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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345105/modulates-brassinosteroids-mediated-growth-regulation-and-influences-architecture-and-grain-shape
#1
Yan-Jie Zhang, Yu Zhang, Liang-Li Zhang, Hui-Ya Huang, Bao-Jun Yang, Sheng Luan, Hong-Wei Xue, Wen-Hui Lin
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important crop and feeds more than half of the world population. The architecture of rice, including height, leaf inclination, and tiller number, is important for rice planting and yield. Plant hormone, brassinosteroids (BR), plays crucial roles in modulating plant architecture and seed yield. But BR cannot be applied in agriculture production directly because BR regulated multiple processes and could not be transcriptional regulated in different tissues. This article is protected by copyright...
January 18, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344874/laser-capture-microdissection-based-rna-seq-of-barley-grain-tissues
#2
Ronny Brandt, Martin Mascher, Johannes Thiel
Spatiotemporal patterning throughout the plant body depends to a large degree on cell- and tissue-specific expression of genes. Subsequently, for a better understanding of cell and tissue differentiation processes during plant development it is important to conduct transcript analyses in individual cells or tissue types rather than in bulk tissues. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) provides a useful method for isolating specific cell types from complex tissue structures for downstream applications. Contrasting to mammalian cells, the texture of plant cells is more critical due to hard, cellulose-rich cell walls, large vacuoles, and air spaces which complicates tissue preparation and extraction of macromolecules, like DNA and RNA...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344830/rap2-6l-and-jasmonic-acid-responsive-genes-are-expressed-upon-arabidopsis-hypocotyl-grafting-but-are-not-needed-for-cell-proliferation-related-to-healing
#3
Keita Matsuoka, Raiki Yanagi, Emi Yumoto, Takao Yokota, Hisakazu Yamane, Shinobu Satoh, Masashi Asahina
Jasmonic acid and RAP2.6L are induced upon wounding but are not involved in cell proliferation during healing in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Plants produce jasmonic acid in response to wounding, but its role in healing, if any, has not been determined. Previously, the jasmonic acid-induced transcription factor, RAP2.6L, related to APETALA 2.6-like, was identified as a spatially expressed factor involved in tissue reunion in partially incised flowering stems of Arabidopsis. In the present study, we investigated the function of JA and RAP2...
January 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344723/structural-associations-between-organelle-membranes-in-nectary-parenchyma-cells
#4
Silvia Rodrigues Machado, Elisa A Gregório, Tatiane M Rodrigues
The close association between membranes and organelles, and the intense chloroplast remodeling in parenchyma cells of extrafloral nectaries occurred only at the secretion time and suggest a relationship with the nectar secretion. Associations between membranes and organelles have been well documented in different tissues and cells of plants, but poorly explored in secretory cells. Here, we described the close physical juxtaposition between membranes and organelles, mainly with chloroplasts, in parenchyma cells of Citharexylum myrianthum (Verbenaeceae) extrafloral nectaries under transmission electron microscopy, using conventional and microwave fixation...
January 17, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342939/deciphering-the-evolution-and-development-of-the-cuticle-by-studying-lipid-transfer-proteins-in-mosses-and-liverworts
#5
REVIEW
Tiina A Salminen, D Magnus Eklund, Valentin Joly, Kristina Blomqvist, Daniel P Matton, Johan Edqvist
When plants conquered land, they developed specialized organs, tissues, and cells in order to survive in this new and harsh terrestrial environment. New cell polymers such as the hydrophobic lipid-based polyesters cutin, suberin, and sporopollenin were also developed for protection against water loss, radiation, and other potentially harmful abiotic factors. Cutin and waxes are the main components of the cuticle, which is the waterproof layer covering the epidermis of many aerial organs of land plants. Although the in vivo functions of the group of lipid binding proteins known as lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are still rather unclear, there is accumulating evidence suggesting a role for LTPs in the transfer and deposition of monomers required for cuticle assembly...
January 15, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341848/protection-of-root-apex-meristem-during-stress-responses
#6
Mohamed M Mira, Shuanglong Huang, Robert D Hill, Claudio Stasollaa
By regulating the levels of nitric oxide (NO) in a cell and tissue specific fashion, Phytoglobins (Pgbs), plant hemoglobin-like proteins, interfere with many NO-mediated pathways participating in developmental and stress-related responses. Recent evidence reveals that one of the functions of Pgbs is to protect the root apical meristem (RAM) from stress conditions by retaining the viability and function of the quiescent center (QC), required to maintain the stem cells in an undifferentiated state and ensure proper tissue patterning and root viability...
