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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938177/the-osmotin-of-calotropis-procera-latex-is-not-expressed-in-laticifer-free-cultivated-callus-and-under-salt-stress
#1
Isabel C C Souza, Márcio V Ramos, José H Costa, Cleverson D T Freitas, Raquel S B Oliveira, Frederico B Moreno, Renato A Moreira, Cristina P S Carvalho
The latex of Calotropis procera has previously been reported to contain osmotin. This protein (CpOsm) inhibited phytopathogens and this was mechanistically characterized. Here, the time-course profile of CpOsm transcripts was examined in the salt-stressed cultivated callus of C. procera in order to better understand its role in the physiology of the plant. Stressed callus (80 mM NaCl) showed an unbalanced content of organic compounds (proline and total soluble sugar) and inorganic ions (Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+))...
September 14, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938058/the-gall-wasp-leptocybe-invasa-hymenoptera-eulophidae-stimulates-different-chemical-and-phytohormone-responses-in-two-eucalyptus-varieties-that-vary-in-susceptibility-to-galling
#2
X Q Li, Y Z Liu, W F Guo, M K Solanki, Z D Yang, Y Xiang, Z C Ma, Y G Wen
Gall-inducing insects produce various types of galls on plants, but little is known about the gall-induction mechanism of these galling insects. The gall wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) forms galls of different sizes on several Eucalyptus species. To clarify the physiological responses of Eucalyptus to L. invasa infestation, we measured the dynamics of nitrogen (N), carbon (C), total phenolics, total tannins and four types of phytohormones (zeatin [Z] + zeatin riboside [ZR], gibberellins [GA], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and abscisic acid [ABA]) in galled and ungalled leaf tissues of two Eucalyptus horticultural varieties (DH201-2 [Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis] and EA [Eucalyptus exserta]) with different susceptibility to galling throughout the larval developmental stages...
September 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938020/seasonal-variations-in-carbon-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-concentrations-and-c-n-p-stoichiometry-in-different-organs-of-a-larix-principis-rupprechtii-mayr-plantation-in-the-qinling-mountains-china
#3
Hailiang Li, M James C Crabbe, Fuli Xu, Weiling Wang, Lihui Ma, Ruilong Niu, Xing Gao, Xingxing Li, Pei Zhang, Xin Ma, Haikui Chen
Understanding how concentrations of elements and their stoichiometry change with plant growth and age is critical for predicting plant community responses to environmental change. We used long-term field experiments to explore how the leaf, stem and root carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) concentrations and their stoichiometry changed with growth and stand age in a L. principis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation from 2012-2015 in the Qinling Mountains, China. Our results showed that the C, N and P concentrations and stoichiometric ratios in different tissues of larch stands were affected by stand age, organ type and sampling month and displayed multiple correlations with increased stand age in different growing seasons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937967/acetogenins-and-alkaloids-during-the-initial-development-of-annona-muricata-l-annonaceae
#4
Christian Anabí Riley-Saldaña, María Del Rocío Cruz-Ortega, Mariano Martínez Vázquez, Iván De-la-Cruz-Chacón, Marisol Castro-Moreno, Alma Rosa González-Esquinca
In plants, the presence and distribution of specialized metabolites during the early stages of development are not documented enough, even though their biosynthesis is one of the most important strategies for survival. In this study, five alkaloids and four acetogenins were detected in Annona muricata L. during early development seedling, including three phases of root emergence and three of seedling formation. Hexane and alkaloid extracts were obtained from each organ, which were analyzed in a gas-mass chromatograph and in a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a photodiode array UV detector (HPLC-DAD)...
