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Jonathan C Waldron, Angela Scarpa, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon
Child maltreatment can have a lasting impact, which is why it is important to understand factors that may exacerbate or mitigate self-esteem difficulties in adulthood. Although there is tremendous benefit that can come from religion and spirituality, few studies examine religious views after child maltreatment. Subsequent interpersonal difficulties may also affect self-esteem in maltreatment survivors. This study sought to examine interpersonal problems and religiosity as mediators in the link between childhood maltreatment and self-esteem in adulthood...
April 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Sembiring Lina Mahayati, Allenidekania, Hayati Happy
OBJECTIVE: As adolescents with cancer are at risk of experiencing spiritual distress, they tend to have unique spiritual needs. Spirituality plays a significant role for adolescents with cancer as it contributes to increased comfort and calmness, and better coping mechanisms when confronted with the illness, which indirectly improves the adolescent's quality of life. This study aimed to explore spiritual experiences in adolescents with cancer. METHOD: A qualitative study using a phenomenology approach was conducted...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
Miron Zuckerman, Chen Li, Ed Diener
An exchange model of religion implies that if a secular entity such as government provides what people need, they will be less likely to seek help from supernatural entities. Controlling for quality of life and income inequality (Gini), we found that better government services were related to lower religiosity among countries (Study 1) and states in the United States (Study 2). Study 2 also showed that during 2008-2013, better government services in a specific year predicted lower religiosity 1 to 2 years later...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Clayton R Critcher, Chan Jean Lee
Even without direct evidence of God's existence, about half of the world's population believes in God. Although previous research has found that people arrive at such beliefs intuitively instead of analytically, relatively little research has aimed to understand what experiences encourage or legitimate theistic belief systems. Using cross-cultural correlational and experimental methods, we investigated whether the experience of inspiration encourages a belief in God. Participants who dispositionally experience more inspiration, were randomly assigned to relive or have an inspirational experience, or reported such experiences to be more inspirational all showed stronger belief in God...
April 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Samta P Pandya
This article reports on a multi-city two-year long experiment on the effect of a spiritual counseling program (SCP) on children diagnosed with anxiety disorders. The two-year customized SCP was conducted with 1238 children from 20 private schools in five cities across five countries, with an equal number in a control group. Results showed that post-treatment self-reported and counselor-tested anxiety outcome measure scores were lower for the treatment group. Girls, children from more affluent cities, middle-class children, and those who had one stay-at-home parent and no siblings showed reduced anxiety disorders post-treatment...
March 2018: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
Wenya Ding, Jin Sun, He Lian, Changgeng Xu, Xin Liu, Sidi Zheng, Dong Zhang, Xiaopeng Han, Yanyan Liu, Xueying Chen, Bello O God Spower, Yanhua Li
Biofilm is one of the most important physiological protective barriers of the Streptococcus suis ( S. suis ), and it is also one of the primary causes of hindrance to drug infiltration, reduction of bactericidal effects, and the development of antibiotic resistance. In order to intervene or eliminate S. suis biofilm, shuttle-shape emodin-loaded nanoparticles were developed in our study. The emodin nanoparticles were prepared by emodin and gelatin-cyclodextrin which was synthesized as drug carrier, and the nanoparticles were 174 nm in size, -4...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jordan W Moon, Jaimie Arona Krems, Adam B Cohen
Religious people are more trusted than nonreligious people. Although most theorists attribute these perceptions to the beliefs of religious targets, religious individuals also differ in behavioral ways that might cue trust. We examined whether perceivers might trust religious targets more because they heuristically associate religion with slow life-history strategies. In three experiments, we found that religious targets are viewed as slow life-history strategists and that these findings are not the result of a universally positive halo effect; that the effect of target religion on trust is significantly mediated by the target's life-history traits (i...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Yuxin Fang, Shenjun Wang, Yangyang Liu, Zhifang Xu, Kuo Zhang, Yi Guo
A minimally invasive glucose microbiosensor based the flexibly integrated electrode for continuous monitoring glucose in vivo has been developed in this study. This was achieved by coating needle-type microelectrode with Cu nanoflowers, nafion, glucose oxidase (GOD) and polyurethane (PU) membranes, successfully prepared with layer-by-layer deposition. The Cu nanomaterials provided a large specific surface area and electrocatalytic activity for glucose detection. The PU layers as mass-transport limiting membranes significantly enhanced the linearity and stability of sensors...
March 13, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Kaifeng Du, Shunmin Dan
The present work deals with the development of novel affinity monolith with reversible protein ligands for protein chromatography. As for the formation of reversible ligands, Concanavalin A (Con A) is chelated with Cu(II)-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) immobilized macroporous cellulose monolith (MCM) for glycoprotein adsorption. The reversible immobilization is realized by Cu ions, which bridge affinity ligands and support by strong chelation interaction. The fabrication process of reversible Con A immobilized adsorbent is studied, especially with regards to the effect of synthesis conditions on the ligands immobilization...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Blase N Polite, Toni M Cipriano-Steffens, Fay J Hlubocky, Pascal Jean-Pierre, Ying Cheng, Katherine C Brewer, Garth H Rauscher, George A Fitchett
BACKGROUND: This study explores whether externalizing religious and spiritual beliefs is associated with advanced-stage colon cancer at initial oncology presentation and whether this association is stronger for blacks than for whites. METHODS: Patients who had newly diagnosed, invasive colon cancer were recruited at 9 sites in the Chicago metropolitan area. Eligible patients were non-Hispanic white or black, ages 30 to 79 years, and diagnosed with a primary invasive colon cancer...
