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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914159/-molecular-mechanisms-for-adhesion-and-colonization-of-human-gastric-mucosa-by-helicobacter-pylori-and-its-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Elisabete Coelho, Ana Magalhães, Mário Dinis-Ribeiro, Celso A Reis
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori infection is very prevalent worldwide and is associated with the progression of the gastric carcinogenesis cascade, being one of the main risk factors for the development of gastric carcinoma. Several factors are determinant for the infection and for the development of gastric disease, including environmental factors, host genetic factors and virulence factors of the bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this review, we present an overview of the current knowledge on the determinants of the infection and on the recently described molecular mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to the gastric mucosa, as well as its possible future therapeutic application...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914077/making-fluorescent-streptococci-and-enterococci-for-live-imaging
#2
Sarah Shabayek, Barbara Spellerberg
Since the discovery of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, outstanding fluorescent labeling tools with numerous applications in vastly different areas of life sciences have been developed. To optimize GFP for diverse life science applications, a large variety of GFP derivatives with different environmental characteristics have been generated by mutagenesis. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is a well-known GFP derivative with highly increased fluorescence intensity compared to the GFP wild-type molecule...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914045/achievements-and-challenges-in-computational-protein-design
#3
Ilan Samish
Computational protein design (CPD), a yet evolving field, includes computer-aided engineering for partial or full de novo designs of proteins of interest. Designs are defined by a requested structure, function, or working environment. This chapter describes the birth and maturation of the field by presenting 101 CPD examples in a chronological order emphasizing achievements and pending challenges. Integrating these aspects presents the plethora of CPD approaches with the hope of providing a "CPD 101". These reflect on the broader structural bioinformatics and computational biophysics field and include: (1) integration of knowledge-based and energy-based methods, (2) hierarchical designated approach towards local, regional, and global motifs and the integration of high- and low-resolution design schemes that fit each such region, (3) systematic differential approaches towards different protein regions, (4) identification of key hot-spot residues and the relative effect of remote regions, (5) assessment of shape-complementarity, electrostatics and solvation effects, (6) integration of thermal plasticity and functional dynamics, (7) negative design, (8) systematic integration of experimental approaches, (9) objective cross-assessment of methods, and (10) successful ranking of potential designs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913956/pollution-characteristics-and-ecological-risk-of-heavy-metals-in-ballast-tank-sediment
#4
Daolun Feng, Xiaofei Chen, Wen Tian, Qun Qian, Hao Shen, Dexiang Liao, Baoyi Lv
This study was conducted to illustrate the contents and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in ballast tank sediment. Ballast sediment samples were collected from six ships during their stay in shipyard, and the heavy metals were determined by inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer. Results showed that high concentrations of heavy metals were detected in all six sediment samples following the order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > As > Cd > Hg. The geoaccumulation index explained the average pollution degree of heavy metals decreased as the following: Zn > Pb > Cu > As > Cr > Hg, and the environmental risk indices suggested that concentration found of Zn, Pb, and Cu might be highly toxic to aquatic organisms...
December 2, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913851/impact-of-oxygenation-on-the-performance-of-three-non-saccharomyces-yeasts-in-co-fermentation-with-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#5
Kirti Shekhawat, Florian F Bauer, Mathabatha E Setati
The sequential or co-inoculation of grape must with non-Saccharomyces yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains has recently become a common practice in winemaking. The procedure intends to enhance unique aroma and flavor profiles of wine. The extent of the impact of non-Saccharomyces strains depends on their ability to produce biomass and to remain metabolically active for a sufficiently long period. However, mixed-culture wine fermentations tend to become rapidly dominated by S. cerevisiae, reducing or eliminating the non-Saccharomyces yeast contribution...
December 2, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913846/potent-mutagenicity-of-some-non-planar-tri-and-tetrachlorinated-biphenyls-in-mammalian-cells-human-cyp2e1-being-a-major-activating-enzyme
#6
Yungang Liu, Keqi Hu, Hansi Jia, Guifang Jin, Hansruedi Glatt, Hao Jiang
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been classified as human carcinogens. Mutagenicity of lower chlorinated biphenyls as well as activation of transcription factors by some other congeners may contribute to the carcinogenicity of PCBs. Recently, we reported that human CYP2E1 activates mono- and dichlorobiphenyls to mutagens. However, mutagenicity of other PCBs and the involvement of other CYPs remained unknown. In this study, Chinese hamster V79-derived cell lines genetically engineered for expression of individual human CYP enzymes and a human hepatocyte (L-02) line endogenously expressing various CYPs were used to determine the activities of several tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls to induce micronuclei and gene mutations...
