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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451327/microrna-365-modulates-astrocyte-conversion-into-neuron-in-adult-rat-brain-after-stroke-by-targeting-pax6
#1
Jia-Lin Mo, Qi Liu, Zeng-Wei Kou, Kun-Wei Wu, Ping Yang, Xian-Hua Chen, Feng-Yan Sun
Reactive astrocytes induced by ischemia can transdifferentiate into mature neurons. This neurogenic potential of astrocytes may have therapeutic value for brain injury. Epigenetic modifications are widely known to involve in developmental and adult neurogenesis. PAX6, a neurogenic fate determinant, contributes to the astrocyte-to-neuron conversion. However, it is unclear whether microRNAs (miRs) modulate PAX6-mediated astrocyte-to-neuron conversion. In the present study we used bioinformatic approaches to predict miRs potentially targeting Pax6, and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to model cerebral ischemic injury in adult rats...
February 16, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451219/low-frequency-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-pretreated-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-the-regeneration-of-crush-injured-rat-mental-nerve
#2
NaRi Seo, Sung-Ho Lee, Kyung Won Ju, JaeMan Woo, BongJu Kim, SoungMin Kim, Jeong Won Jahng, Jong-Ho Lee
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451216/does-combined-therapy-of-curcumin-and-epigallocatechin-gallate-have-a-synergistic-neuroprotective-effect-against-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Jiri Ruzicka, Lucia Machova Urdzikova, Barbora Svobodova, Anubhav G Amin, Kristyna Karova, Jana Dubisova, Kristyna Zaviskova, Sarka Kubinova, Meic Schmidt, Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal, Pavla Jendelova
Systematic inflammatory response after spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the factors leading to lesion development and a profound degree of functional loss. Anti-inflammatory compounds, such as curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are known for their neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of combined therapy of curcumin and EGCG in a rat model of acute SCI induced by balloon compression. Immediately after SCI, rats received curcumin, EGCG, curcumin + EGCG or saline [daily intraperitoneal doses (curcumin, 6 mg/kg; EGCG 17 mg/kg)] and weekly intramuscular doses (curcumin, 60 mg/kg; EGCG 17 mg/kg)] for 28 days...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447237/pathophysiological-and-neurobehavioral-characteristics-of-a-propionic-acid-mediated-autism-like-rat-model
#4
Jeonghyun Choi, Seunghoon Lee, Jinyoung Won, Yunho Jin, Yunkyung Hong, Tai-Young Hur, Joo-Heon Kim, Sang-Rae Lee, Yonggeun Hong
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is induced by complex hereditary and environmental factors. However, the mechanisms of ASD development are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify standard indicators of this condition by comparing clinical, pathophysiological, and neurobehavioral features in an autism-like animal model. A total of 22 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and 500 mg/kg propionic acid (PPA)-treated groups. Rats were subjected to behavioral tests, gene expression analyses, and histological analyses to detect pathophysiological and neurobehavioral alterations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445328/hippocampal-atrophy-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-correlates-with-disruption-of-astrocyte-morphology-and-capillary-coverage-by-aqp4
#5
Maryam Anzabi, Maryam Ardalan, Nina K Iversen, Ali H Rafati, Brian Hansen, Leif Østergaard
Despite successful management of ruptured intracranial aneurysm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) remains the main cause of high mortality and morbidity in patients who survive the initial bleeding. Astrocytes play a key role in neurovascular coupling. Therefore, changes in the neurovascular unit including astrocytes following SAH may contribute to the development of DCI and long-term complications. In this study, we characterized morphological changes in hippocampal astrocytes following experimental SAH, with special emphasis on glia-vascular cross-talk and hippocampal volume changes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443855/continuous-remote-ischemic-conditioning-attenuates-cognitive-and-motor-deficits-from-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Viraj Pandit, Muhammad Khan, El Rasheid Zakaria, Tally M Largent-Milnes, Mohammad Hamidi, Terence O'Keeffe, Todd W Vanderah, Bellal Joseph
INTRODUCTION: While studies show that single-dose remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) improves outcomes, the effect of continuous (daily) RIC is unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate the role of continuous-RIC on cognitive and motor function following traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We subjected 24 male C57BL mice to a cortical-controlled TBI. Two-hours after TBI the animals were randomly allocated to the RIC group (n=12) or the Sham group (n=12). RIC was induced by non-invasive external compression of the hind limb using an occlusive band (six 4-min cycles/24 hours) for consecutive 6 days...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440316/glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-antibody-positive-meningoencephalomyelitis
#7
Angeliki Zarkali, Oliver Cousins, Dilan Athauda, Samuel Moses, Nicholas Moran, Sreedharan Harikrishnan
Glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody-positive meningoencephalomyelitis is a newly described, possibly under-recognised, severe inflammatory condition of the nervous system. The clinical presentation is variable but most commonly is a combination of meningitis, encephalitis and myelitis; other manifestations may include seizures, psychiatric symptoms and tremor. There is a significant association with malignancies, often occult, and with other autoimmune conditions. Although the disease responds well to corticosteroids acutely, it typically relapses when these are tapered, and so patients need long-term immunosuppression...
