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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933048/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-%C3%A2-9-thc-induce-neurogenesis-and-improve-cognitive-performances-of-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
Noor Azuin Suliman, Che Norma Mat Taib, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas, Rusliza Basir
Neurogenesis is influenced by various external factors such as enriched environments. Some researchers had postulated that neurogenesis has contributed to the hippocampal learning and memory. This project was designed to observe the effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆(9)-THC) in cognitive performance that influenced by the neurogenesis. Different doses of ∆(9)-THC were used for observing the neurogenesis mechanism occurs in the hippocampus of rats. The brains were stained with antibodies, namely BrdU, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin, doublecortin (DCX) and class III β-tubulin (TuJ-1)...
September 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931760/inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-glial-cell-activation-characterize-stellate-ganglia-from-humans-with-electrical-storm
#2
Olujimi A Ajijola, Donald B Hoover, Thomas M Simerly, T Christopher Brown, Jane Yanagawa, Reshma M Biniwale, Jay M Lee, Ali Sadeghi, Negar Khanlou, Jeffrey L Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
BACKGROUND: Neuronal remodeling in human heart disease is not well understood. METHODS: Stellate ganglia from patients with cardiomyopathy (CMY) and refractory ventricular arrhythmias undergoing cardiac sympathetic denervation (n = 8), and from organ donors with normal hearts (n = 8) collected at the time of organ procurement were compared. Clinical data on all subjects were reviewed. Electron microscopy (EM), histologic, and immunohistochemical assessments of neurotransmitter profiles, glial activation and distribution, and lipofuscin deposition, a marker of oxidative stress, were quantified...
September 21, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930532/neuroprotective-role-of-asiatic-acid-in-aluminium-chloride-induced-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Mashoque Ahmad Rather, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Mathiyazahan Dhivya Bharathi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Gilles J Guillemin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by memory loss, cognitive impairment and personality disorders accompanied by diffuse structural abnormalities in the brain of elderly people. The current investigation explored the neuroprotective potential of asiatic acid (AA), a natural triterpene of Centella asiatica on aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced rat model of AD. Oral administration of AlCl3 (100 mg/kg b.w.) for 42 days significantly elevated the levels of Al, activity of acetyl cholinesterase and expressions of amyloid precursor protein, amyloid beta1-42, beta and gamma secretases, glial fibrillary acidic protein, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1, interleukins -1β, 6, 4, 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor- k beta and cyclooxygenase-2 in the hippocampus and cortex  compared to the control group...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929580/selective-expression-of-egfp-in-mouse-perivascular-astrocytes-by-modification-of-the-mlc1-gene-using-t2a-based-ribosome-skipping
#4
Jordan J Toutounchian, Joseph H McCarty
Perivascular astrocyte end feet closely juxtapose cerebral blood vessels to regulate important developmental and physiological processes including endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting as well as the formation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The mechanisms underlying these events remain largely unknown due to a lack of experimental models for identifying perivascular astrocytes and distinguishing these cell types from other astroglial populations. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 1 (Mlc1) is a transmembrane protein that is expressed in perivascular astrocyte end feet where it controls BBB development and homeostasis...
September 20, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929517/neural-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-human-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-modified-in-functionalized-self-assembling-peptide-hydrogel-in-vitro
#5
Hongbin Luo, Changsheng Xu, Zhiwei Liu, Lin Yang, Yunda Hong, Guisheng Liu, Huifen Zhong, Xinyi Cai, Xuping Lin, Xiaokun Chen, Changsheng Wang, Nanwen Zhang, Weihong Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biocompatibility and differentiation of human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (hBDNF) gene-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBDNF-rMSCs) in a functionalized self-assembling peptide hydrogel. METHODS: hBDNF were engineered in rMSCs using adenovirus vector and the enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) was used as a reporter gene. MSC-specific surface markers (CD90,CD29 and CD45)were used for identifying rMSCs. Fluorescence microscope was used to detect the transfection of rMSCs...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929339/intranasal-insulin-ameliorates-cerebral-hypometabolism-neuronal-loss-and-astrogliosis-in-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-rat-model
#6
Yanxing Chen, Zhangyu Guo, Yan-Fang Mao, Tingting Zheng, Baorong Zhang
Intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in rodents leads to cognitive impairments and several pathological changes like Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is hardly any research about the effect of ICV-STZ on regional cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. Previous studies have demonstrated that intranasal insulin improves cognition in AD patients. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we treated the ICV-STZ rats with daily intranasal delivery of insulin (2 U/day) for 6 consecutive weeks, then monitored (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake using a high-resolution small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and studied the expression of neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) using immunohistochemical staining...
September 19, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922662/treatment-of-autoimmune-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-astrocytopathy-follow-up-in-7-cases
#7
Xinguang Yang, Junyan Liang, Qingmei Huang, Huiming Xu, Cong Gao, Youming Long, Xiaoyu Xiao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to report an autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy with long-term follow-up in 7 patients. METHODS: Antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay and patient data were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Seven patients (4 female, 3 male) with ≥1 year follow-up were included. All patients had positive GFAP antibodies in their cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Their median age at disease onset was 56 years (range 27-69) and the median disease duration was 1 year (range 1-4)...
