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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149645/xylella-fastidiosa-induces-differential-expression-of-lignification-related-genes-and-lignin-accumulation-in-tolerant-olive-trees-cv-leccino
#1
Erika Sabella, Andrea Luvisi, Alessio Aprile, Carmine Negro, Marzia Vergine, Francesca Nicolì, Antonio Miceli, Luigi De Bellis
Recently, Xylella fastidiosa was reported in Italy, associated with the "Olive Quick Decline Syndrome". The cv. Leccino exhibits an evident tolerance with a slow disease progression compared with the other cultivars. Between the mechanisms proposed to explain the putative tolerance of some hosts to X. fastidiosa diseases, lignin deposition plays an important role. Analysis of phenolic compounds in healthy and infected Leccino and Cellina di Nardò leaves showed, in the two cultivars, a reduction of hydroxytyrosol glucoside (usually associated with drought and cold stress) and, only in Leccino, an increase of quinic acid, precursor of lignin...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149570/seagrass-mediated-phosphorus-and-iron-solubilisation-in-tropical-sediments
#2
Kasper Elgetti Brodersen, Klaus Koren, Maria Mosshammer, Peter Ralph, Michael Kühl, Jakob Santner
Tropical seagrasses are nutrient limited owing to the strong phosphorus fixation capacity of carbonate-rich sediments, yet they form densely-vegetated, multi-species meadows in oligotrophic tropical waters. Using a novel combination of high-resolution, two-dimensional chemical imaging of O2, pH, iron, sulphide, calcium and phosphorus, we found that tropical seagrasses are able to mobilize the essential nutrients iron and phosphorus in their rhizosphere via multiple biogeochemical pathways. We show that tropical seagrasses mobilize phosphorus and iron within their rhizosphere via plant-induced local acidification, leading to dissolution of carbonates and release of phosphate, and via local stimulation of microbial sulphide production, causing reduction of insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxides to dissolved Fe(II) with concomitant phosphate release into the rhizosphere porewater...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149486/discovery-of-vg-and-vgr-gene-expression-profiles-related-to-host-plant-suitability-of-spodoptera-exigua
#3
Jing Zhao, Yang Sun, Liubin Xiao, Yongan Tan, Yiping Jiang, Lixin Bai
BACKGROUND: Spodoptera exigua, a worldwide phytophagous pest, causes considerable economic agricultural losses. Understanding the relationship between its fecundity and host plant is a basic and important component of early forecasting of beet armyworm. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism by which distinct hosts affect S. exigua fecundity. RESULTS: In this study, the key parameters of S. exigua grown on distinct hosts were investigated; host plants could be ranked as lettuce >shallot > tomato > celery in their order of suitability...
November 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149404/the-translational-controlled-tumour-protein-tctp-biological-functions-and-regulation
#4
Ulrich-Axel Bommer
The Translational Controlled Tumour Protein TCTP (gene symbol TPT1, also called P21, P23, Q23, fortilin or histamine-releasing factor, HRF) is a highly conserved protein present in essentially all eukaryotic organisms and involved in many fundamental cell biological and disease processes. It was first discovered about 35 years ago, and it took an extended period of time for its multiple functions to be revealed, and even today we do not yet fully understand all the details. Having witnessed most of this history, in this chapter, I give a brief overview and review the current knowledge on the structure, biological functions, disease involvements and cellular regulation of this protein...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149369/the-osps1-f-gene-regulates-growth-and-development-in-rice-by-modulating-photosynthetic-electron-transport-rate
#5
Rengasamy Ramamoorthy, Bhushan Vishal, Srinivasan Ramachandran, Prakash P Kumar
Ds insertion in rice OsPS1-F gene results in semi-dwarf plants with reduced tiller number and grain yield, while genetic complementation with OsPS1-F rescued the mutant phenotype. Photosynthetic electron transport is regulated in the chloroplast thylakoid membrane by multi-protein complexes. Studies about photosynthetic machinery and its subunits in crop plants are necessary, because they could be crucial for yield enhancement in the long term. Here, we report the characterization of OsPS1-F (encoding Oryza sativa PHOTOSYSTEM 1-F subunit) using a single copy Ds insertion rice mutant line...
