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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166626/non-covalent-interactions-between-thio-caffeine-derivatives-and-water-soluble-porphyrin-in-ethanol-water-environment
#1
Agnieszka Lipke, Magdalena Makarska-Bialokoz, Arleta Sierakowska, Beata Jasiewicz
To determine the binding interactions and ability to form the non-covalent systems, the association process between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H2TTMePP) and a series of five structurally diverse thio-caffeine analogues has been studied in ethanol and ethanol-water solutions, analyzing its absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra. The porphyrin fluorescence lifetimes in the systems studied were established as well. During the titration with thio-caffeine compounds the slight bathochromic effect and considerable hypochromicity of the porphyrin Soret band maximum can be noted...
November 19, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166616/the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-preferentially-marks-and-promotes-gut-regulatory-t-cells
#2
Jian Ye, Ju Qiu, John W Bostick, Aki Ueda, Hilde Schjerven, Shiyang Li, Christian Jobin, Zong-Ming E Chen, Liang Zhou
The local environment may affect the development and function of tissue-resident T regulatory cells (Tregs), which are crucial for controlling inflammation. Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), an environmental sensor, is expressed by Tregs, its role in Treg cell development and/or function remains elusive. Here, we generated mouse genetic models to ablate or activate Ahr expression specifically in Tregs. We showed that Ahr was expressed more abundantly by peripherally induced Tregs (pTregs) in the gut and that its expression was independent of microbiota...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166608/s-nitrosylation-of-pink1-attenuates-pink1-parkin-dependent-mitophagy-in-hipsc-based-parkinson-s-disease-models
#3
Chang-Ki Oh, Abdullah Sultan, Joseph Platzer, Nima Dolatabadi, Frank Soldner, Daniel B McClatchy, Jolene K Diedrich, John R Yates, Rajesh Ambasudhan, Tomohiro Nakamura, Rudolf Jaenisch, Stuart A Lipton
Mutations in PARK6 (PINK1) and PARK2 (Parkin) are linked to rare familial cases of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in these genes result in pathological dysregulation of mitophagy, contributing to neurodegeneration. Here, we report that environmental factors causing a specific posttranslational modification on PINK1 can mimic these genetic mutations. We describe a molecular mechanism for impairment of mitophagy via formation of S-nitrosylated PINK1 (SNO-PINK1). Mitochondrial insults simulating age- or environmental-related stress lead to increased SNO-PINK1, inhibiting its kinase activity...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166568/camel-whey-protein-protects-lymphocytes-from-apoptosis-via-the-pi3k-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-atf-3-and-hsp-70-signaling-pathways-in-heat-stressed-male-mice
#4
Gamal Badr, Nancy K Ramadan, Hanem S Abdel-Tawab, Samia F Ahmed, Mohamed H Mahmoud
Heat stress (HS) is an environmental factor that depresses the immune systems mediating dysfunctional immune cells. Camel whey protein (CWP) can scavenge free radicals and enhance immunity. The present study investigated the impact of dietary supplementation with CWP on immune dysfunction induced by exposure to HS. Male mice (n = 45) were divided into three groups: control group; HS group; and HS mice that were orally administered CWP (HS+CWP group). The HS group exhibited elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) as well as a significant reduction in the IL-2 and IL-4 levels...
November 22, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166494/sporotrichosis-an-update-on-epidemiology-etiopathogenesis-laboratory-and-clinical-therapeutics
#5
Rosane Orofino-Costa, Priscila Marques de Macedo, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Andréa Reis Bernardes-Engemann
In the late 90's there was a change in both the route of transmission and the people at risk for sporotrichosis. This zoonotic cat-man alternative transmission route elicited changes in strategies to control the epidemic. There was a progressive increase in the number of cases involving especially children and the elderly. In addition to becoming hyperendemic, uncommon clinical pictures like immunoreactive clinical presentations or severe systemic cases have emerged. New species were identified and classified through molecular tools using more virulent clinical isolates, like S...
September 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166439/the-geographic-information-system-applied-to-study-schistosomiasis-in-pernambuco
#6
Verônica Santos Barbosa, Rodrigo Moraes Loyo, Ricardo José de Paula Souza E Guimarães, Constança Simões Barbosa
OBJECTIVE: Diagnose risk environments for schistosomiasis in coastal localities of Pernambuco using geoprocessing techniques. METHODS: A coproscopic and malacological survey were carried out in the Forte Orange and Serrambi areas. Environmental variables (temperature, salinity, pH, total dissolved solids and water fecal coliform dosage) were collected from Biomphalaria breeding sites or foci. The spatial analysis was performed using ArcGis 10.1 software, applying the kernel estimator, elevation map, and distance map...