December 2, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913844/global-dna-methylation-profiling-of-manganese-exposed-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells-reveals-epigenetic-alterations-in-parkinson-s-disease-associated-genes
#7
Prashant Tarale, Saravanadevi Sivanesan, Atul P Daiwile, Reinhard Stöger, Amit Bafana, Pravin K Naoghare, Devendra Parmar, Tapan Chakrabarti, Krishnamurthi Kannan
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for optimal functioning of cellular biochemical pathways in the central nervous system. Elevated exposure to Mn through environmental and occupational exposure can cause neurotoxic effects resulting in manganism, a condition with clinical symptoms identical to idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Epigenetics is now recognized as a biological mechanism involved in the etiology of various diseases. Here, we investigated the role of DNA methylation alterations induced by chronic Mn (100 µM) exposure in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells in relevance to Parkinson's disease...
December 2, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913712/money-now-money-later-linking-time-discounting-and-criminal-convictions-in-the-cambridge-study-in-delinquent-development
#8
Alex R Piquero, David P Farrington, Wesley G Jennings
Two prominent criminological theories offer time discounting, or the preference for an immediate reward over a later one, as a central part of understanding involvement in criminal activity. Yet, there exist only a few studies investigating this issue, and they are limited in a few respects. The current study extends prior work in this area by using multiple measures of time discounting collected at three different periods of the life course to examine the link to criminal offending into late middle adulthood in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913682/translational-regulation-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Yi Zhang, Hong Xu
Mitochondria are generated by the expression of genes on both nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial biogenesis is highly plastic in response to cellular energy demand, developmental signals and environmental stimuli. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates mitochondrial biogenesis to co-ordinate energy homeostasis with cell growth. The local translation of mitochondrial proteins on the outer membrane facilitates their efficient import and thereby allows prodigious mitochondrial biogenesis during rapid cell growth and proliferation...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913636/the-effect-of-temperature-on-drosophila-hybrid-fitness
#10
Charles J J Miller, Daniel R Matute
Mechanisms of reproductive isolation inhibit gene flow between species and can be broadly sorted into two categories: prezygotic and postzygotic. While comparative studies suggest that prezygotic barriers tend to evolve first, postzygotic barriers are crucial for maintaining species boundaries and impeding gene flow that might otherwise cause incipient species to merge. Most, but not all, postzygotic barriers result from genetic incompatibilities between two or more loci from different species, and occur due to divergent evolution in allopatry...
December 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913599/the-effect-of-food-quality-during-growth-on-spatial-memory-consolidation-in-adult-pigeons
#11
M F Scriba, J Gasparini, L Jacquin, C Mettke-Hofmann, N C Rattenborg, A Roulin
Poor environmental conditions experienced during early development can have negative long-term consequences on fitness. Animals can compensate negative developmental effects through phenotypic plasticity by diverting resources from non-vital to vital traits such as spatial memory to enhance foraging efficiency. We tested in young feral pigeons (Columba livia) how diets of different nutritional value during development affect the capacity to retrieve food hidden in a spatially complex environment, a process we refer to as "spatial memory"...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913593/higher-heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-vmpfc-activity-and-increased-resistance-to-temptation-in-dietary-self-control-challenges
#12
Silvia U Maier, Todd A Hare
: Higher levels of self-control in decision making have been linked to better psychosocial and physical health. A similar link to health outcomes has been reported for heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of physiological flexibility. Here, we sought to link these two, largely separate, research domains by testing the hypothesis that greater HRV would be associated with better dietary self-control in humans. Specifically, we examined whether total HRV at sedentary rest (measured as the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals, SDNN) can serve as a biomarker for the neurophysiological adaptability that putatively underlies self-controlled behavior...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913589/integrin-linked-kinase-ilk-deletion-disrupts-oligodendrocyte-development-by-altering-cell-cycle
#13
Rashad Hussain, Wendy B Macklin
: During development, oligodendrocytes are initially specified, after which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) migrate and proliferate before differentiating into myelinating cells. Lineage specific programming of oligodendrocytes results from sensing environmental cues through membrane-bound receptors and related intracellular signaling molecules. Integrin linked kinase (ILK) is an important protein expressed at the inner margins of the plasma membrane, which can mediate some of these signals...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913419/benzene-degradation-by-variovorax-sp-within-a-coal-tar-contaminated-groundwater-microbial-community
#14
Kevin M Posman, Christopher M DeRito, Eugene L Madsen
