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Plant tissue

Mahesh Rangu, Zhujia Ye, Sarabjit Bhatti, Suping Zhou, Yong Yang, Tara Fish, Theodore W Thannhauser
In this paper, we report on aluminum (Al)-induced root proteomic changes in switchgrass. After growth in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 400 μM of Al, plants began to show signs of physiological stress such as a reduction in photosynthetic rate. At this time, the basal 2-cm long root tips were harvested and divided into two segments, each of 1-cm in length, for protein extraction. Al-induced changes in proteomes were identified using tandem mass tags mass spectrometry (TMT-MS)-based quantitative proteomics analysis...
March 22, 2018: Proteomes
Edison A Díaz-Álvarez, Roberto Lindig-Cisneros, Erick de la Barrera
Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is the third largest cause of global biodiversity loss, with rates that have more than doubled over the past century. This is especially threatening for tropical regions where the deposition may soon exceed 25 kg of N ha-1 year-1 , well above the threshold for physiological damage of 12-20 kg of N ha-1 year-1 , depending on plant species and nitrogenous compound. It is thus urgent to monitor these regions where the most diverse biotas occur. However, most studies have been conducted in Europe, the USA and recently in China...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Lai-Hua Liu, Teng-Fei Fan, Dong-Xue Shi, Chang-Jun Li, Ming-Jie He, Yi-Yin Chen, Lei Zhang, Chao Yang, Xiao-Yuan Cheng, Xu Chen, Di-Qin Li, Yi-Chen Sun
Although many members encoding different ammonium- and nitrate-transporters (AMTs, NRTs) were identified and functionally characterized from several plant species, little is known about molecular components for [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text] acquisition/transport in tobacco, which is often used as a plant model for biological studies besides its agricultural and industrial interest. We reported here the first molecular identification in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) of nine AMTs and four NRTs , which are respectively divided into four ( AMT1/2/3/4 ) and two ( NRT1/2 ) clusters and whose functionalities were preliminarily evidenced by heterologous functional-complementation in yeast or Arabidopsis...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jennifer N Mahley, Jarmila Pittermann, Nick Rowe, Alex Baer, James E Watkins, Eric Schuettpelz, James K Wheeler, Klaus Mehltreter, Michael Windham, Weston Testo, James Beck
Herbaceous plants rely on a combination of turgor, ground tissues and geometry for mechanical support of leaves and stems. Unlike most angiosperms however, ferns employ a sub-dermal layer of fibers, known as a hypodermal sterome, for support of their leaves. The sterome is nearly ubiquitous in ferns, but nothing is known about its role in leaf biomechanics. The goal of this research was to characterize sterome attributes in ferns that experience a broad range of mechanical stresses, as imposed by their aquatic, xeric, epiphytic, and terrestrial niches...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dereje Kebebe, Yuanyuan Liu, Yumei Wu, Maikhone Vilakhamxay, Zhidong Liu, Jiawei Li
Cancer has become one of the leading causes of mortality globally. The major challenges of conventional cancer therapy are the failure of most chemotherapeutic agents to accumulate selectively in tumor cells and their severe systemic side effects. In the past three decades, a number of drug delivery approaches have been discovered to overwhelm the obstacles. Among these, nanocarriers have gained much attention for their excellent and efficient drug delivery systems to improve specific tissue/organ/cell targeting...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Reafa A Hossain, Nicholas R Dunham, Raymond A Enke, Christopher E Berndsen
Purpose: DNA methylation is a well-characterized epigenetic repressor of mRNA transcription in many plant and vertebrate systems. However, the mechanism of this repression is not fully understood. The process of transcription is controlled by proteins that regulate recruitment and activity of RNA polymerase by binding to specific cis-regulatory sequences. Cone-rod homeobox (CRX) is a well-characterized mammalian transcription factor that controls photoreceptor cell-specific gene expression...
