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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913580/responding-to-challenges-for-people-with-psychotic-illness-updated-evidence-from-the-survey-of-high-impact-psychosis
#1
REVIEW
Vera A Morgan, Anna Waterreus, Vaughan Carr, David Castle, Martin Cohen, Carol Harvey, Cherrie Galletly, Andrew Mackinnon, Patrick McGorry, John J McGrath, Amanda L Neil, Suzy Saw, Johanna C Badcock, Debra L Foley, Geoff Waghorn, Sarah Coker, Assen Jablensky
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to summarise recent findings from the 2010 Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) and examine their implications for future policy and planning to improve mental health, physical health and other circumstances of people with a psychotic disorder. METHODS: Survey of High Impact Psychosis collected nationally representative data on 1825 people with psychotic illness. Over 60 papers have been published covering key challenges reported by participants: financial problems, loneliness and social isolation, unemployment, poor physical health, uncontrolled symptoms of mental illness, and lack of stable, suitable housing...
December 1, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911758/multimodal-imaging-for-dreadd-expressing-neurons-in-living-brain-and-their-application-to-implantation-of-ipsc-derived-neural-progenitors
#2
Bin Ji, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Takafumi Minamimoto, Haruhisa Inoue, Hiroki Takeuchi, Katsushi Kumata, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Chie Seki, Maiko Ono, Masaki Tokunaga, Satoshi Tsukamoto, Koji Tanabe, Ryong-Moon Shin, Takeharu Minamihisamatsu, Seiji Kito, Barry J Richmond, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
: Chemogenetic manipulation of neuronal activities has been enabled by a designer receptor (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs, DREADD) that is activated exclusively by clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Here, we applied CNO as a functional reporter probe to positron emission tomography (PET) of DREADD in living brains. Mutant human M4 DREADD (hM4Di) expressed in transgenic (Tg) mouse neurons was visualized by PET with microdose [(11)C]CNO. Deactivation of DREADD-expressing neurons in these mice by nonradioactive CNO at a pharmacological dose could also be captured by arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906416/a-study-of-clozapine-induced-sedation
#3
Rosa B Sauras, Sonia Ramos, Louisa Mann, Emilio Fernandez-Egea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898069/clozapine-modifies-the-differentiation-program-of-human-adipocytes-inducing-browning
#4
E Kristóf, Q-M Doan-Xuan, A K Sárvári, Á Klusóczki, P Fischer-Posovszky, M Wabitsch, Z Bacso, P Bai, Z Balajthy, L Fésüs
Administration of second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) often leads to weight gain and consequent cardio-metabolic side effects. We observed that clozapine but not six other antipsychotic drugs reprogrammed the gene expression pattern of differentiating human adipocytes ex vivo, leading to an elevated expression of the browning marker gene UCP1, more and smaller lipid droplets and more mitochondrial DNA than in the untreated white adipocytes. Laser scanning cytometry showed that up to 40% of the differentiating single primary and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes had the characteristic morphological features of browning cells...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893096/chemogenetic-activation-of-iprgcs-drives-changes-in-dark-adapted-scotopic-electroretinogram
#5
Nina Milosavljevic, Annette E Allen, Jasmina Cehajic-Kapetanovic, Robert J Lucas
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of activating melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) on dark-adapted (scotopic) electroretinograms (ERG). Methods: We used mice (Opn4Cre/+) expressing cre recombinase in melanopsin-expressing cells for a targeted gene delivery of a chemogenetic Gq-coupled receptor, hM3Dq, to ipRGCs. Intraperitoneal injection of clozapine N-oxide (CNO) at 5 mg/kg was used for acute activation of hM3Dq and thus excitation of ipRGCs in darkness...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889922/haloperidol-for-long-term-aggression-in-psychosis
#6
REVIEW
Abha Khushu, Melanie J Powney
BACKGROUND: Psychotic disorders can lead some people to become agitated. Characterised by restlessness, excitability and irritability, this can result in verbal and physically aggressive behaviour - and both can be prolonged. Aggression within the psychiatric setting imposes a significant challenge to clinicians and risk to service users; it is a frequent cause for admission to inpatient facilities. If people continue to be aggressive it can lengthen hospitalisation. Haloperidol is used to treat people with long-term aggression...