2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166399/public-responses-to-proposals-for-a-tax-on-sugar-sweetened-beverages-a-thematic-analysis-of-online-reader-comments-posted-on-major-uk-news-websites
#7
Molly Thomas-Meyer, Oliver Mytton, Jean Adams
BACKGROUND: Regular consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with weight gain, type 2 diabetes, and dental caries. The UK will introduce a levy on the manufacturers of SSBs in 2018. Details will be negotiated over the next two years. How the UK public views SSB taxes is likely to be an important determinant of the content and success of the final policy. We aimed to capture the views, ideas and concerns of commenters on major UK news websites on SSB taxes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative analysis of reader comments to online news coverage of one proposal for an SSB tax in the UK...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166389/comparisons-of-management-practices-and-farm-design-on-australian-commercial-layer-and-meat-chicken-farms-cage-barn-and-free-range
#8
Angela Bullanday Scott, Mini Singh, Jenny-Ann Toribio, Marta Hernandez-Jover, Belinda Barnes, Kathryn Glass, Barbara Moloney, Amanda Lee, Peter Groves
There are few published studies describing the unique management practices, farm design and housing characteristics of commercial meat chicken and layer farms in Australia. In particular, there has been a large expansion of free range poultry production in Australia in recent years, but limited information about this enterprise exists. This study aimed to describe features of Australian commercial chicken farms, with particular interest in free range farms, by conducting on-farm interviews of 25 free range layer farms, nine cage layer farms, nine barn layer farms, six free range meat chicken farms and 15 barn meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin bioregion and South East Queensland...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166363/progress-toward-poliomyelitis-eradication-pakistan-january-2016-september-2017
#9
Youness Elhamidi, Abdirahman Mahamud, Muhammad Safdar, Wasan Al Tamimi, Jaume Jorba, Chukwuma Mbaeyi, Christopher H Hsu, Zubair Wadood, Salmaan Sharif, Derek Ehrhardt
In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Among the three wild poliovirus serotypes, only wild poliovirus (WPV) type 1 (WPV1) has been detected since 2012. Since 2014, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria remain the only countries with continuing endemic WPV1 transmission. This report describes activities conducted and progress made toward the eradication of poliovirus in Pakistan during January 2016-July 2017 and provides an update to previous reports (1,2). In 2016, Pakistan reported 20 WPV1 cases, a 63% decrease compared with 54 cases in 2015 (3)...
November 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166322/biological-genetic-regulation-of-physical-activity-level-consensus-from-genbiopac
#10
J Timothy Lightfoot, Eco J C De Geus, Frank W Booth, Molly S Bray, Marcel den Hoed, Jaakko Kaprio, Scott A Kelly, Daniel Pomp, Michael C Saul, Martine A Thomis, Theodore Garland, Claude Bouchard
PURPOSE: Physical activity unquestionably maintains and improves health; however, physical activity levels globally are low and not rising despite all the resources devoted to this goal. Attention in both the research literature and the public policy domain has focused on social-behavioral factors; however, a growing body of literature suggests that biological determinants play a significant role in regulating physical activity levels. For instance, physical activity level, measured in various manners, has a genetic component in both humans and non-human animal models...
November 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166242/dynamism-of-an-astrocyte-in-vivo-perspectives-on-identity-and-function
#11
Kira E Poskanzer, Anna V Molofsky
Astrocytes are an abundant and evolutionarily conserved central nervous system cell type. Despite decades of evidence that astrocytes are integral to neural circuit function, it seems as though astrocytic and neuronal biology continue to advance in parallel to each other, to the detriment of both. Recent advances in molecular biology and optical imaging are being applied to astrocytes in new and exciting ways but without fully considering their unique biology. From this perspective, we explore the reasons that astrocytes remain enigmatic, arguing that their responses to neuronal and environmental cues shape form and function in dynamic ways...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166155/drivers-of-diversification-in-individual-life-courses
#12
Raisa Hernández-Pacheco, Ulrich K Steiner
Heterogeneity in life courses among individuals of a population influences the speed of adaptive evolutionary processes, but it is less clear how biotic and abiotic environmental fluctuations influence such heterogeneity. We investigate principal drivers of variability in sequence of stages during an individual's life in a stage-structured population. We quantify heterogeneity by measuring population entropy of a Markov chain, which computes the rate of diversification of individual life courses. Using individual data of a primate population, we show that density regulates the stage composition of the population but that its entropy and the generating moments of heterogeneity are independent of density...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166154/predator-persistence-through-variability-of-resource-productivity-in-tritrophic-systems
#13
Floor H Soudijn, André M de Roos
The trophic structure of species communities depends on the energy transfer between trophic levels. Primary productivity varies strongly through time, challenging the persistence of species at higher trophic levels. Yet resource variability has mostly been studied in systems with only one or two trophic levels. We test the effect of variability in resource productivity in a tritrophic model system including a resource, a size-structured consumer, and a size-specific predator. The model complies with fundamental principles of mass conservation and the body-size dependence of individual-level energetics and predator-prey interactions...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166035/direct-visualization-and-control-of-atomic-mobility-at-100-surfaces-of-ceria-in-the-environmental-transmission-electron-microscope
#14
Matthieu Bugnet, Steven H Overbury, Zili Wu, Thierry Epicier
Ceria is one of the world's most prominent material for applications in heterogeneous catalysis, as catalyst support or catalyst itself. Despite an exhaustive literature on the structure of reactive facets of CeO2 in line with its catalytic mechanisms, the temporal evolution of the atomic surface structure exposed to realistic redox conditions remains elusive. Here, we provide a direct visualization of the atomic mobility of cerium atoms on {100} surfaces of CeO2 nanocubes at room temperature in high vacuum, O2 and CO2 atmospheres in an environmental transmission electron microscope...