2018: Molecular Vision
Yongao Xiong, Qiongyu Li, Muchena J Kailemia, Carlito B Lebrilla, Somen Nandi, Karen A McDonald
Kifunensine, a potent and selective inhibitor of class I α-mannosidases, prevents α-mannosidases I from trimming mannose residues on glycoproteins, thus resulting in oligomannose-type glycans. We report for the first time that through one-time vacuum infiltration of kifunensine in plant tissue, N-linked glycosylation of a recombinant protein transiently produced in whole-plants shifted completely from complex-type to oligomannose-type. Fc-fused capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2-Fc) containing one N -glycosylation site on the Fc domain, produced in Nicotiana benthamiana whole plants, served as a model protein...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiao Qi Ye, Jin Liu Meng, Bo Zeng, Ming Wu
BACKGROUND: Operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China) imposes a new water fluctuation regime, including a prolonged winter submergence in contrast to the natural short summer flooding of the rivers. The contrasting water temperature regimes may remarkably affect the survival of submerged plants in the TGR. Plant survival in such prolonged flooding might depend on the carbohydrate status of the plants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of water temperature on survival and carbohydrate status in a flood-tolerant plant species and predicted that both survival and carbohydrate status would be improved by lower water temperatures...
2018: PloS One
Tracey Ann Cuin, Ingo Dreyer, Erwan Michard
Fast responses to an external threat depend on the rapid transmission of signals through a plant. Action potentials (APs) are proposed as such signals. Plant APs share similarities with their animal counterparts; they are proposed to depend on the activity of voltage-gated ion channels. Nonetheless, despite their demonstrated role in (a)biotic stress responses, the identities of the associated voltage-gated channels and transporters remain undefined in higher plants. By demonstrating the role of two potassium-selective channels in Arabidopsis thaliana in AP generation and shaping, we show that the plant AP does depend on similar Kv -like transport systems to those of the animal signal...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tomoo Shimada, Junpei Takagi, Takuji Ichino, Makoto Shirakawa, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura
Plant vacuoles are multifunctional organelles.Onthe one hand, most vegetative tissues develop lytic vacuoles that have a role in degradation.Onthe other hand, seed cells have two types of storage vacuoles: protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) in endosperm and embryonic cells and metabolite storage vacuoles in seed coats. Vacuolar proteins and metabolites are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum and then transported to the vacuoles via Golgi-dependent and Golgi-independent pathways. Proprotein precursors delivered to the vacuoles are converted into their respective mature forms by vacuolar processing enzyme, which also regulates various kinds of programmed cell death in plants...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Yuan Huang, Yiming Guo, Yuting Liu, Feng Zhang, Zhikui Wang, Hongyan Wang, Feng Wang, Dongping Li, Dandan Mao, Sheng Luan, Manzhong Liang, Liangbi Chen
Although abscisic acid (ABA) is an important hormone that regulates seed dormancy, stomatal closure, plant development, as well as responses to environmental stimuli, the physiological mechanisms of ABA response to multiple stress in rice remain poorly understood. In the ABA biosynthetic pathway, 9- cis -epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the key rate-limiting enzyme. Here, we report important functions of OsNCED3 in multi-abiotic stress tolerance in rice. The OsNCED3 is constitutively expressed in various tissues under normal condition, Its expression is highly induced by NaCl, PEG, and H2 O2 stress, suggesting the roles for OsNCED3 in response to the multi-abiotic stress tolerance in rice...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rajendran Manikandan, Sankarasubramanian Harish, Gandhi Karthikeyan, Thiruvengadam Raguchander
The vascular wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici is an important soil borne pathogen causes severe yield loss. The molecular characterization and their interaction with its host is necessary to develop a protection strategy. 20 isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) were isolated from wilt infected tomato plants across Tamil Nadu. They were subjected to cultural, morphological, molecular and virulence studies. The results revealed that all the isolates produced both micro and macro conidia with different size, number of cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eric Wei Chiang Chan, Siu Kuin Wong, Hung Tuck Chan