September 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937654/genome-wide-analysis-of-cca1-like-proteins-in-soybean-and-functional-characterization-of-gmmyb138a
#5
Shaomin Bian, Donghao Jin, Ruihua Li, Xin Xie, Guoli Gao, Weikang Sun, Yuejia Li, Lulu Zhai, Xuyan Li
Plant CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)-like proteins are a class of single-repeat MYELOBLASTOSIS ONCOGENE (MYB) transcription factors generally featured by a highly conserved motif SHAQK(Y/F)F, which play important roles in multiple biological processes. Soybean is an important grain legume for seed protein and edible vegetable oil. However, essential understandings regarding CCA1-like proteins are very limited in soybean. In this study, 54 CCA1-like proteins were identified by data mining of soybean genome...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936662/manual-isolation-of-living-cells-from-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-female-gametophyte-by-micromanipulation
#6
Maria Englhart, Lucija Šoljić, Stefanie Sprunck
The few-celled female gametophyte, or embryo sac, of flowering plants is not easily accessible as it is buried within the sporophytic tissues of the ovule. Nevertheless, it has become an attractive model system to study the molecular mechanisms underlying patterning and cell type specification, as well as fertilization of the two female gametes, the egg and the central cell. While female gametes, zygotes, and early embryos can be manually isolated from the embryo sacs in maize, wheat, tobacco, and rice by micromanipulation, this approach had been considered impossible for the much smaller embryo sac of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936661/isolation-of-rice-sperm-cells-for-transcriptional-profiling
#7
Scott D Russell, Daniel S Jones, Sarah Anderson, Xinkun Wang, Venkatesan Sundaresan, Xiaoping Gou
The male germline of flowering plants displays unexpectedly divergent transcriptional profiles compared to other cell types and tissues of plants. As these are among the smallest cells, and are harbored within pollen, isolating a pure collection of germline RNA presents unusual challenges. The sperm cells of rice represent a particularly challenging subject for study as the pollen are unusually short lived upon release from the anther, and the marker gene sequences that make FACS possible in Arabidopsis have not yet been introduced into rice...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936656/optimization-of-cell-spreading-and-image-quality-for-the-study-of-chromosomes-in-plant-tissues
#8
Laksana Kantama, Erik Wijnker, Hans de Jong
High-quality chromosome images of mitotic and meiotic cell divisions in plant tissues are inextricably connected with the technical control of cell spread preparations. Superb chromosome slides are the best for studying chromosome morphology and making karyotypes; they also are the best start for a successful fluorescent in situ hybridization experiment. In this study, we describe the essentials for fixation, enzymatic digestion, squash, spread, and dropping protocols for clean and well-differentiated nuclei and chromosome complements...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936655/immunolocalization-of-agps-and-pectins-in-quercus-suber-gametophytic-structures
#9
Mário Luís da Costa, Ana Lúcia Lopes, Maria Isabel Amorim, Sílvia Coimbra
The arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated proteins, ubiquitous in plants that have been linked to numerous aspects of sexual reproduction in several plant species, including the monoecious tree species Quercus suber. AGPs are found in cell membranes and cell walls of all types of tissues, including reproductive cells and organs. Pectins are cell wall components that also have been shown to change in composition and quantity during the maturations of the male and female gametophyte in cork oak...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936653/live-cell-imaging-of-auxin-and-cytokinin-signaling-in-maize-female-gametophytes
#10
Antony M Chettoor, Matthew M S Evans
The plant life cycle is characterized by the alternation of generations between genetically active diploid sporophytes and haploid gametophytes. The gametophytes of flowering plants are sexually dimorphic. While the male gametophyte consists of only three cells (two sperm and a vegetative cell) and is released by the parent sporophyte, the female gametophyte (or embryo sac) is more complex and remains imbedded within diploid sporophyte tissues. In maize, the female gametophyte is embedded in a large ovule surrounded with multiple nucellar cell layers impeding live-cell imaging approaches to study embryo sac functions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936652/staining-and-clearing-of-arabidopsis-reproductive-tissue-for-imaging-of-fluorescent-proteins
#11
Daniel Slane, Patrick Bürgel, Martin Bayer
Imaging of fluorescent proteins in whole-mount tissue is a powerful tool to understand growth and developmental processes, not only in plants. With the advent of genetically encoded fluorescent reporters, which specifically label reproductive cells in Arabidopsis, deep tissue imaging has become increasingly important for the study of plant reproduction. To penetrate the surrounding layers of maternal tissue, however, the tissue has to be cleared by homogenizing the refractive index of the sample, often leading to inactivation of fluorescent proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936651/in-vivo-ploidy-determination-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-male-and-female-gametophytes
#12
Burcu Nur Keçeli, Nico De Storme, Danny Geelen
Organ- or tissue-specific ploidy level determination is often used for answering biological, molecular, genetic, or evolutionary questions in plant sciences. However, current techniques for ploidy determination either cannot provide information on single cell level, require destructive sample preparation, or are laborious and time-consuming. Here, we present a new approach developed in Arabidopsis thaliana, which is not only less labor intensive but also allows in vivo ploidy determination on single cell level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936648/live-cell-imaging-of-f-actin-dynamics-during-fertilization-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Daichi Susaki, Daisuke Maruyama, Ramesh Yelagandula, Frederic Berger, Tomokazu Kawashima