November 22, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165998/characterization-of-natural-organic-substances-potentially-hindering-rt-pcr-based-virus-detection-in-large-volumes-of-environmental-water
#15
Akihiko Hata, Manami Inaba, Hiroyuki Katayama, Hiroaki Furumai
Quantitative detection of pathogenic viruses in the environmental water is essential for the assessment of water safety. It is known that some of natural organic substances interfere with virus detection processes, i.e., nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription-PCR. Such substances are carried over into a sample after virus concentration. In this study, inhibitory substances in coastal water samples were characterized in view of their effects on efficiency of virus detection and property as organic matters...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165869/canagliflozin-stability-study-and-eco-friendly-chromatographic-determination-of-its-degradation-product-a-comparative-study
#16
Aml A Emam
Canagliflozin is a newly approved drug for type II diabetes mellitus. A full stability study of Canagliflozin was performed following international conference on harmonization strategies. The drug was stable against all conditions except oxidation where only one degradation product was separated and structurally elucidated using mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy. A green high-performance thin-layer chromatographic densitometric determination was developed and validated for the accurate quantification of Canagliflozin and its main oxidative degradation product...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165868/the-effects-of-intrinsic-enrichment-on-captive-felids
#17
Juliana Damasceno, Gelson Genaro, Thomas Quirke, Shannen McCarthy, Sean McKeown, Ruth O'Riordan
Environmental enrichment is a well-known technique, which has been used to enhance the welfare of captive animals. The aim of this study is to investigate how three different forms of intrinsic enrichment, namely, a hay ball without scent, a hay ball with catnip, and a hay ball with cinnamon, influenced the behavior of six cheetah and two Sumatran tigers at Fota Wildlife Park, Ireland. Enrichment-directed behaviors, as well as pacing, locomotion, inactive, and exploratory behaviors were investigated. The results indicated that the three forms of enrichment had similar effects, in terms of enrichment-directed behavior, with cinnamon resulting in the highest levels of enrichment-directed behaviors...
May 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165867/applying-behavior-analytic-methodology-to-the-science-and-practice-of-environmental-enrichment-in-zoos-and-aquariums
#18
Christina A Alligood, Nicole R Dorey, Lindsay R Mehrkam, Katherine A Leighty
Environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums is often evaluated at two overlapping levels: published research and day-to-day institutional record keeping. Several authors have discussed ongoing challenges with small sample sizes in between-groups zoological research and have cautioned against the inappropriate use of inferential statistics (Shepherdson, , International Zoo Yearbook, 38, 118-124; Shepherdson, Lewis, Carlstead, Bauman, & Perrin, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 147, 298-277; Swaisgood, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 139-162; Swaisgood & Shepherdson, , Zoo Biology, 24, 499-518)...
May 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165857/isolation-of-phage-display-library-derived-scfv-antibody-specific-to-listeria-monocytogenes-by-a-novel-immobilized-method
#19
Nguyen Xuan-Hung, Thu-Le Trinh, Huong Thi-Bich Vu, Huan Quang Le, Anh To Kim
AIMS: To select Listeria monocytogenes specific scFv antibodies from a phage display library by a novel simple and cost-effective immobilization method. METHODS AND RESULTS: Light Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) was used as biomass support matrix for biopanning of a phage display library to select Listeria monocytogenes specific scFv antibody. Four rounds of positive selection against LECA-immobilized L. monocytogenes and an additional subtractive panning against L...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165848/ecological-disturbance-influences-adaptive-divergence-despite-high-gene-flow-in-golden-perch-macquaria-ambigua-implications-for-management-and-resilience-to-climate-change
#20
Catherine R M Attard, Chris J Brauer, Jonathan Sandoval-Castillo, Leanne K Faulks, Peter Unmack, Dean M Gilligan, Luciano B Beheregaray
Populations that are adaptively divergent but maintain high gene flow may have greater resilience to environmental change as gene flow allows the spread of alleles that have already been tested elsewhere. In addition, populations naturally subjected to ecological disturbance may already hold resilience to future environmental change. Confirming this necessitates ecological genomic studies of high dispersal, generalist species. Here we perform one such study on golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia using a genome-wide SNP dataset...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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