November 17, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148981/walnut-leaf-extract-acts-as-a-fertility-agent-in-male-wistar-albino-rats-a-search-for-herbal-male-fertility-enhancer
#6
Seun F Akomolafe, Ganiyu Oboh
Background Walnut leaf is one of the many medicinal plants used in folklore as male fertility enhancers. The present work was therefore undertaken with an aim to scientifically validate this claim. As such, we evaluated the effect of the aqueous extract from walnut leaves on biomolecules related to fertility in adult male rats and its mode of action as fertility-enhancing agent. Methods Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five groups of five animals each; Group 1 served as control and received normal (0...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148804/a-nanobionic-light-emitting-plant
#7
Seon-Yeong Kwak, Juan Pablo Giraldo, Min Hao Wong, Volodymyr Koman, Tedrick Lew, Jon Ell, Mark Weidman, Rosalie Sinclair, Markita P Landry, William A Tisdale, Michael S Strano
The engineering of living plants for visible light emission and sustainable illumination is compelling because plants possess independent energy generation and storage mechanisms and autonomous self-repair. Herein, we demonstrate a plant nanobionic approach that enables exceptional luminosity and lifetime utilizing four chemically-interacting nanoparticles, including firefly luciferase conjugated silica (SNP-Luc), D-luciferin releasing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-LH2), coenzyme A functionalized chitosan (CS-CoA) and semiconductor nanocrystal phosphors for longer wavelength modulation...
November 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148171/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-pht1-phosphate-transporters-in-wheat-in-controlled-environments-and-in-the-field
#8
A Grün, P Buchner, M R Broadley, M J Hawkesford
Phosphorus (P) is an important macronutrient with critical functions in plants. Phosphate (Pi) transporters which mediate Pi acquisition and Pi translocation within the plant are key factors in Pi deficiency responses. However, their relevance for adaptation to long-term Pi limitation under agronomic conditions, particularly in wheat, remains unknown. Here, we describe the identification of the complete Pi transporter gene family (Pht1) in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Gene expression profiles were compared for hydroponic and field-grown plant tissues of wheat at multiple developmental stages...
November 17, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145811/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-auxin-indoleacetic-acid-aux-iaa-gene-family-in-allotetraploid-rapeseed-brassica-napus-l
#9
Haitao Li, Bo Wang, Qinghua Zhang, Jing Wang, Graham J King, Kede Liu
BACKGROUND: Auxin/Indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes participate in the auxin signaling pathway and play key roles in plant growth and development. Although the Aux/IAA gene family has been identified in many plants, within allotetraploid Brassica napus little is known. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 119 Aux/IAA genes were found in the genome of B. napus. They were distributed non-randomly across all 19 chromosomes and other non-anchored random scaffolds, with a symmetric distribution in the A and C subgenomes...
November 16, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145720/phospholipase-d-and-its-essential-role-in-cancer
#10
Ju Hwan Cho, Joong-Soo Han
The role of Phospholipase D (PLD) in cancer development and management has been a major area of interest for researchers. The purpose of this mini-review is to explore PLD and its distinct role during chemotherapy including anti-apoptotic function. PLD is an enzyme that belongs to the phospholipase super family and is found in a broad range of organisms such as viruses, yeast, bacteria, animals, and plants. The function and activity of PLD are widely dependent on and regulated by neurotransmitters, hormones, small monomeric GTPases, and lipids...
November 16, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145635/trex-a-web-portal-for-exploration-of-trna-derived-fragments-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Agnieszka Thompson, Andrzej Zielezinski, Patrycja Plewka, Maciej Szymanski, Przemyslaw Nuc, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska, Artur Jarmolowski, Wojciech M Karlowski
tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) constitute a new class of short regulatory RNAs that are a product of nascent or mature tRNA processing. tRF sequences have been identified in all domains of life; however, most published research pertains to human, yeast and some bacterial organisms. Despite growing interest in plant tRFs and accumulating evidence of their function in plant development and stress responses, no public, web-based repository dedicated to these molecules is currently available. Here, we introduce tRex (http://combio...