September 19, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921934/mirror-trends-of-plasticity-and-stability-indicators-in-primate-prefrontal-cortex
#8
Miguel Á García-Cabezas, Mary Kate P Joyce, Yohan J John, Basilis Zikopoulos, Helen Barbas
Research on plasticity markers in the cerebral cortex has largely focused on their timing of expression and role in shaping circuits during critical and normal periods. By contrast, little attention has been focused on the spatial dimension of plasticity-stability across cortical areas. The rationale for this analysis is based on the systematic variation in cortical structure that parallels functional specialization and raises the possibility of varying levels of plasticity. Here we investigated in adult rhesus monkeys the expression of markers related to synaptic plasticity or stability in prefrontal limbic and eulaminate areas that vary in laminar structure...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919515/trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-regulation-of-methamphetamine-induced-neurotoxicity
#9
Nicholas B Miner, Josh S Elmore, Michael H Baumann, Tamara J Phillips, Aaron Janowsky
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is activated by methamphetamine (MA) and modulates dopaminergic (DA) function. Although DA dysregulation is the hallmark of MA-induced neurotoxicity leading to behavioral and cognitive deficits, the intermediary role of TAAR1 has yet to be characterized. To investigate TAAR1 regulation of MA-induced neurotoxicity, Taar1 transgenic knock-out (KO) and wildtype (WT) mice were administered saline or a neurotoxic regimen of 4 i.p. injections, 2hr apart, of MA (2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg)...
September 14, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919467/distribution-of-spleen-tyrosine-kinase-and-tau-phosphorylated-at-tyrosine-18-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy-and-in-the-human-hippocampus
#10
Christoph Köhler, Vivien Timpa, Maja Dinekov
PURPOSE: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) has been shown to phosphorylate tyrosine 18 of tau in vitro. It has been proposed that increased immunoreactivity for double-phosphorylated Syk in hippocampal neurons of Alzheimer's disease cases indicates a not yet defined neurodegenerative process. To investigate this possibility we have studied Syk and tau phosphorylated at tyrosine 18 (pTyr18) in transgenic mice and human hippocampi. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence labeling and Western blotting and compared the distribution of Syk double-phosphorylated at tyrosines 525 and 526 and pTyr18 in human tau transgenic pR5 mice and human hippocampi with low and high Braak stages for neurofibrillary tangle pathology...
September 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918015/a-microrna124-target-sequence-restores-astrocyte-specificity-of-gfaabc1d-driven-transgene-expression-in-aav-mediated-gene-transfer
#11
Grit Taschenberger, Julia Tereshchenko, Sebastian Kügler
Experimentally restricting transgene expression exclusively to astrocytes has proven difficult. Using adeno-associated-virus-mediated gene transfer, we assessed two commonly used glial fibrillary acidic protein promoters: the full-length version gfa2 (2,210-bp human glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP] promoter) and the truncated variant gfaABC1D (681-bp GFAP promoter). The capacity to drive efficient, but also cell-type specific, expression of the EGFP in astrocytes was tested both in vitro in rat primary cortical cultures as well as in vivo in the rat striatum...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913350/neuronal-regeneration-after-electroacupuncture-treatment-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injured-cerebral-infarction-rats
#12
Shiang-Lin Liao, Yi-Wen Lin, Ching-Liang Hsieh
Adult neuronal cells which can regenerate have been reported. The present study investigated whether acupuncture enhances neuronal regeneration in ischemic stroke rats. We established an ischemic stroke rat model by occluding the cerebral blood flow of the right middle cerebral artery for 15 minutes and then allowing reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. The results indicated that, in these rats, 2 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) at both Zusanli (ST36) and Shangjuxu (ST37) acupoints reduced the infarction/hemisphere ratio 8 days after reperfusion and reduced the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and increased the rotarod test time 4 and 8 days after reperfusion, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904986/sex-matters-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-adolescent-rats
#13
David K Wright, Terence J O'Brien, Sandy R Shultz, Richelle Mychasiuk
OBJECTIVE: Whether sex differences contribute to the heterogeneity of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and repeated mTBI (RmTBI) outcomes in adolescents is unknown. Therefore, this study examined changes in, and differences between, male and female rats following single mTBI and RmTBI. METHODS: Rats were given a single mTBI, RmTBI (i.e., 3x), or sham injuries. Injuries were administered using a lateral impact model that mimics forces common in human mTBI. After the final injury, rats underwent extensive behavioral testing to examine cognition, motor function, and anxiety- and depressive-like behavior...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902784/pancreatic-stellate-cells-have-distinct-characteristics-from-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-are-not-the-unique-origin-of-collagen-producing-cells-in-the-pancreas
#14
Gen Yamamoto, Kojiro Taura, Keiko Iwaisako, Masataka Asagiri, Shinji Ito, Yukinori Koyama, Kazutaka Tanabe, Kohta Iguchi, Motohiko Satoh, Takahiro Nishio, Yukihiro Okuda, Yoshinobu Ikeno, Kenji Yoshino, Satoru Seo, Etsuro Hatano, Shinji Uemoto
OBJECTIVES: The origin of collagen-producing myofibroblasts in pancreatic fibrosis is still controversial. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), which have been recognized as the pancreatic counterparts of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), are thought to play an important role in the development of pancreatic fibrosis. However, sources of myofibroblasts other than PSCs may exist because extensive studies of liver fibrosis have uncovered myofibroblasts that did not originate from HSCs. This study aimed to characterize myofibroblasts in an experimental pancreatic fibrosis model in mice...
