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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088491/toxicogenetic-study-of-persea-americana-fruit-pulp-oil-and-its-effect-on-genomic-instability
#1
Heloiza Diniz Nicolella, Francisco Rinaldi Neto, Mariana Beltrame Corrêa, Danillo Henrique Lopes, Edilaura Nunes Rondon, Luiz Felipe Ribeiro Dos Santos, Pollyanna Francielli de Oliveira, Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno, Nathália Oliveira Acésio, Izabel Cristina Casanova Turatti, Marcos Gomide Tozatti, Wilson Roberto Cunha, Ricardo Andrade Furtado, Denise Crispim Tavares
Persea americana Mill., commonly known as avocado, is a tree native to Central America that is widely used as a food source and for the treatment of diseases. This plant has various biological properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and total cholesterol-lowering activity. In view of its pharmacological potential, we conducted a toxicogenetic study of the fruit pulp oil of P. americana (PAO) and investigated its influence on genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and doxorubicin. V79 cells and Swiss mice were used for the assays...
January 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087942/the-mutualistic-interaction-between-plants-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#2
Luisa Lanfranco, Paola Bonfante, Andrea Genre
Mycorrhizal fungi belong to several taxa and develop mutualistic symbiotic associations with over 90% of all plant species, from liverworts to angiosperms. While descriptive approaches have dominated the initial studies of these fascinating symbioses, the advent of molecular biology, live cell imaging, and "omics" techniques have provided new and powerful tools to decipher the cellular and molecular mechanisms that rule mutualistic plant-fungus interactions. In this article we focus on the most common mycorrhizal association, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), which is formed by a group of soil fungi belonging to Glomeromycota...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087861/jolkinolide-a-and-jolkinolide-b-inhibit-proliferation-of-a549-cells-and-activity-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#3
Lei Shen, Shan-Qiang Zhang, Lei Liu, Yu Sun, Yu-Xuan Wu, Li-Ping Xie, Ji-Cheng Liu
BACKGROUND Jolkinolide A (JA) and Jolkinolide B (JB) are diterpenoids extracted from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud and have been shown to have anti-tumor activity. However, their effects on the ability of tumor cells to invade blood vessels and metastasize remain largely unknown. Investigations into the effects of JA and JB on the angiogenesis of tumor tissues may facilitate the identification of new natural drugs with anti-tumor growth and metastasis activities. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used different concentrations of JA and JB (20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 60 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml) to stimulate A549 cells and then studied the effects on the growth and metastasis of lung cancers...
January 14, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087776/seed-plant-specific-gene-lineages-involved-in-carpel-development
#4
Kai C Pfannebecker, Matthias Lange, Oliver Rupp, Annette Becker
Evolutionary innovations are important drivers of speciation and some are the defining characters of entire phyla. One such major innovation is the carpel, the unifying character and most complex plant organ, composed of many clearly distinct tissue types to ensure reproductive success. The origin of the carpel is unknown, but many components of the gene regulatory network (GRN) governing carpel development and their genetic interactions are known from the core eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana To unravel the evolution of the carpel GRN and to discriminate between "early" and "late" steps in carpel evolution we calculated thorough phylogeny reconstructions based on sequenced genomes...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087670/plant-lectins-activate-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-to-promote-inflammatory-disorders
#5
Tao Gong, Xiaqiong Wang, Yanqing Yang, Yiqing Yan, Chenggong Yu, Rongbin Zhou, Wei Jiang
Plant-derived dietary lectins have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying lectin-induced inflammation. In this study, we showed that plant lectins can induce caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion via the NLRP3 inflammasome. Lectins were internalized and subsequently escaped from the lysosome and then translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087660/the-morphophysiological-dormancy-in-amborella-trichopoda-seeds-is-a-pleisiomorphic-trait-in-angiosperms
#6
Bruno Fogliani, Gildas Gâteblé, Matthieu Villegente, Isabelle Fabre, Nicolas Klein, Nicolas Anger, Carol C Baskin, Charlie P Scutt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent parsimony-based reconstructions suggest that seeds of early angiosperms had either morphophysiological or physiological dormancy, with the former considered as more probable. The aim of this study was to determine the class of seed dormancy present in Amborella trichopoda, the sole living representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage Amborellales, with a view to resolving fully the class of dormancy present at the base of the angiosperm clade. METHODS: Drupes of A...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086783/de-novo-transcriptome-analysis-of-rose-scented-geranium-provides-insights-into-the-metabolic-specificity-of-terpene-and-tartaric-acid-biosynthesis
#7
Lokesh K Narnoliya, Girija Kaushal, Sudhir P Singh, Rajender S Sangwan
BACKGROUND: Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) is a perennial herb that produces a high value essential oil of fragrant significance due to the characteristic compositional blend of rose-oxide and acyclic monoterpenoids in foliage. Recently, the plant has also been shown to produce tartaric acid in leaf tissues. Rose-scented geranium represents top-tier cash crop in terms of economic returns and significance of the plant and plant products. However, there has hardly been any study on its metabolism and functional genomics, nor any genomic expression dataset resource is available in public domain...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081289/transgenic-cotton-expressing-cry10aa-toxin-confers-high-resistance-to-the-cotton-boll-weevil
#8
Thuanne Pires Ribeiro, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro Arraes, Isabela Tristan Lourenço-Tessutti, Marilia Santos Silva, Maria Eugênia Lisei-de-Sá, Wagner Alexandre Lucena, Leonardo Lima Pepino Macedo, Janaina Nascimento Lima, Regina Maria Santos Amorim, Sinara Artico, Márcio Alves-Ferreira, Maria Cristina Mattar Silva, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa
Genetically modified (GM) cotton events that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation...
