And Genetics Consortium and Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Variants associated with smoking initiation and schizophrenia were combined using an inverse-variance weighted fixed-effects approach...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101559/cannabis-use-in-persons-with-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-in-denmark
#20
Sven R Andresen, Fin Biering-Sørensen, Ellen Merete Hagen, Jørgen F Nielsen, Flemming W Bach, Nanna B Finnerup
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate recreational and medical cannabis use in individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury, including reasons and predictors for use, perceived benefits and negative consequences. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey in Denmark. METHODS: A 35-item questionnaire was sent to 1,101 patients with spinal cord injury who had been in contact with a rehabilitation centre between 1990 and 2012. RESULTS: A total of 537 participants completed the questionnaire...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
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