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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443806/-influence-of-smoking-on-pharmacokinetics-of-medication
#1
D M Burger
- In a previous issue, a case report was presented in the Dutch Journal of Medicine (NTvG) of a patient who had variable clozapine levels after switching from regular cigarettes to an e-cigarette and vice versa.- Besides clozapine there are a number of other agents with a narrow therapeutic range where pharmacokinetics can be influenced by smoking.- This review describes the mechanisms of smoking-induced influence on the pharmacokinetics of medicines, and guidance will be provided regarding which medicines must be monitored more closely when patients change their smoking habits...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437295/clozapine-associated-agranulocytosis-treatment-with-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-a-systematic-review
#2
John Lally, Steffi Malik, Eromona Whiskey, David M Taylor, Fiona P Gaughran, Amir Krivoy, Robert J Flanagan, Aleksandar Mijovic, James H MacCabe
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Clozapine is associated with hematological abnormalities, notably neutropenia, which may progress to agranulocytosis. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been used to reduce the frequency and duration of clozapine-associated neutropenia. This review aims to explore the use, efficacy, and tolerability of these cytokines in the treatment of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis. METHODS/PROCEDURES: We conducted a systematic review of published interventional and observational studies, case series, and case reports where G-CSF/GM-CSF was used to treat clozapine-associated agranulocytosis...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431901/clozapine-reduces-toll-like-receptor-4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammatory-responses-through-inhibition-of-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-akt-activation-in-microglia
#3
Seunghyun Jeon, Se Hyun Kim, Soon Young Shin, Young Han Lee
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent used in the treatment of schizophrenia and severe mood disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is closely associated with the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Clozapine exerts anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of clozapine is poorly understood. In this study, we found that clozapine suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser-32 and of p65/RelA at Ser-468, as well as nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-dependent transcriptional activity in microglial cells...
April 18, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429622/pharmacoepigenomic-responses-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-pharmacogenes-are-likely-to-be-modulated-by-mirnas
#4
Babu Swathy, Koramannil R Saradalekshmi, Indu V Nair, Chandrasekharan Nair, Moinak Banerjee
AIM: It is imperative to differentiate the role of host epigenetics from pharmacoepigenetics in resolving therapeutic response. Therefore, the objective was to identify how antipsychotic drugs influence epigenetic response on pharmacogenes. MATERIALS & METHODS: The study design was based on in vitro evaluation of pharmacoepigenetic response of haloperidol, clozapine and olanzapine. Post antipsychotic treatment, the alterations in expression of ABCB1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 were monitored, and followed up by promoter methylation and their target miRNA expression studies...
April 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424378/-recognition-care-and-prevention-of-suicidal-behaviour-in-adults
#5
Zoltán Rihmer, Attila Németh, Tamás Kurimay, Dóra Perczel-Forintos, György Purebl, Péter Döme
Suicide is a major public health problem everywhere in the world and in the WHO European Region suicide accounts for over 120,000 deaths per year. 1. Recognition and diagnosis: An underlying psychiatric disorder is present in up to 90% of people who completed suicide. Comorbidity with depression, anxiety, substance abuse and personality disorders is high. In order to achieve successful prevention of suicidality, adequate diagnostic procedures and appropriate treatment for the underlying disorder are essential...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418011/more-than-25-years-of-genetic-studies-of-clozapine-induced-agranulocytosis
#6
REVIEW
S A J de With, S L Pulit, W G Staal, R S Kahn, R A Ophoff
Clozapine is one of the most effective atypical antipsychotic drugs prescribed to patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Approximately 1% of patients experience potential life-threatening adverse effects in the form of agranulocytosis, greatly hindering its applicability in clinical practice. The etiology of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis (CIA) remains unclear, but is thought to be a heritable trait. We reviewed the genetic studies of CIA published thus far. One recurrent finding from early candidate gene study to more recent genome-wide analysis is that of the involvement of human leukocyte antigen locus...
April 18, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412661/reliable-clinical-serum-analysis-with-reusable-electrochemical-sensor-toward-point-of-care-measurement-of-the-antipsychotic-medication-clozapine
#7
Mijeong Kang, Eunkyoung Kim, Thomas E Winkler, George Banis, Yi Liu, Christopher A Kitchen, Deanna L Kelly, Reza Ghodssi, Gregory F Payne
Clozapine is one of the most promising medications for managing schizophrenia but it is under-utilized because of the challenges of maintaining serum levels in a safe therapeutic range (1-3μM). Timely measurement of serum clozapine levels has been identified as a barrier to the broader use of clozapine, which is however challenging due to the complexity of serum samples. We demonstrate a robust and reusable electrochemical sensor with graphene-chitosan composite for rapidly measuring serum levels of clozapine...