January 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081182/combination-of-plant-metabolic-modules-yields-synthetic-synergies
#9
Fatemeh Rajabi, Ernst Heene, Jan Maisch, Peter Nick
The great potential of pharmacologically active secondary plant metabolites is often limited by low yield and availability of the producing plant. Chemical synthesis of these complex compounds is often too expensive. Plant cell fermentation offers an alternative strategy to overcome these limitations. However, production in batch cell cultures remains often inefficient. One reason might be the fact that different cell types have to interact for metabolite maturation, which is poorly mimicked in suspension cell lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079455/emergence-of-resistance-to-fungicides-the-role-of-fungicide-dose
#10
Alexey Mikaberidze, Neil Paveley, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Frank van den Bosch
Resistance to antimicrobial drugs allows pathogens to survive drug treatment. The time taken for a new resistant mutant to reach a population size which is unlikely to die out by chance is called "emergence time". Prolonging emergence time would delay loss of control. We investigate the effect of fungicide dose on the emergence time in fungal plant pathogens. A population dynamical model is combined with dose-response data for Zymoseptoria tritici, an important wheat pathogen. Fungicides suppress sensitive pathogen population...
January 12, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077951/spatially-localized-bench-top-x-ray-scattering-reveals-tissue-specific-microfibril-orientation-in-moso-bamboo
#11
Patrik Ahvenainen, Patrick G Dixon, Aki Kallonen, Heikki Suhonen, Lorna J Gibson, Kirsi Svedström
BACKGROUND: Biological materials have a complex, hierarchical structure, with vital structural features present at all size scales, from the nanoscale to the macroscale. A method that can connect information at multiple length scales has great potential to reveal novel information. This article presents one such method with an application to the bamboo culm wall. Moso (Phyllostachys edulis) bamboo is a commercially important bamboo species. At the cellular level, bamboo culm wall consists of vascular bundles embedded in a parenchyma cell tissue matrix...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077447/role-of-vacuoles-in-phosphorus-storage-and-remobilization
#12
REVIEW
Shu-Yi Yang, Teng-Kuei Huang, Hui-Fen Kuo, Tzyy-Jen Chiou
Vacuoles play a fundamental role in storage and remobilization of various nutrients, including phosphorus (P), an essential element for cell growth and development. Cells acquire P primarily in the form of inorganic orthophosphate (Pi). However, the form of P stored in vacuoles varies by organism and tissue. Algae and yeast store polyphosphates (polyPs), whereas plants store Pi and inositol phosphates (InsPs) in vegetative tissues and seeds, respectively. In this review, we summarize how vacuolar P molecules are stored and reallocated and how these processes are regulated and co-ordinated...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075052/functional-characterization-and-cell-specificity-of-bvsut1-the-transporter-that-loads-sucrose-into-the-phloem-of-sugar-beet-beta-vulgaris-l-source-leaves
#13
P Nieberl, C Ehrl, B Pommerrenig, D Graus, I Marten, B Jung, F Ludewig, W Koch, K Harms, U-I Flügge, E Neuhaus, R Hedrich, N Sauer
• Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is one of the most important sugar producing plants worldwide and provides about one third of the sugar consumed by humans. Here we report on the molecular characterization of the BvSUT1 gene and on the func- tional characterization of the encoded transporter. • In contrast to the recently identified, tonoplast-localized sucrose transporter BvTST2.1 from sugar beet taproots, which has evolved within the monosaccharide transporter (MST) superfamily, BvSUT1 represents a classical sucrose transporter and is a typical member of the disaccharide transporter (DST) superfamily...
January 11, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074953/gastrointestinal-interactions-absorption-splanchnic-metabolism-and-pharmacokinetics-of-orally-ingested-phenolic-compounds
#14
REVIEW
J Abraham Domínguez-Avila, Abraham Wall-Medrano, Gustavo R Velderrain-Rodríguez, C-Y Oliver Chen, Norma Julieta Salazar-López, Maribel Robles-Sánchez, Gustavo A González-Aguilar
The positive health effects of phenolic compounds (PCs) have been extensively reported in the literature. An understanding of their bioaccessibility and bioavailability is essential for the elucidation of their health benefits. Before reaching circulation and exerting bioactions in target tissues, numerous interactions take place before and during digestion with either the plant or host's macromolecules that directly impact the organism and modulate their own bioaccessibility and bioavailability. The present work is focused on the gastrointestinal (GI) interactions that are relevant to the absorption and metabolism of PCs and how these interactions impact their pharmacokinetic profiles...