February 9, 2018: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436679/long-non%C3%A2-coding-rna-bc168687-small-interfering-rna-reduces-high-glucose-and-high-free-fatty-acid%C3%A2-induced-expression-of-p2x7-receptors-in-satellite-glial-cells
#8
Cheng-Long Liu, Ze-Yu Deng, Er-Rong Du, Chang-Shui Xu
Purinergic signaling contributes to inflammatory and immune responses. The activation of the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) in satellite glial cells (SGCs) may be an essential component in the promotion of inflammation and neuropathic pain. Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a small interfering RNA for the lncRNA BC168687 on SGC P2X7 expression in a high glucose and high free fatty acids (HGHF) environment...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436662/comparison-of-the-properties-of-neural-stem-cells-of-the-hippocampus-in-the-tree-shrew-and-rat-in%C3%A2-vitro
#9
Yuan-Dong Hu, Qiong Zhao, Xue-Rong Zhang, Liu-Lin Xiong, Zi-Bin Zhang, Piao Zhang, Rong-Ping Zhang, Ting-Hua Wang
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are characterized by the ability of self‑renewal and capacity to proliferate and produce new nervous tissue. NSCs are capable of differentiating to three lineages of neural cells, including neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Furthermore, hippocampal NSCs transplantation can improve the neurological deficits associated with expression of cytokines. Therefore, to compare the properties of NSCs of tree shrews and rats in vitro, NSCs from tree shrews (tsNSCs) and rats f(rNSCs) were isolated...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427020/-autoimmunity-and-glaucoma
#10
REVIEW
K Bell, S Funke, F H Grus
In addition to the clinically most relevant risk factor for glaucoma, i.e., elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), there are other factors with high relevance for the disease. Changes in the autoimmune component of the immune system are of particular importance. Clinical studies have demonstrated alterations in different autoantibodies in glaucoma patients compared to healthy controls, some of which increase in abundance/have a raised titer, but also some which have a reduced titer. These changes have a distinct potential-not only as a tool for early glaucoma detection, but also as a therapeutic option due to the documented neuroprotective effects of some of these antibodies...
February 9, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425965/the-small-heat-shock-proteins-especially-hspb4-and-hspb5-are-promising-protectants-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Zhihui Zhu, Georg Reiser
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a group of proteins with molecular mass between 12 and 43 kDa. Currently, 11 members of this family have been classified, namely HspB1 to HspB11. HspB1, HspB2, HspB5, HspB6, HspB7, and HspB8, which are expressed in brain have been observed to be related to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Alexander's disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Specifically, sHsps interact with misfolding and damaging protein aggregates, like Glial fibrillary acidic protein in AxD, β-amyloid peptides aggregates in Alzheimer's disease, Superoxide dismutase 1 in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cytosine-adenine-guanine/polyglutamine (CAG/PolyQ) in Huntington's disease, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, Spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy, to reduce the toxicity or increase the clearance of these protein aggregates...
February 6, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425879/retinal-neuroinflammatory-induced-neuronal-degeneration-role-of-toll-like-receptor-4-and-relationship-with-gliosis
#12
Fredrik Ghosh, Hodan Abdshill, Karin Arnér, Ulrikke Voss, Linnéa Taylor
The purpose of this study was to explore retina-intrinsic neuroinflammatory reactions, effects on neuronal survival, relationship with classic gliosis, and possible role of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). To isolate the adult retina from the systemic immune system, a previously described large animal explant culture model was used in which full-thickness porcine retinal sheets can be kept in vitro for extended time periods. Explants were kept for 5 days in vitro (DIV) and were treated with either; lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) inhibitor (CLI-095), LPS + CLI-095, or solvent vehicle throughout the culture period after which retinal sections were examined with hematoxylin and eosin staining and extensive immunohistochemistry...
February 7, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423350/primary-psychiatric-disorder-masking-the-diagnosis-of-neuropsychiatric-lupus-in-a-patient-with-altered-mental-status-a-case-report
#13
Osman Perez, Kairavee Dave, Aimee Almanzar, Tajul Prodhan, Livasky Concepion
Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) has a wide variety of neurologic and psychiatric features. NPSLE symptoms and the psychotic features of primary psychiatric disorders often overlap with each other. These psychotic features often mask and delay the diagnosis of NPSLE. We present the case of a 59-year-old female previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder and generalized anxiety disorder presenting with altered mental status (AMS), subsequently diagnosed with neuropsychiatric lupus. Initially, medication overdose was suspected as an empty bottle of trazodone was found beside her...