April 12, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412306/time-dependent-sensitization-of-antipsychotic-effect-in-adolescent-male-and-female-rats
#8
Xiaojing Ding, Xiaonan Li, Qing Shu, Ruiyong Wu, Gang Hu, Ming Li
Many behavioral and biological effects of a psychoactive drug often undergo time-dependent change following even one single drug exposure. The present study examined whether one or two exposures of haloperidol, olanzapine or clozapine would also induce a time-dependent change in their behavioral effects in adolescent rats and whether such a change vary between sexes. Adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (<40days old) were first treated with one single injection of haloperidol (0.05 and 0.1mg/kg, sc), clozapine (10...
April 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412089/inverse-association-between-negative-symptoms-and-body-mass-index-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#9
G Mezquida, G Savulich, C Garcia-Rizo, M P Garcia-Portilla, A Toll, L Garcia-Alvarez, J Bobes, A Mané, M Bernardo, E Fernandez-Egea
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether negative symptoms, such as poor motivation or anhedonia, were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in stable patients with schizophrenia chronically treated with antipsychotic medication. METHODS: 62 olanzapine- or clozapine-treated patients with illness duration of at least four years were selected from an international multicenter study on the characterization of negative symptoms. All participants completed the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)...
April 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410959/the-involvement-of-bdnf-creb-signaling-pathways-in-the-pharmacological-mechanism-of-combined-ssri-antipsychotic-treatment-in-schizophrenia
#10
Reef Einoch, Orly Weinreb, Nina Mandiuk, Moussa B H Youdim, Warren Bilker, Henry Silver
Previous studies into the mechanism of SSRI-antipsychotic synergism in our laboratory identified unique changes in the brain, particularly in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor and its modulators. This study examined the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein signaling pathways, including protein kinase B (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and related molecules in the molecular response to haloperidol, fluvoxamine, combined haloperidol+fluvoxamine and clozapine treatments in rat frontal cortex, hippocampus and primary cortical neuronal cultures...
April 11, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407747/antipsychotic-prescribing-for-vulnerable-populations-a-clinical-audit-at-an-acute-australian-mental-health-unit-at-two-time-points
#11
Sara S McMillan, Sara Jacobs, Louise Wilson, Theo Theodoros, Gail Robinson, Claire Anderson, Gabor Mihala, Amanda J Wheeler
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics are recognised as a critical intervention for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Guidelines globally endorse the routine practice of antipsychotic monotherapy, at the minimum effective dose. Even in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, clozapine use is endorsed before combining antipsychotics. This aim of this study was to review antipsychotic polytherapy alone, high-dose therapy alone, polytherapy and high-dose prescribing patterns in adults discharged from an inpatient mental health unit at two time-points, and the alignment of this prescribing with clinical guideline recommendations...
April 13, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405711/effect-of-clozapine-on-ketamine-induced-deficits-in-attentional-set-shift-task-in-mice
#12
M Szlachta, P Pabian, M Kuśmider, J Solich, M Kolasa, D Żurawek, M Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, A Faron-Górecka
RATIONALE: Clozapine (CLZ) is an effective treatment for schizophrenia, producing improvements in both negative symptoms and cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairments can be modelled in animals by ketamine (KET) and assessed using the attentional set-shift task (ASST). OBJECTIVE: Our first aim was to determine whether CLZ improves cognitive function and reverses KET-induced cognitive impairments using the ASST. Our second aim was to assess dose dependency of these effects...
April 12, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400155/histaminergic-gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-sedation-in-clozapine-treated-patients
#13
Anssi Solismaa, Olli Kampman, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Niko Seppälä, Merja Viikki, Nina Mononen, Terho Lehtimäki, Esa Leinonen
Sedation is a common adverse effect of clozapine treatment, which may be partly related to clozapine binding to histamine receptors in the central nervous system. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the histaminergic system are associated with sedation in clozapine-treated patients. The study population comprised 237 clozapine-treated, Finnish, Caucasian patients that were diagnosed with schizophrenia and 176 were genotyped using Illumina HumanCoreExome-12 BeadChip...