March 26, 2018: Cancer
Michael Shermer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Scientific American
Julie D Yeterian, Krisanne Bursik, John F Kelly
BACKGROUND: A growing literature on adults with substance use disorders (SUD) suggests that religious and spiritual processes can support recovery, such that higher levels of religiosity and/or spirituality predict better substance use outcomes. However, studies of the role of religion and spirituality in adolescent SUD treatment response have produced mixed findings, and religiosity and spirituality have rarely been examined separately. METHODS: The present study examined religiosity and spirituality as predictors of outcomes in an outpatient treatment adolescent sample (N = 101) in which cannabis was the predominant drug of choice...
March 20, 2018: Substance Abuse
Mohan Paudel, Sara Javanparast, Gouranga Dasvarma, Lareen Newman
OBJECTIVE AND THE CONTEXT: This paper examines the beliefs and experiences of women and their families in remote mountain villages of Nepal about perinatal sickness and death and considers the implications of these beliefs for future healthcare provision. METHODS: Two mountain villages were chosen for this qualitative study to provide diversity of context within a highly disadvantaged region. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 women of childbearing age and their family members, 15 health service providers, and 5 stakeholders...
2018: PloS One
Shane Sharp
Are beliefs about and behaviors towards the Bible associated with voluntary euthanasia attitudes? Using General Social Survey data and multivariate logistic regression, I find that individuals' views of the authorship and epistemological status of the Bible; the importance of the Bible in making decisions; and the frequency in which individuals read the Bible are associated with negative voluntary euthanasia attitudes, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic predictors. I find that the importance of the Bible in making decisions accounts for the effect of frequency of reading the Bible and viewing the Bible as the inspired word of God...
March 15, 2018: Death Studies
Zhou Xiao-Nong, Li Shi-Zhu, Hong Qing-Biao, Yang Kun, Lü Shan, Xu Jing
This paper reviews the huge promotion of Chairman Mao Zedong's two poems entitled "Farewell to the God of Plague" which were published 60 years ago, and the great achievements of the national schistosomiasis control programme in China. The publication of the two poems promotes the establishment of the mechanism for the national schistosomiasis control programme in China, and in addition, the schistosomiasis control spirit of the people from Yujiang County is still the source of power for the promotion of transferring the schistosomiasis control to elimination stage in China...
February 26, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
H A E Hub Zwart
This paper addresses the cultural impact of genomics and the Human Genome Project (HGP) on human self-understanding. Notably, it addresses the claim made by Francis Collins (director of the HGP) that the genome is the language of God and the claim made by Max Delbrück (founding father of molecular life sciences research) that Aristotle must be credited with having predicted DNA as the soul that organises bio-matter. From a continental philosophical perspective I will argue that human existence results from a dialectical interaction between two types of texts: the language of molecular biology and the language of civilisation; the language of the genome and the language of our socio-cultural, symbolic ambiance...
April 2018: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
Lily Kpobi, Leslie Swartz
BACKGROUND: Traditional healing methods are considered central to mental health care in low-income countries such as Ghana, because they are perceived to be more easily accessible, more affordable and generally ascribe similar causal beliefs to those of the patients. However, not much is known about the work of traditional healers largely because their methods are shrouded in mysticism and secrecy. There is a need to understand the ideology and beliefs of traditional healers surrounding mental disorders, including knowledge about their practices in mental health care...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Edward H Reynolds
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Jarle Jortveit, Anete Kaldal, Serena Tonstad
BAKGRUNN: Diabetes er assosiert med koronarsykdom, og kardiovaskulær sykdom er viktigste dødsårsak hos mennesker med sykdommen. I denne studien har vi undersøkt forekomsten av kjent diabetes og ikke-erkjent diabetes hos pasienter ved første gangs hjerteinfarkt, perkutan koronar intervensjon eller koronar bypasskirurgi samt forekomsten av nye kardiovaskulære hendelser i inntil fem år etterpå. MATERIALE OG METODE: Alle pasienter < 80 år uten tidligere kjent koronarsykdom innlagt ved Sørlandet sykehus Arendal i forbindelse med første gangs hjerteinfarkt, perkutan koronar intervensjon eller koronar bypasskirurgi i perioden 2007-16 ble fortløpende inkludert i studien og fulgt i inntil fem år (median oppfølgingstid tre år)...
March 6, 2018: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Jacob S Sawyer, Melanie E Brewster
The present study examines how meaning and belief in God or god(s) is related to bereavement outcomes. Data from 299 participants residing in the U.S. indicated that the variables of search for meaning, presence of meaning, and belief in God or god(s) were significantly related to posttraumatic growth, complicated grief, and psychological distress. Results from this study can be used to identify appropriate clinical strategies for mental health practitioners working with bereaved clients, and will deepen the breadth of literature on bereavement with atheist populations in the U...
March 6, 2018: Death Studies
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