January 11, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074922/soybean-cyclophilin-gmcyp1-interacts-with-an-isoflavonoid-regulator-gmmyb176
#15
Hemanta Raj Mainali, Arun Kumaran Anguraj Vadivel, Xuyan Li, Mark Gijzen, Sangeeta Dhaubhadel
Cyclophilins (CYPs) belong to the immunophilin superfamily with peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. They catalyze the interconversion of the cis- and trans-rotamers of the peptidyl-prolyl amide bond of peptides. A yeast-two-hybrid screening using the isoflavonoid regulator GmMYB176 as bait identified GmCYP1 as one of the interacting proteins in soybean embryos. GmCYP1 localizes both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and interacts in planta with GmMYB176, in the nucleus, and with SGF14l (a soybean 14-3-3 protein) in the nucleus and the cytoplasm...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074264/nacl-stress-induces-cssams-gene-expression-in-cucumis-sativus-by-mediating-the-binding-of-csgt-3b-to-the-gt-1-element-within-the-cssams-promoter
#16
Li-Wei Wang, Mei-Wen He, Shi-Rong Guo, Min Zhong, Sheng Shu, Jin Sun
The CsSAMs promoter is a salt-stress-inducible promoter containing three GT-1 elements that are sufficient for the salt-stress response. The transcription factor CsGT-3b was found to bind to the GT-1 element. The S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthase (SAMs) gene is among the functional genes induced during environmental stress. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism and upstream regulators of this salt-inducible gene in cucumber plants. Thus, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of the SAMs gene by analyzing its promoter and transcription factors...
January 10, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073672/the-long-story-of-camptothecin-from-traditional-medicine-to-drugs
#17
REVIEW
Emanuela Martino, Serena Della Volpe, Elisa Terribile, Emanuele Benetti, Mirena Sakaj, Adriana Centamore, Andrea Sala, Simona Collina
20-(S)-Camptothecin (CPT) is a natural alkaloid extracted from the bark of Camptotheca acuminata (Chinese happy tree). It acts as a DNA topoisomerase 1 poison with an interesting antitumor activity and its use is limited by low stability and solubility and unpredictable drug-drug interactions. Since the late 20th century, it has been widely used in cancer therapy and, since extraction yields from plant tissues are very low, various synthetic routes have been developed to satisfy the increase in demand for CPT...
December 31, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071699/rye-polyphenols-and-the-metabolism-of-n-3-fatty-acids-in-rats-a-dose-dependent-fatty-fish-like-effect
#18
Fayçal Ounnas, Michel de Lorgeril, Patricia Salen, François Laporte, Luca Calani, Pedro Mena, Furio Brighenti, Daniele Del Rio, Christine Demeilliers
As long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of the n-3 series are critically important for human health, fish consumption has considerably increased in recent decades, resulting in overfishing to respond to the worldwide demand, to an extent that is not sustainable for consumers' health, fisheries economy, and marine ecology. In a recent study, it has been shown that whole rye (WR) consumption improves blood and liver n-3 LCFA levels and gut microbiota composition in rats compared to refined rye. The present work demonstrates that specific colonic polyphenol metabolites may dose dependently stimulate the synthesis of n-3 LCFA, possibly through their microbial and hepatic metabolites in rats...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070931/anti-rheumatoid-arthritis-effect-of-kaejadan-via-analgesic-and-antiinflammatory-activity-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#19
Jung Jae Yoon, Eun Jung Sohn, Jung Hyo Kim, Jai Wha Seo, Sung-Hoon Kim
Although Kaejadan (KJD), an herbal cocktail of three medicinal plants (Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Cinnamomum loureirii, and Salvia miltiorrhiza), has been traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, its scientific evidence is not fully understood. Hence, we investigated antiinflammatory and analgesic mechanism of KJD in vivo and in vitro. Kaejadan suppressed the number of writhing responses in mice treated by acetic acid and showed antinociceptive effect by tail-flick test. Kaejadan abrogated serotonin or carrageenan or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced paw edema and also reduced the level of Evans Blue for vascular permeability...
January 9, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070322/carotenoid-profiling-of-the-leaves-of-selected-african-eggplant-accessions-subjected-to-drought-stress
#20
Elias K Mibei, Jane Ambuko, James J Giovannoni, Arnold N Onyango, Willis O Owino
African eggplants (Solanum aethiopicum and S. macrocarpon) are among the most economically important and valuable vegetable and fruit crops. They are a major source of biologically active nutritional substances and metabolites which are essential for plant growth, development, stress adaptation and defense. Among these metabolites are the carotenoids which act as accessory pigments for photosynthesis and precursor to plant hormones. Though African eggplants are known to be resistant to various abiotic stresses, the effect of these stresses on secondary metabolites has not been well defined...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
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