January 17, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341233/fate-uptake-and-distribution-of-nanoencapsulated-pesticides-in-soil-earthworm-systems-implications-for-environmental-risk-assessment
#7
Mohd Anuar Mohd Firdaus, Annika Agatz, Mark E Hodson, Omar S A Al-Khazrajy, Alistair B A Boxall
Nanopesticides are novel plant protection products offering numerous benefits. As nanoparticles behave differently from dissolved chemicals, environmental risks of these materials could differ from conventional pesticides. Here we used soil-earthworm systems to compare the fate and uptake of analytical grade bifenthrin to that of bifenthrin in traditional and nano-encapsulated formulations. Apparent sorption coefficients for bifenthrin in the nano-treatments were up to 3.8 times lower than in the non-nano treatments whereas dissipation half-lives of the nano-treatments were up to two time longer...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340903/characterization-of-ent-kaurene-synthase-and-kaurene-oxidase-involved-in-gibberellin-biosynthesis-from-scoparia-dulcis
#8
Yoshimi Yamamura, Yukari Taguchi, Kei Ichitani, Io Umebara, Ayako Ohshita, Fumiya Kurosaki, Jung-Bum Lee
Gibberellins (GAs) are ubiquitous diterpenoids in higher plants, whereas some higher plants produce unique species-specific diterpenoids. In GA biosynthesis, ent-kaurene synthase (KS) and ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) are key players which catalyze early step(s) of the cyclization and oxidation reactions. We have studied the functional characterization of gene products of a KS (SdKS) and two KOs (SdKO1 and SdKO2) involved in GA biosynthesis in Scoparia dulcis. Using an in vivo heterologous expression system of Escherichia coli, we found that SdKS catalyzed a cyclization reaction from ent-CPP to ent-kaurene and that the SdKOs oxidized ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid after modification of the N-terminal region for adaptation to the E...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340860/trace-element-phytoextraction-from-contaminated-soil-a-case-study-under-mediterranean-climate
#9
Werther Guidi Nissim, Emily Palm, Stefano Mancuso, Elisa Azzarello
The current field study aims to assess the suitability of four different plant species (i.e. poplar, willow, hemp and alfalfa) to be used for trace element (TE) (i.e. Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) phytoextraction under hot-arid Mediterranean climate conditions. Plants were grown for two consecutive years on a moderate TE contaminated soil, supplied with water and mineral nutrients. The growth and physiological parameters were assessed throughout the trial to compare the response of plants to the environmental pollution, and TE uptake rates were measured for aboveground plant tissues...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340613/biomass-increase-under-zinc-deficiency-caused-by-delay-of-early-flowering-in-arabidopsis
#10
Xiaochao Chen, Uwe Ludewig
Plants generally produce more biomass when all nutrients are available in sufficient amounts. In addition to environmental constraints, genetic and developmental factors, such as the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, restrict maximal yield. Here we report the peculiar observation that a subset of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions produced larger shoot rosette diameters when grown in zinc (Zn)-deficient conditions, compared with Zn-sufficient conditions. This was associated with early flowering that restricted the leaf length under Zn sufficiency...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340606/leaves-not-roots-or-floral-tissue-are-the-main-site-of-rapid-external-pressure-induced-aba-biosynthesis-in-angiosperms
#11
Feng-Ping Zhang, Frances Sussmilch, David S Nichols, Amanda A Cardoso, Timothy J Brodribb, Scott A M McAdam
Rapid biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) in the leaf, triggered by a decrease in cell volume, is essential for a functional stomatal response to vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in angiosperms. However, it is not known whether rapid biosynthesis of ABA is triggered in other plant tissues as well. Through the application of external pressure to flower, root and leaf tissues, we test whether a reduction in cell volume can trigger rapid increases in ABA levels across plant body in two species Solanum lycopersicum and Passiflora tarminiana...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340134/does-mycorrhizal-status-alter-herbivore-induced-changes-in-whole-plant-resource-partitioning
#12
Colin M Orians, Sara Gomez, Timothy Korpita
Both mycorrhizae and herbivore damage cause rapid changes in source-sink dynamics within a plant. Mycorrhizae create long-term sinks for carbon within the roots while damage by leaf-chewing herbivores causes temporary whole-plant shifts in carbon and nitrogen allocation. Thus, induced responses to herbivory might depend on the presence or absence of mycorrhizae. We examined the effects of mycorrhizal presence on induced resource partitioning in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) in response to cues from a specialist herbivore Manduca sexta...
February 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339969/a-new-toolset-for-protein-expression-and-subcellular-localization-studies-in-citrus-and-its-application-to-citrus-tristeza-virus-proteins
#13
Amit Levy, Choaa El-Mochtar, Chunxia Wang, Michael Goodin, Vladimir Orbovic
Background: Transient gene expression is a powerful tool to study gene function in plants. In citrus, Agrobacterium transformation is the method of choice for transient expression studies, but this method does not work efficiently with many gene constructs, and there is a need for a more robust transient expression system in citrus leaves. Biolistic particle delivery is an alternative to Agrobacterium transformation, and in some plants, such as Arabidopsis, gives higher transformation rates in leaf tissues than Agrobacterium...