This short review provides an update of the anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties of casticin from Vitex species. Casticin is a polymethylflavone with three rings, an orthocatechol moiety, a double bond, two hydroxyl groups and four methoxyl groups. Casticin has been isolated from various tissues of plants in the Vitex genus: fruits and leaves of V. trifolia; aerial parts and seeds of V. agnus-castus and leaves of V. negundo. Studies have reported the antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of casticin from Vitex species...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Yoon-Young Sung, Dong-Seon Kim, Seung-Hyung Kim, Ho Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Allium fistulosum (Welsh onion) is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of colds, influenza, abdominal pain, headache, and heart disease. This study evaluated the effects of A. fistulosum ethanolic extract (AFE) and aqueous extract (AFW) on body weight and other obesity-related parameters. METHODS: Male 8-week-old C57BL/6 J mice were fed either a standard chow diet (normal control) or a high-fat diet (HFD) either alone (HFD-control) or in combination with G...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Wenjuan Tan, Qin Gao, Chaoyi Deng, Yi Wang, Wen-Yee Lee, Jose A Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
In this study, low and high anthocyanin basil (Ocimum basilicum) varieties (LAV and HAV) were sprayed with 4.8 mg Cu/per pot from Cu(OH)2 nanowires, Cu(OH)2 bulk (CuPro), or CuSO4 and cultivated for 45 days. In both varieties, significantly higher Cu was determined in leaves of CuSO4 exposed plants (691 and 672.6 mg/kg for LAV and HAV, respectively); however, only in roots of HAV, Cu was higher, compared to control (p ≤ 0.05). Nanowires increased n-decanoic, dodecanoic, octanoic, and nonanoic acids in LAV, but reduced n-decanoic, dodecanoic, octanoic, and tetradecanoic acids in HAV, compared with control...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
A M Vaira, H S Lim, G Bauchan, C J Gulbronson, L Miozzi, N Vinals, A Natilla, J Hammond
The Lolium latent virus (LoLV) major coat protein sequence contains a typical chloroplast transit peptide (cTP) domain. In infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaf tissue, LoLV coat proteins can be detected at the chloroplast. In transient expression, several N-terminal deletions of the CP sequence, increasing in length, result in disruption of the domain functionality, markedly affecting intracellular localization. A yeast two-hybrid-based study using LoLV CP as bait identified several potentially interacting Arabidopsis host proteins, most of them with chloroplast-linked pathways...
March 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Paraskevi Malea, Theodoros Kevrekidis, Konstantina-Roxani Chatzipanagiotou, Athanasios Mogias
Background: Seagrass species have been recommended as biomonitors of environmental condition and as tools for phytoremediation, due to their ability to concentrate anthropogenic chemicals. This study aims to provide novel information on metal accumulation in seagrasses under laboratory conditions to support their use as a tool in the evaluation and abatement of contamination in the field. We investigated the kinetics of cadmium uptake into adult leaf blades, leaf sheaths, rhizomes and roots of Cymodocea nodosa in exposure concentrations within the range of cadmium levels in industrial wastewater (0...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Parveen Akhter Lone, Syed Wakeel Ahmed, Vivek Prasad, Bashir Ahmed
Plants & their extracts have immense potential for the management or treatment of the wounds. The pyhto medicines for the wound healing are not only cheap & affordable but are purportedly safe as hypersensitivity reactions are rarely encountered with the use of these agents, these natural agents induce healing & regeneration of the lost tissue by multiple mechanisms Turmeric commonly is called as Haldi in Hindi. C Longa has been reported to possess anti bacterial, anti fungal & anti inflammatory activities...
January 2018: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
Qi Wang, Qian Wang, Yan-Le Zhou, Shuang Shan, Huan-Huan Cui, Yong Xiao, Kun Dong, Adel Khashaveh, Liang Sun, Yong-Jun Zhang
The phytophagous mirid bugs of Apolygus lucorum, Lygus pratensis as well as three Adelphocoris spp., including Adelphocoris lineolatus, A. suturalis , and A. fasciaticollis are major pests of multiple agricultural crops in China, which have distinct geographical distribution and occurrence ranges. Like many insect species, these bugs heavily rely on olfactory cues to search preferred host plants, thereby investigation on functional co-evolution and divergence of olfactory genes seems to be necessary and is of great interest...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Johan Edqvist, Kristina Blomqvist, Jeroen Nieuwland, Tiina A Salminen
The nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are small, compact proteins folded around a tunnel-like hydrophobic cavity, making them suitable for lipid binding and transport. LTPs are encoded by large gene families in all land plants, but they have not been identified in algae or any other organisms. Thus, LTPs are considered key proteins for plant survival on and colonization of land. LTPs are abundantly expressed in most plant tissues, both above and below ground. They are usually localized to extracellular spaces outside the plasma membrane...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
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