April 8, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398339/animal-models-to-improve-our-understanding-and-treatment-of-suicidal-behavior
#14
REVIEW
T D Gould, P Georgiou, L A Brenner, L Brundin, A Can, P Courtet, Z R Donaldson, Y Dwivedi, S Guillaume, I I Gottesman, S Kanekar, C A Lowry, P F Renshaw, D Rujescu, E G Smith, G Turecki, P Zanos, C A Zarate, P A Zunszain, T T Postolache
Worldwide, suicide is a leading cause of death. Although a sizable proportion of deaths by suicide may be preventable, it is well documented that despite major governmental and international investments in research, education and clinical practice suicide rates have not diminished and are even increasing among several at-risk populations. Although nonhuman animals do not engage in suicidal behavior amenable to translational studies, we argue that animal model systems are necessary to investigate candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behavior and the neurobiology underlying these endophenotypes...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396815/catatonia-secondary-to-sudden-clozapine-withdrawal-a-case-with-three-repeated-episodes-and-a-literature-review
#15
John Bilbily, Betsy McCollum, Jose de Leon
A literature search identified 9 previously published cases that were considered as possible cases of catatonia secondary to sudden clozapine withdrawal. Two of these 9 cases did not provide enough information to make a diagnosis of catatonia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5). The Liverpool Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) Causality Scale was modified to assess ADRs secondary to drug withdrawal. From the 7 published cases which met DSM-5 catatonia criteria, using the modified scale, we established that 3 were definitive and 4 were probable cases of catatonia secondary to clozapine withdrawal...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395674/antipsychotic-treatment-resistance-in-first-episode-psychosis-prevalence-subtypes-and-predictors
#16
A Demjaha, J M Lappin, D Stahl, M X Patel, J H MacCabe, O D Howes, M Heslin, U A Reininghaus, K Donoghue, B Lomas, M Charalambides, A Onyejiaka, P Fearon, P Jones, G Doody, C Morgan, P Dazzan, R M Murray
BACKGROUND: We examined longitudinally the course and predictors of treatment resistance in a large cohort of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients from initiation of antipsychotic treatment. We hypothesized that antipsychotic treatment resistance is: (a) present at illness onset; and (b) differentially associated with clinical and demographic factors. METHOD: The study sample comprised 323 FEP patients who were studied at first contact and at 10-year follow-up...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393897/olanzapine-but-not-clozapine-increases-glutamate-release-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-freely-moving-mice-by-inhibiting-d-aspartate-oxidase-activity
#17
Silvia Sacchi, Vito De Novellis, Giovanna Paolone, Tommaso Nuzzo, Monica Iannotta, Carmela Belardo, Marta Squillace, Paolo Bolognesi, Elena Rosini, Zoraide Motta, Martina Frassineti, Alessandro Bertolino, Loredano Pollegioni, Michele Morari, Sabatino Maione, Francesco Errico, Alessandro Usiello
D-aspartate levels in the brain are regulated by the catabolic enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). D-aspartate activates NMDA receptors, and influences brain connectivity and behaviors relevant to schizophrenia in animal models. In addition, recent evidence reported a significant reduction of D-aspartate levels in the post-mortem brain of schizophrenia-affected patients, associated to higher DDO activity. In the present work, microdialysis experiments in freely moving mice revealed that exogenously administered D-aspartate efficiently cross the blood brain barrier and stimulates L-glutamate efflux in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392207/elevated-clozapine-levels-associated-with-infection-a-systematic-review
#18
Scott R Clark, Nicola S Warren, Gajin Kim, David Jankowiak, Klaus Oliver Schubert, Steve Kisely, Tori Forrester, Bernhard T Baune, Dan J Siskind
Clozapine is the most effective anti-psychotic medication for treatment refractory schizophrenia. A growing number of case reports have linked infection to high clozapine levels and associated adverse outcomes. We present a systematic review of published cases to clarify the relationship between infection and elevated clozapine levels. The case reports were located through PubMed and Embase. In addition, 8 new cases from two Australian states were included. Demographics, psychiatric diagnoses and medical morbidities, medications, clinical symptoms, clozapine levels, inflammatory markers and final clinical outcome were extracted...
April 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389140/sex-differences-in-aripiprazole-sensitization-from-adolescence-to-adulthood
#19
Elizabeth Freeman, Joanne Lin, Shinnyi Chow, Collin Davis, Ming Li
The present study investigated the potential sex differences in repeated aripiprazole (ARI) treatment-induced behavioral sensitization from adolescence to adulthood, and to determine whether ARI sensitization can be transferred to olanzapine (OLZ) and/or clozapine (CLZ) using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and phencyclidine-induced (PCP) hyperlocomotion tests of antipsychotic activity. Male and female Sprague-Dawley adolescence rats (P46) were first treated with ARI (10mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days (P46-50) and tested for avoidance response and ARI-induced inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion...
April 4, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387211/olanzapine-induced-pancytopenia-a-rare-but-worrying-complication
#20
N Pang, N Thrichelvam, K O Naing
Unlike clozapine, and despite its structural similarities, olanzapine is not usually associated with haematological suppression. Nonetheless this case report highlights an incident of olanzapine-induced thrombocytopenia and neutropenia in a first-contact patient. We report on a 50-year-old male who presented with 7 years of delusions and hallucinations. A diagnosis of schizophrenia was made in the absence of any suggestive features of mood disorders, substance abuse or organicity, and olanzapine as second-line treatment...
March 2017: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
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