November 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885961/insig2-polymorphism-and-weight-gain-dyslipidemia-and-serum-adiponectin-in-finnish-patients-with-schizophrenia-treated-with-clozapine
#7
Suvi Koskinen, Olli Kampman, Anssi Solismaa, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Niko Seppälä, Merja Viikki, Mari Hämäläinen, Eeva Moilanen, Nina Mononen, Terho Lehtimäki, Esa Leinonen
AIM: To investigate INSIG2's association with obesity, weight change and serum lipid profile during clozapine treatment. MATERIALS & METHODS: Subjects with schizophrenia (n = 190) were genotyped, identifying seven SNPs. Genetic risk scores (GRSs) were calculated to adiponectin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and weight gain. RESULTS: In the model for weight gain, SNPs rs12151787, rs17047733 and rs10490626 were selected...
November 25, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872784/ciprofloxacin-and-clozapine-a-potentially-fatal-but-underappreciated-interaction
#8
Jonathan M Meyer, George Proctor, Michael A Cummings, Laura J Dardashti, Stephen M Stahl
Objective. Clozapine provides a 50%-60% response rate in refractory schizophrenia but has a narrow therapeutic index and is susceptible to pharmacokinetic interactions, particularly with strong inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2. Case Report. We report the case of a 28-year-old nonsmoking female with intellectual disability who was maintained for 3 years on clozapine 100 mg orally twice daily. The patient was treated for presumptive urinary tract infection with ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally twice daily and two days later collapsed and died despite resuscitation efforts...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871302/glycopyrrolate-in-comparison-to-hyoscine-hydrobromide-and-placebo-in-the-treatment-of-hypersalivation-induced-by-clozapine-gothic1-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-study
#9
Inti Qurashi, Simon Chu, Nusrat Husain, Richard J Drake, Imran Chaudhry, J F W Deakin
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is the only medication licensed for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia in the UK. Although efficacious, a common and unpopular side effect of clozapine treatment is clozapine-induced hypersalivation (CIH), which can contribute to non-adherence. The standard treatment for CIH in the UK is hyoscine hydrobromide but this may aggravate cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia while glycopyrrolate may be an effective alternative with a more tolerable side effect profile...
November 21, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871032/level-of-serum-thioredoxin-and-correlation-with-neurocognitive-functions-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-using-clozapine-and-other-atypical-antipsychotics
#10
Alper Bas, Gozde Gultekin, Said Incir, Tuba Ocek Bas, Murat Emul, Alaatin Duran
Thioredoxin is a serum antioxidant that has been investigated in the etiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study is investigating the relationship between serum thioredoxin levels and cognitive functions in acute psychotic episode and remission state patients with schizophrenia; and examining whether there were differences between patients using clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics; including risperidone, olanzapine and amisulpride. This research was performed in schizophrenia patients hospitalized with acute psychotic episode (n=57), reevaluated patients after the initiation of treatment (mean 16 weeks) (n=46), and healthy controls (n=41)...
November 15, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866960/ethanol-seeking-behavior-is-expressed-directly-through-an-extended-amygdala-to-midbrain-neural-circuit
#11
Melanie M Pina, Christopher L Cunningham
Abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals experience an enduring sensitivity to cue-induced craving and relapse to drinking. There is considerable evidence indicating that structures within the midbrain and extended amygdala are involved in this process. Individually, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) have been shown to modulate cue-induced ethanol-seeking behavior. It is hypothesized that cue-induced seeking is communicated through a direct projection from the BNST to VTA...
November 17, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863522/cardiometabolic-health-prescribed-antipsychotics-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-people-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Daniel Bressington, Jolene Mui, Mei Ling Tse, Richard Gray, Eric F C Cheung, Wai Tong Chien
BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) often have high levels of obesity and poor cardiometabolic health. Certain types of antipsychotics have been shown to contribute towards weight gain and there is some equivocal evidence that obesity is related to poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with SSD. It is also still uncertain if antipsychotic polypharmacy/higher doses of antipsychotics are linked with HRQoL and/or increased risk of obesity/Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)...
November 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857125/presynaptic-dopamine-capacity-in-patients-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-taking-clozapine-an-18-f-dopa-pet-study
#13
Euitae Kim, Oliver D Howes, Mattia Veronese, Katherine Beck, Seongho Seo, Jin Woo Park, Jae Sung Lee, Yun-Sang Lee, Jun Soo Kwon
Some patients with schizophrenia show poor response to first-line antipsychotic treatments and this is termed treatment resistant schizophrenia. The differential response to first-line antipsychotic drugs may reflect a different underlying neurobiology. Indeed, a previous study found dopamine synthesis capacity was significantly lower in patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia. However, in this study, the treatment resistant patients were highly symptomatic whilst the responsive patients showed no or minimal symptoms...