2018: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338924/dynamic-epigenetic-changes-during-plant-regeneration
#14
REVIEW
Kyounghee Lee, Pil Joon Seo
Plants have the remarkable ability to drive cellular dedifferentiation and regeneration. Changes in epigenetic landscapes accompany the cell fate transition. Notably, modifications of chromatin structure occur primarily during callus formation via an in vitro tissue culture process and, thus, pluripotent callus cells have unique epigenetic signatures. Here, we highlight the latest progress in epigenetic regulation of callus formation in plants, which addresses fundamental questions related to cell fate changes and pluripotency establishment...
January 12, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338642/functional-evolution-of-biosynthetic-enzymes-that-produce-plant-volatiles
#15
Takao Koeduka
Plants synthesize volatile compounds to attract pollinators. The volatiles emitted by flowers are often complex mixtures of organic compounds; pollinators are capable of distinctly recognizing different volatile compounds. Plants also produce volatile compounds to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens. Some of the volatile compounds produced in floral and vegetative tissues are toxic to insects and microbes. To adapt changes in the environment, plants have evolved the ability to synthesize a unique set of volatiles...
January 17, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338040/identification-and-expression-analyses-of-wrky-genes-reveal-their-involvement-in-growth-and-abiotic-stress-response-in-watermelon-citrullus-lanatus
#16
Xiaozhen Yang, Hao Li, Yongchao Yang, Yongqi Wang, Yanling Mo, Ruimin Zhang, Yong Zhang, Jianxiang Ma, Chunhua Wei, Xian Zhang
Despite identification of WRKY family genes in numerous plant species, a little is known about WRKY genes in watermelon, one of the most economically important fruit crops around the world. Here, we identified a total of 63 putative WRKY genes in watermelon and classified them into three major groups (I-III) and five subgroups (IIa-IIe) in group II. The structure analysis indicated that ClWRKYs with different WRKY domains or motifs may play different roles by regulating respective target genes. The expressions of ClWRKYs in different tissues indicate that they are involved in various tissue growth and development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337852/reference-gene-selection-for-quantitative-real-time-reverse-transcriptase-pcr-in-annual-ryegrass-lolium-multiflorum-subjected-to-various-abiotic-stresses
#17
Qiuxu Liu, Xiao Qi, Haidong Yan, Linkai Huang, Gang Nie, Xinquan Zhang
To select the most stable reference genes in annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), we studied annual ryegrass leaf tissues exposed to various abiotic stresses by qRT-PCR and selected 11 candidate reference genes, i.e., 18S rRNA, E2, GAPDH, eIF4A, HIS3, SAMDC, TBP-1, Unigene71, Unigene77, Unigene755, and Unigene14912. We then used GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper to analyze the expression stability of these 11 genes, and used RefFinder to comprehensively rank genes according to stability. Under different stress conditions, the most suitable reference genes for studies of leaf tissues of annual ryegrass were different...
January 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337064/cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-a-p-coumaroyl-quinate-shikimate-3-hydroxylase-from-potato-solanum-tuberosum
#18
Benjamin J Knollenberg, Jingjing Liu, Shu Yu, Hong Lin, Li Tian
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) plays an important role in protecting plants against pathogens and promoting human health. Although CGA accumulates to high levels in potato tubers, the key enzyme p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) for CGA biosynthesis has not been isolated and functionally characterized in potato. In this work, we cloned StC3'H from potato and showed that it catalyzed the formation of caffeoylshikimate and CGA (caffeoylquinate) from p-coumaroyl shikimate and p-coumaroyl quinate, respectively, but was inactive towards p-coumaric acid in in vitro enzyme assays...
January 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336997/modulation-of-nonessential-amino-acid-biosynthetic-pathways-in-virulent-hessian-fly-larvae-mayetiola-destructor-feeding-on-susceptible-host-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#19
Subhashree Subramanyam, Jacob T Shreve, Jill A Nemacheck, Alisha J Johnson, Brandi Schemerhorn, Richard H Shukle, Christie E Williams
Compatible interactions between wheat (Triticum aestivum), and its dipteran pest Hessian fly (Hf, Mayetiola destructor) result in successful establishment of larval feeding sites rendering the host plant susceptible. Virulent larvae employ an effector-based feeding strategy to reprogram the host physiology resulting in formation of a protein- and sugar-rich nutritive tissue beneficial to developing larvae. Previous studies documented increased levels of nonessential amino acids (NAA; that need not be received through insect diet) in the susceptible wheat in response to larval feeding, suggesting importance of plant-derived NAA in larval nutrition...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336956/reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-for-species-specific-detection-of-tomato-chlorotic-spot-orthotospovirus
#20
Xuelian Sui, Shouan Zhang, Zujian Wu, Kai-Shu Ling
Tomato chlorotic spot orthotospovirus (TCSV) is an emerging orthotospovirus that can cause severe disease on tomato plants. There are at least four orthotospoviruses infecting tomato, and mixed infection of two or more orthotospoviruses in a single tomato plant is quite common in the field. With similarity in the symptomatology and cross serological reactivity among tomato-infecting orthotospoviruses, especially between TCSV and groundnut ringspot orthotospovirus (GRSV), the current serological tests could not achieve definite and accurate species-specific determination in disease diagnosis...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
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