November 14, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145496/insights-into-soybean-transcriptome-reconfiguration-under-hypoxic-stress-functional-regulatory-structural-and-compositional-characterization
#12
Thiago J Nakayama, Fabiana A Rodrigues, Norman Neumaier, Juliana Marcolino-Gomes, Hugo B C Molinari, Thaís R Santiago, Eduardo F Formighieri, Marcos F Basso, José R B Farias, Beatriz M Emygdio, Ana C B de Oliveira, Ângela D Campos, Aluízio Borém, Frank G Harmon, Liliane M Mertz-Henning, Alexandre L Nepomuceno
Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the major crops worldwide and flooding stress affects the production and expansion of cultivated areas. Oxygen is essential for mitochondrial aerobic respiration to supply the energy demand of plant cells. Because oxygen diffusion in water is 10,000 times lower than in air, partial (hypoxic) or total (anoxic) oxygen deficiency is important component of flooding. Even when oxygen is externally available, oxygen deficiency frequently occurs in bulky, dense or metabolically active tissues such as phloem, meristems, seeds, and fruits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145415/plant-organ-cultures-as-masked-mycotoxin-biofactories-deciphering-the-fate-of-zearalenone-in-micropropagated-durum-wheat-roots-and-leaves
#13
Laura Righetti, Enrico Rolli, Gianni Galaverna, Michele Suman, Renato Bruni, Chiara Dall'Asta
"Masked mycotoxins" senso strictu are conjugates of mycotoxins resulting from metabolic pathways activated by the interplay between pathogenic fungi and infected plants. Zearalenone, an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp, was the first masked mycotoxin ever described in the literature, but its biotransformation has been studied to a lesser extent if compared to other compounds such as deoxynivalenol. We presented herein the first application of organ and tissue culture techniques to study the metabolic fate of zearalenone in durum wheat, using an untargeted HR-LCMS approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145070/arsenic-forms-and-their-combinations-induce-differences-in-phenolic-accumulation-in-ulmus-laevis-pall
#14
Kinga Drzewiecka, Monika Gąsecka, Paweł Rutkowski, Zuzanna Magdziak, Piotr Goliński, Mirosław Mleczek
Total phenolics and the profile of phenolic acids and flavonoids were investigated in the roots and leaves of Ulmus laevis cultured on the medium with inorganic and organic arsenic - As(III), As(V) and DMA(V) at 0.06mM and their equimolar combinations. Further, the accumulation of salicylic acid (free and glucoside-bound) and lipid oxidation were assayed following a three-month long experiment. As treatment caused elevated production of phenolics, which was higher in photosynthetic tissue than in roots for all As forms and their combinations, and their overall content was correlated with the accumulation of organic As in roots and As(III) in leaves...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144431/bioabsorption-and-bioaccumulation-of-cadmium-in-the-straw-and-grain-of-maize-zea-mays-l-in-growing-soils-contaminated-with-cadmium-in-different-environment
#15
Jorge Retamal-Salgado, Juan Hirzel, Ingrid Walter, Iván Matus
There is a worldwide increase of heavy metal or potentially toxic element (PTE), contamination in agricultural soils caused mainly by human and industrial action, which leads to food contamination in crops such as in maize. Cadmium (Cd) is a PTE often found in soils and it is ingested through food. It is necessary to determine the bioabsorption, distribution, and accumulation levels in maize to reduce or prevent food chain contamination. Cadmium absorption and accumulation in three maize cultivars were evaluated in three agricultural environments in Chile by increasing CdCl₂ rates (0, 1, and 2 mg·kg(-1))...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144022/collagen-a-review-on-its-sources-and-potential-cosmetic-applications
#16
REVIEW
María Isabela Avila Rodríguez, Laura G Rodríguez Barroso, Mirna Lorena Sánchez