October 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898551/elucidation-of-glcnac-binding-properties-of-type-iii-intermediate-filament-proteins-using-glcnac-bearing-polymers
#15
Hirohiko Ise, Sadanori Yamasaki, Kazuaki Sueyoshi, Yoshiko Miura
Vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and peripherin belong to type III intermediate filament family and are expressed in mesenchymal cells, skeletal muscle cells, astrocytes and peripheral neurons, respectively. Vimentin and desmin possess N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding properties on cell surfaces. The rod II domain of these proteins is a GlcNAc-binding site, which also exists in GFAP and peripherin. However, the GlcNAc-binding activities and behaviors of these proteins remain unclear...
September 12, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890110/methyl-aspartylphenylalanine-the-pons-and-cerebellum-in-mice-an-evaluation-of-motor-morphological-biochemical-immunohistochemical-and-apoptotic-effects
#16
A Y Onaolapo, O J Onaolapo, P U Nwoha
In this study, adult mice were assigned to five groups, and administered vehicle (distilled water), or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg body weight) for 28days. Behavioural tests to assess motor-balance and gait were conducted on day 28, following which animals were sacrificed. Sections of the cerebellar cortex and pons were processed, for general histology and Bielschwosky's silver staining protocol. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunoreactivity were assessed. Antioxidant status and aspartic acid/cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 levels were also assessed using homogenates of the cerebellum and pons...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889733/garcinia-kola-seeds-may-prevent-cognitive-and-motor-dysfunctions-in-a-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-rat-model-partly-by-mitigating-neuroinflammation
#17
Paul F Seke Etet, Mohammed Farahna, Gwiria M H Satti, Yahia M Bushara, Ahmed El-Tahir, Muaawia A Hamza, Sayed Y Osman, Ambrose C Dibia, Lorella Vecchio
Background We reported recently that extracts of seeds of Garcinia kola, a plant with established hypoglycemic properties, prevented the loss of inflammation-sensible neuronal populations like Purkinje cells in a rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Here, we assessed G. kola extract ability to prevent the early cognitive and motor dysfunctions observed in this model. Methods Rats made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin were treated daily with either vehicle solution (diabetic control group), insulin, or G...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886036/potential-role-of-sirtuin-1-in-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cells-in-mice-choroidal-neovascularization
#18
Tomoka Ishida, Takeshi Yoshida, Kosei Shinohara, Kejia Cao, Ken-Ichi Nakahama, Ikuo Morita, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
This study investigated the potential role of sirtuin 1 in Müller glial cells in choroidal neovascularization. In the in vitro study, primary Müller glial cells were cultured and treated with resveratrol, a sirtuin 1 activator. Glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and angiogenesis-related gene expression were examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and phagocytosis, as a marker of Müller glial cell function; in addition, a latex bead assay was used to analyze cell function. For the in vivo study, choroidal neovascularization was induced in C57BL/6 mice via laser photocoagulation, and resveratrol was administered intravitreally...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883901/loss-of-sigma-1-receptor-chaperone-promotes-astrocytosis-and-enhances-the-nrf2-antioxidant-defense
#19
Tzu-Yu Weng, Denise T Hung, Tsung-Ping Su, Shang-Yi A Tsai
Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) functions as a chaperon that interacts with multiple proteins and lipids and is implicated in neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Here, we used Sig-1R KO mice to examine brain expression profiles of astrocytes and ubiquitinated proteins, which are both hallmarks of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Our results showed that Sig-1R KO induces increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in primary neuron-glia cultures and in the whole brain of fetus mice with concomitantly increased accumulations of ubiquitinated proteins...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883692/fluctuation-of-zonulin-levels-in-blood-vs-stability-of-antibodies
#20
Aristo Vojdani, Elroy Vojdani, Datis Kharrazian
AIM: To evaluate the measurement of zonulin level and antibodies of zonulin and other tight junction proteins in the blood of controls and celiac disease patients. METHODS: This study was conducted to assess the variability or stability of zonulin levels vs IgA and IgG antibodies against zonulin in blood samples from 18 controls at 0, 6, 24 and 30 h after blood draw. We also measured zonulin level as well as zonulin, occludin, vinculin, aquaporin 4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies in the sera of 30 patients with celiac disease and 30 controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology...
August 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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