Fertilization comprises a complex series of cellular processes leading to the fusion of a male and female gamete. Many studies have been carried out to investigate each step of fertilization in plants; however, our comprehensive understanding of all the sequential events during fertilization is still limited. This is largely due to difficulty in investigating events in the female gametophyte, which is deeply embedded in the maternal tissue. Recent advances in confocal microcopy assisted by fluorescent marker lines have contributed to visualizing subcellular dynamics in real time during fertilization in vivo...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936647/3d-imaging-of-whole-mount-ovules-at-cellular-resolution-to-study-female-germline-development-in-rice
#14
Ethel Mendocilla-Sato, Wenjing She, Célia Baroux
Recent advances in fluorescence-based staining of cellular compartments coupled with confocal microscopy imaging have allowed the visualization of three-dimensional (3D) structures with cellular resolution in various intact plant tissues and species. Such approaches are of particular interest for the analysis of the reproductive lineage in plants including the meiotic precursor cells deeply embedded within the ovary of the gynoecium enclosed in the flower. Yet, their relative inaccessibility and the lack of optical clarity of plant tissues prevent robust staining and imaging across several cell layers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935986/consumption-of-crustaceans-by-megaherbivorous-dinosaurs-dietary-flexibility-and-dinosaur-life-history-strategies
#15
Karen Chin, Rodney M Feldmann, Jessica N Tashman
Large plant-eating dinosaurs are usually presumed to have been strictly herbivorous, because their derived teeth and jaws were capable of processing fibrous plant foods. This inferred feeding behavior offers a generalized view of dinosaur food habits, but rare direct fossil evidence of diet provides more nuanced insights into feeding behavior. Here we describe fossilized feces (coprolites) that demonstrate recurring consumption of crustaceans and rotted wood by large Late Cretaceous dinosaurs. These multi-liter coprolites from the Kaiparowits Formation are primarily composed of comminuted conifer wood tissues that were fungally degraded before ingestion...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935979/intergrative-metabolomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-unveil-nutrient-remobilization-events-in-leaf-senescence-of-tobacco
#16
Wei Li, Hailiang Zhang, Xiaoxu Li, Fengxia Zhang, Cheng Liu, Yongmei Du, Xiaoming Gao, Zenglin Zhang, Xiaobing Zhang, Zhihui Hou, Hui Zhou, Xiaofei Sheng, Guodong Wang, Yongfeng Guo
Leaf senescence in plants is a coordinated process that involves remobilization of nutrients from senescing leaves to sink tissues. The molecular events associated with nutrient remobilization are however not well understood. In this study the tobacco system with a source-sink relationship between different leaf positions was used in analyzing the spatiotemporal changes of 76 metabolites from leaves at 3 different stalk positions and 8 developmental stages. The metabolomic data was then compared with RNA-seq data from the same samples to analyze the activities of the metabolic pathways that are important for nutrient remobilization...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935607/s-glutathionylation-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-induces-formation-of-c150-c154-intrasubunit-disulfide-bond-in-the-active-site-of-the-enzyme
#17
K V Barinova, M V Serebryakova, V I Muronetz, E V Schmalhausen
BACKGROUND: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a glycolytic protein involved in numerous non-glycolytic functions. S-glutathionylated GAPDH was revealed in plant and animal tissues. The role of GAPDH S-glutathionylation is not fully understood. METHODS: Rabbit muscle GAPDH was S-glutathionylated in the presence of H2O2 and reduced glutathione (GSH). The modified protein was assayed by MALDI-MS analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, and ultracentrifugation...
September 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935406/fate-and-chemical-speciation-of-antimony-sb-during-uptake-translocation-and-storage-by-rye-grass-using-xanes-spectroscopy
#18
Ying Ji, Géraldine Sarret, Rainer Schulin, Susan Tandy
Antimony (Sb) is a contaminant of increased prevalence in the environment, but there is little knowledge about the mechanisms of its uptake and translocation within plants. Here, we applied for the synchrotron based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to analyze the speciation of Sb in roots and shoots of rye grass (Lolium perenne L. Calibra). Seedlings were grown in nutrient solutions to which either antimonite (Sb(III)), antimonate (Sb(V)) or trimethyl-Sb(V) (TMSb) were added. While exposure to Sb(III) led to around 100 times higher Sb accumulation in the roots than the other two treatments, there was no difference in total Sb in the shoots...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934656/mercury-accumulation-plant-cyrtomium-macrophyllum-and-its-potential-for-phytoremediation-of-mercury-polluted-sites
#19
Yu Xun, Liu Feng, Youdan Li, Haochen Dong
Cyrtomium macrophyllum naturally grown in 225.73 mg kg(-1) of soil mercury in mining area was found to be a potential mercury accumulator plant with the translocation factor of 2.62 and the high mercury concentration of 36.44 mg kg(-1) accumulated in its aerial parts. Pot experiments indicated that Cyrtomium macrophyllum could even grow in 500 mg kg(-1) of soil mercury with observed inhibition on growth but no obvious toxic effects, and showed excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities with both translocation and bioconcentration factors greater than 1 when exposed to 200 mg kg(-1) and lower soil mercury, indicating that it could be considered as a great mercury accumulating species...
September 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934377/the-environmental-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolate-dsm30011-reveals-clues-into-the-preantibiotic-era-genome-diversity-virulence-potential-and-niche-range-of-a-predominant-nosocomial-pathogen
#20
Guillermo D Repizo, Alejandro M Viale, Vítor Borges, María M Cameranesi, Najwa Taib, Martín Espariz, Céline Brochier-Armanet, João Paulo Gomes, Suzana P Salcedo
Acinetobacter baumannii represents nowadays an important nosocomial opportunistic pathogen whose reservoirs outside the clinical setting are obscure. Here, we traced the origins of the collection strain A. baumannii DSM30011 to an isolate first reported in 1944, obtained from the enriched microbiota responsible of the aerobic decomposition of the resinous desert shrub guayule. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis based on core genes confirmed DSM30011 affiliation to A. baumannii. Comparative studies with 32 complete A...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
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