Collagen is a fibrillar protein that conforms the conjunctive and connective tissues in the human body, essentially skin, joints, and bones. This molecule is one of the most abundant in many of the living organisms due to its connective role in biological structures. Due to its abundance, strength and its directly proportional relation with skin aging, collagen has gained great interest in the cosmetic industry. It has been established that the collagen fibers are damaged with the pass of time, losing thickness and strength which has been strongly related with skin aging phenomena [Colágeno para todo...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143884/biominerals-and-waxes-of-calamagrostis-epigejos-and-phragmites-australis-leaves-from-post-industrial-habitats
#17
Ewa Talik, Adam Guzik, Eugeniusz Małkowski, Gabriela Woźniak, Edyta Sierka
Vascular plants are able to conduct biomineralization processes and collect synthesized compounds in their internal tissues or to deposit them on their epidermal surfaces. This mechanism protects the plant from fluctuations of nutrient levels caused by different levels of supply and demand for them. The biominerals reflect both the metabolic characteristics of a vascular plant species and the environmental conditions of the plant habitat. The SEM/EDX method was used to examine the surface and cross-sections of the Calamagrostis epigejos and Phragmites australis leaves from post-industrial habitats (coal and zinc spoil heaps)...
November 16, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143793/marrubium-vulgare-l-leave-extract-phytochemical-composition-antioxidant-and-wound-healing-properties
#18
Bédis Amri, Emanuela Martino, Francesca Vitulo, Federica Corana, Leila Bettaieb-Ben Kaâb, Marta Rui, Daniela Rossi, Michela Mori, Silvia Rossi, Simona Collina
Several factors contribute in wound generation, e.g., accidental traumas or surgery, and in certain cases, this dermal injury may have a devastating outcome. When skin damage occurs, the human body puts in place a sophisticated choreography, which involves numerous repairing processes to restore physiological conditions. Nevertheless, natural healing mechanisms are ineffective towards chronic or non-healing wounds and thus, therapeutic strategies may represent the only beneficial alternative to counteract these tissue insults...
October 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143658/a-key-enzyme-of-animal-steroidogenesis-can-function-in-plants-enhancing-their-immunity-and-accelerating-the-processes-of-growth-and-development
#19
George V Shpakovski, Svetlana G Spivak, Irina N Berdichevets, Olga G Babak, Svetlana V Kubrak, Alexander V Kilchevsky, Andrey V Aralov, Ivan Yu Slovokhotov, Dmitry G Shpakovski, Ekaterina N Baranova, Marat R Khaliluev, Elena K Shematorova
BACKGROUND: The initial stage of the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in animals occurs in the mitochondria of steroidogenic tissues, where cytochrome P450SCC (CYP11A1) encoded by the CYP11A1 gene catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone - the general precursor of all the steroid hormones, starting with progesterone. This stage is missing in plants where mitochondrial cytochromes P450 (the mito CYP clan) have not been found. Generating transgenic plants with a mitochondrial type P450 from animals would offer an interesting option to verify whether plant mitochondria could serve as another site of P450 monooxygenase reaction for the steroid hormones biosynthesis...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143603/evolution-of-vrn-1-homoeologous-loci-in-allopolyploids-of-triticum-and-their-diploid-precursors
#20
REVIEW
Andrey B Shcherban, Elena A Salina
BACKGROUND: The key gene in genetic system controlling the duration of the vegetative period in cereals is the VRN1 gene, whose product under the influence of low temperature (vernalization) promotes the transition of the apical meristem cells into a competent state for the development of generative tissues of spike. As early genetic studies shown, the dominant alleles of this gene underlie the spring forms of plants that do not require vernalization for this transition. In wheat allopolyploids various combinations of alleles of the VRN1 homoeologous loci (VRN1 homoeoalleles) provide diversity in such important traits as the time to heading, height of plants and yield...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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