October 23, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422055/calcineurin-a-beta-deficiency-ameliorates-hfd-induced-hypothalamic-astrocytosis-in-mice
#14
Katrin Pfuhlmann, Sonja C Schriever, Beata Legutko, Peter Baumann, Luke Harrison, Dhiraj G Kabra, Emily Violette Baumgart, Matthias H Tschöp, Cristina Garcia-Caceres, Paul T Pfluger
ᅟ: Astrocytosis is a reactive process involving cellular, molecular, and functional changes to facilitate neuronal survival, myelin preservation, blood brain barrier function and protective glial scar formation upon brain insult. The overall pro- or anti-inflammatory impact of reactive astrocytes appears to be driven in a context- and disease-driven manner by modulation of astrocytic Ca2+ homeostasis and activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-activated serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin. Here, we aimed to assess whether calcineurin is dispensable for astrocytosis in the hypothalamus driven by prolonged high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419649/molecular-biology-of-exfoliation-syndrome
#15
Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a common age-related matrix process resulting from excessive production and disordered assembly of elastic microfibrillar components into highly cross-linked fibrillary aggregates throughout the anterior eye segment and various organ systems. The underlying molecular pathophysiology involves a complex interplay of pro-fibrotic protagonists including growth factors, proteolytic enzymes and inhibitors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, chaperones, and dysregulated stress response pathways including insufficient autophagy...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419480/comparative-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-quantifications-of-pathological-tau-deposits-and-their-association-with-neurodegeneration-in-tauopathy-mouse-models
#16
Ruiqing Ni, Bin Ji, Maiko Ono, Naruhiko Sahara, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Agneta Nordberg, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
Fibrillary tau aggregates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and allied neurodegenerative disorders have been visualized in-vivo by positron emission tomography (PET), while mechanistic links between PET-detectable tau deposits and neurotoxicity remain elusive. Here, we took advantage of transgenic mouse models of tauopathies to evaluate associations between PET and postmortem measures of tau probe binding and their relation to neuronal loss. Methods: PET with a tau probe, 11C-PBB3 (2-((1E,3E)-4-(6-(11C-methylamino)pyridine-3-yl)buta-1,3-dienyl)benzo[d]thiazol-6-ol), and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for rTg4510 and non-transgenic mice...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417448/atorvastatin-attenuates-cognitive-deficits-and-neuroinflammation-induced-by-a%C3%AE-1-42-involving-modulation-of-tlr4-traf6-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#17
Shan Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Liuyu Zhai, Xiaona Sheng, Weina Zheng, Hongshan Chu, Guohua Zhang
Inflammatory damage aggravates the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the mechanism of inflammatory damage may provide a new therapeutic window for the treatment of AD. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling can regulate the inflammatory process. However, changes in TLR4 signaling pathway induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) have not been well characterized in brain, especially in the hippocampus. In the present study, we explored the changes of TLR4 signaling pathway induced by Aβ in the hippocampus and the role of atorvastatin in modulating this signal pathway and neurotoxicity induced by Aβ...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415612/valproic-acid-treatment-decreases-serum-gfap-and-uch-l1-level-in-swine-subjected-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Frederick Kofi Korley, Vahagn C Nikolian, Aaron M Williams, Isabel S Dennahy, Michael Weykamp, Hasan B Alam
The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of valproic acid (VPA) treatment on serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament light chain (NF-L) levels. To achieve this aim, we obtained serum samples from: (1) ten Yorkshire swine subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) TBI + polytrauma and randomized to receive either normal saline (NS) + VPA (n=5) or NS alone (n=5) and (2) five additional swine subjected to CCI TBI without polytrauma and treated with VPA. GFAP and NF-L levels were measured in samples obtained from baseline until 10 days post-injury using a digital immunoassay from Quanterix Corporation...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411009/nrf2-activation-is-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-to-attenuate-diabetic-retinopathy
#19
Devy Deliyanti, Saeed F Alrashdi, Sih Min Tan, Colin Meyer, Keith W Ward, Judy B de Haan, Jennifer L Wilkinson-Berka
Purpose: Oxidative stress is a causal factor in the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, clinically relevant strategies to treat the disease by augmenting antioxidant defense mechanisms have not been fully explored. We hypothesized that boosting nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant capacity with the novel Nrf2 activator dh404, would protect the retina in diabetes including vision-threatening breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and associated damage to macroglial Müller cells...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409329/downregulation-of-microrna-29a-b-exacerbated-diabetic-retinopathy-by-impairing-the-function-of-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-via-forkhead-box-protein-o4
#20
Jiayu Zhang, Liang Wu, Jiawei Chen, Sisi Lin, Daqiu Cai, Chengwei Chen, Zhenguo Chen
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is a neurological disease, which can lead to blindness in severe cases. The pathogenesis underlying diabetic retinopathy is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of dysregulated microRNA 29a/b in the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats using 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin. Glucose (5.5 and 25 mM) was used to stimulate rat retinal Müller cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were used to determine gene expression...
February 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
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