: Investigations of environmental microbial communities are crucial for the discovery of populations capable of degrading hazardous compounds and may lead to improved bioremediation strategies. The goal of this study was to identify microorganisms responsible for aerobic benzene degradation in coal-tar contaminated groundwater. Benzene degradation was monitored in laboratory incubations of well waters using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments using (13)C-benzene allowed us to obtain (13)C-labled community DNA; from this, 16S rRNA clone libraries identified γ- and β-Proteobacteria as the active benzene metabolizing microbial populations...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913413/new-arsenate-reductase-gene-arra-pcr-primers-for-diversity-assessment-and-quantification-in-environmental-samples
#15
Babur S Mirza, Darwin L Sorensen, R Ryan Dupont, Joan E McLean
: The extent of arsenic contamination in drinking water and its potential threat to human health have resulted in considerable research interest in the microbial species responsible for arsenic reduction. The arsenate reductase gene (arrA), an important component of the microbial arsenate reduction system, has been widely used as a biomarker to study arsenate reducing microorganisms. A new primer pair was designed and evaluated for qPCR and high-throughput sequencing of the arrA gene, because currently available PCR primers are not suitable for these applications...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913356/a-framework-for-integrating-multiple-biological-networks-to-predict-microrna-disease-associations
#16
Wei Peng, Wei Lan, Zeng Yu, Jianxin Wang, Yi Pan
MicroRNAs have close relationship with human diseases. Therefore, identifying disease related MicroRNAs plays an important role in disease diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. However, designing an effective computational method which can make good use of various biological resources and correctly predict the associations between MicroRNA and disease is still a big challenge. Previous researchers have pointed out that there are complex relationships among microRNAs, diseases and environment factors. There are inter-relationships between microRNAs, diseases or environment factors based on their functional similarity or phenotype similarity or chemical structure similarity and so on...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913196/nf-kb-regulated-exosomal-mir-155-promotes-the-inflammation-associated-with-arsenite-carcinogenesis
#17
Chao Chen, Fei Luo, Xinlu Liu, Lu Lu, Hui Xu, Qianlei Yang, Junchao Xue, Le Shi, Jun Li, Aihua Zhang, Qizhan Liu
In the cancer microenvironment, extracellular communication allows various types of cells to coordinate and execute biological functions. Emerging evidence indicates that exosomes, as mediators of cell communication, are involved in tumor progression. Little is known, however, about the mechanism by which exosomal miRNAs regulate inflammatory infiltration in arsenite-induced liver cancer. The present research aimed to determine if miRNAs secreted from arsenite-transformed human hepatic epithelial (L-02) cells are transferred into normal L-02 and THLE-3 cells, which are functionally active in the recipient cells...
November 29, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913172/efficient-catalytic-system-for-the-direct-transformation-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-to-furfural-and-5-hydroxymethylfurfural
#18
Luxin Zhang, Guoyun Xi, Jiaxin Zhang, Hongbing Yu, Xiaochang Wang
A feasible approach was developed for the co-production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and furfural from corncob via a new porous polytriphenylamine-SO3H (SPTPA) solid acid catalyst in lactone solvents. XRD, SEM, XPS, N2 adsorption-desorption, elemental analysis, TG-DTA, acid-base titration and FTIR spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the catalyst. This study demonstrates and optimizes the catalytic performance of SPTPA and solvent selection. SPTPA was found to exhibit superior catalytic ability in γ-valerolactone (GVL)...
November 25, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913160/psychological-well-being-and-mental-health-recovery-in-the-nimh-raise-early-treatment-program
#19
Julia Browne, David L Penn, Piper S Meyer-Kalos, Kim T Mueser, Sue E Estroff, Mary F Brunette, Christoph U Correll, James Robinson, Robert A Rosenheck, Nina Schooler, Delbert G Robinson, Jean Addington, Patricia Marcy, John M Kane
Recovery-oriented practices that promote client-centered care, collaboration, and functional outcome have been recommended to improve treatment engagement, especially for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). Psychological well-being (PWB) is related to recovery and refers to experiencing purpose and meaning in life through realizing one's potential. The recently completed Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE ETP) study sought to improve quality of life, functional outcome, and well-being in individuals with first episode psychosis (FEP)...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913140/comparative-analysis-of-tcdd-induced-ahr-mediated-gene-expression-in-human-mouse-and-rat-primary-b-cells
#20
Natalia Kovalova, Rance Nault, Robert Crawford, Timothy R Zacharewski, Norbert E Kaminski
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental pollutant that activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) resulting in altered gene expression. In vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo studies have demonstrated that B cells are directly impaired by TCDD, and are a sensitive target as evidenced by suppression of antibody responses. The window of sensitivity to TCDD-induced suppression of IgM secretion among mouse, rat and human B cells is similar. Specifically, TCDD must be present within the initial 12h post B cell stimulation, indicating that TCDD disrupts early signaling network(s) necessary for B lymphocyte activation and differentiation...
November 29, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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