November 18, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855565/impact-of-histamine-receptors-h1-and-h3-polymorphisms-on-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain
#14
Arun K Tiwari, Danning Zhang, Jennie G Pouget, Clement C Zai, Nabilah I Chowdhury, Eva J Brandl, Li Qin, Natalie Freeman, Jeffrey A Lieberman, Herbert Y Meltzer, James L Kennedy, Daniel J Müller
OBJECTIVES: A positive correlation between antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) and antipsychotic drugs' antagonist effect at histamine H1 receptor (HRH1) as well as agonist effect at histamine H3 receptor (HRH3) in the brain has been consistently demonstrated. We investigated the potential impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HRH1 and HRH3 genes on AIWG. METHODS: We analysed 40 tagSNPs in HRH1 (n = 34) and HRH3 (n = 6) in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder patients (n = 193) primarily treated with clozapine or olanzapine for up to 14 weeks...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853934/evaluation-of-in-vitro-cytochrome-p450-inhibition-and-in-vitro-fate-of-structurally-diverse-n-oxide-metabolites-case-studies-with-clozapine-levofloxacin-roflumilast-voriconazole-and-zopiclone
#15
Poonam Giri, Sneha Naidu, Nirmal Patel, Harilal Patel, Nuggehally R Srinivas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The role of metabolite(s) to elicit potential clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) via cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) is gaining momentum. In this context, the role of N-oxides for in vitro CYP inhibition has not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were: (a) to examine in vitro CYP inhibition of N-oxides of clozapine, levofloxacin, roflumilast, voriconazole and zopiclone in a tiered approach and (b) evaluate in vitro fate of aforementioned N-oxides examined in recombinant CYPs, human microsomes and hepatocytes...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853387/treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-current-insights-on-the-pharmacogenomics-of-antipsychotics
#16
REVIEW
John Lally, Fiona Gaughran, Philip Timms, Sarah R Curran
Up to 30% of people with schizophrenia do not respond to two (or more) trials of dopaminergic antipsychotics. They are said to have treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). Clozapine is still the only effective treatment for TRS, although it is underused in clinical practice. Initial use is delayed, it can be hard for patients to tolerate, and clinicians can be uncertain as to when to use it. What if, at the start of treatment, we could identify those patients likely to respond to clozapine - and those likely to suffer adverse effects? It is likely that clinicians would feel less inhibited about using it, allowing clozapine to be used earlier and more appropriately...
2016: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847228/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-neuroimaging-in-schizophrenia
#17
Funda Akkus, Valerie Treyer, Simon M Ametamey, Anass Johayem, Alfred Buck, Gregor Hasler
The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is a promising drug target for the treatment of schizophrenia. In this study, we compared mGluR5 distribution volume ration (DVR) in subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Given our previous findings, we matched samples for gender, age, and smoking status. Binding to mGluR5 was determined using positron emission tomography and [(11)C]ABP688, which binds to an allosteric site with high selectivity. DVR in the 15 individuals with schizophrenia did not differ from that of the 15 controls...
November 12, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846652/-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-in-a-sample-of-patients-with-chronic-schizophrenia-under-clozapine-treatment
#18
S Schreiter, A Hasan, T Majic, A Wullschleger, M Schouler-Ocak, F Bermpohl, S Gutwinski
Background: There is a high prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in patients with schizophrenia. Antipsychotic treatment, especially duration and type of substance, is suspected to increase or even cause OCS. Methods: We examined in a naturalistic cross-sectional study the severity of OCS (Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised) and the incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) according to ICD-10 criteria in 70 patients with schizophrenia. 26 patients were treated with clozapine and 44 patients were treated with another second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)...
November 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846048/scopolamine-ointment-for-clozapine-associated-sialorrhea-a-case-report
#19
Takashi Goto, Miyoko Kato, Yukiko Matsumura, Naoto Omata, Masato Higashima, Yuji Wada, Mari Yoshida, Kyohei Watanabe, Tetsuya Takahashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833240/new-food-and-drug-administration-recommendations-for-clozapine-prescribing-and-monitoring-requirements
#20
Satyakam Mohapatra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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