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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218080/whether-cd44-is-an-applicable-marker-for-glioma-stem-cells
#1
Hsiao-Han Wang, Chen-Chieh Liao, Nan-Haw Chow, Lynn Ling-Huei Huang, Jih-Ing Chuang, Kuo-Chen Wei, Jyh-Wei Shin
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant and aggressive brain tumors with great amount of hyaluronan (HA) secretion and CD44 overexpression (HA receptor). CD44 has been suggested as a cancer stem cells (CSCs) marker. However, several clinical studies have indicated that CD44low glioma cell exhibit CSCs traits. Additionally, our previous study indicated that more CD44 expression was associated with a better prognosis in GBM patients. To determine whether CD44 is an appropriate marker of glioma stem cells (GSCs), we manipulated CD44 expression using intrinsic (CD44 knockdown, CD44kd) and extrinsic (HA supplement, HA+) methods...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215941/the-role-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-in-the-transdifferentiation-from-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-to-schwann-cells
#2
Dapeng Liao, Xiaojie Li, Yan Dong, Gang Sun
This study was aimed to investigate the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the differentiation from periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to Schwann cells (SCs) and the possible mechanisms. FzB was applied to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of differentiated PDLSCs (dPDLSCs), and then immunofluorescence, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Western blotting analysis were performed to detect SC marker genes and proteins such as S100, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and P75NTR...
December 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215736/protective-effect-of-epigenetic-silencing-of-cyclind1-against-spinal-cord-injury-using-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-rats
#3
Yuan Wang, Qing-Jie Kong, Jin-Chuan Sun, Xi-Ming Xu, Yong Yang, Ning Liu, Jian-Gang Shi
OBJECTIVE: This study focuses on the protective effect of epigenetic silencing of CyclinD1 against spinal cord injury (SCI) using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in rats. METHODS: Eighty-eight adult female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into the sham group, the control group, the si-CyclinD1 + BMSCs group and the BMSCs group. CyclinD1 protein and mRNA expressions after siRNA transfection were detected by western blotting and qRT-PCR. The siRNA-CyclinD1 BMSCs were transplanted into rats in the si-CyclinD1 + BMSCs group using stereotaxic method 6 h after SCI...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210929/optic-disc-edema-in-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-autoantibody-positive-meningoencephalitis
#4
John J Chen, Allen J Aksamit, Andrew McKeon, Sean J Pittock, Brian G Weinshenker, Jacqueline A Leavitt, Padraig P Morris, Eoin P Flanagan
BACKGROUND: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) autoantibody-positive meningoencephalitis is a newly described entity characterized by a corticosteroid-responsive meningoencephalomyelitis. Some patients with GFAP autoantibody-positive meningoencephalitis have been found to have optic disc edema, which has previously not been well characterized. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational case series of Mayo Clinic patients found to have GFAP-IgG and optic disc edema from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2016...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209585/video-microscope-robotic-arm-assisted-neuronavigation-guided-glioma-resection-and-regional-sampling
#5
Muhammad Waqas, Syed Ather Enam, Fauzan A Hashmi, Fatima Mubarak, Fazal Arain
High-grade gliomas possess internal pathological heterogeneity. Selective sampling of different tumor regions can help in the study of this heterogeneity. In this report, we have described the use of a novel navigation and optical system for the selective regional sampling of a high-grade glioma lesion. A 45-year-old gentleman presented to us with complaints of intermittent frontal headaches for past eight months. On examination, he had subtle pyramidal weakness in left upper and lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large contrast-enhancing, space-occupying lesion in the right frontal lobe causing perilesional edema and midline shift...
October 2, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208469/an-elastomeric-polymer-matrix-peuu-tac-delivers-bioactive-tacrolimus-transdurally-to-the-cns-in-rat
#6
Yolandi van der Merwe, Anne E Faust, Ian Conner, Xinzhu Gu, Firuz Feturi, Wenchen Zhao, Bianca Leonard, Souvik Roy, Vijay S Gorantla, Raman Venkataramanan, Kia M Washington, William R Wagner, Michael B Steketee
Central nervous system (CNS) neurons fail to regrow injured axons, often resulting in permanently lost neurologic function. Tacrolimus is an FDA-approved immunosuppressive drug with known neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties in the CNS. However, tacrolimus is typically administered systemically and blood levels required to effectively treat CNS injuries can lead to lethal, off-target organ toxicity. Thus, delivering tacrolimus locally to CNS tissues may provide therapeutic control over tacrolimus levels in CNS tissues while minimizing off-target toxicity...
November 24, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207144/dner-modulates-the-length-polarity-and-synaptogenesis-of-spiral-ganglion-neurons-via-the-notch-signaling-pathway
#7
Jintao Du, Xianren Wang, Xiaobo Zhang, Xuemei Zhang, Hongyan Jiang
The Delta/Notch‑like epidermal growth factor‑related receptor (DNER) serves an important role in the developing central nervous system. However, the actions of DNER in the development of the spiral ganglion in the inner ear have yet to be elucidated. Wild‑type C57BL/6 mice were housed and time‑mated for use in the present study. Primary neuronal cultures were prepared using spiral ganglion progenitors isolated from the modiolus of postnatal day 1 (P1) mice. DNER recombinant lentiviral vectors were constructed and transfected into the cultured primary neurons...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206067/oligomeric-and-fibrillar-amyloid-beta-42-induce-platelet-aggregation-partially-through-gpvi
#8
O Elaskalani, I Khan, M Morici, C Matthysen, M Sabale, R N Martins, G Verdile, P Metharom
The effects of the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides on platelet aggregation have been previously assessed, but most of these studies focused on Aβ40 species. It also remains to be determined which distinct forms of Aβ peptides exert differential effects on platelets. In AD, oligomeric Aβ42 species is widely thought to be a major contributor to the disease pathogenesis. We, therefore, examine the ability of oligomeric and fibrillary Aβ42 to affect platelet aggregation. We show that both forms of Aβ42 induced significant platelet aggregation and that it is a novel ligand for the platelet receptor GPVI...
December 5, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204027/a-simplified-overview-of-world-health-organization-classification-update-of-central-nervous-system-tumors-2016
#9
REVIEW
Anshu Gupta, Tanima Dwivedi
After 8 years, an update of central nervous system (CNS) tumors was published in 2016 after 2007. First time ever, molecular markers along with histology have been used in classification of any tumor. Major changes are seen in glioma and medulloblastoma groups. Few entities have been added such as diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant, RELA fusion-positive ependymoma, embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered, and hybrid nerve sheath tumors. Few variants and patterns that no longer have diagnostic and/or biological relevance and have been deleted such as glioblastoma cerebri, protoplasmic and fibrillary astrocytoma, and cellular ependymoma...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203398/metyrapone-prevents-acute-glucose-hypermetabolism-and-short-term-brain-damage-induced-by-intrahippocampal-administration-of-4-aminopyridine-in-rats
#10
Luis García-García, Rubén Fernández de la Rosa, Mercedes Delgado, Ágata Silván, Pablo Bascuñana, Jens P Bankstahl, Francisca Gomez, Miguel A Pozo
Intracerebral administration of the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) triggers neuronal depolarization and intense acute seizure activity followed by neuronal damage. We have recently shown that, in the lithium-pilocarpine rat model of status epilepticus, a single administration of metyrapone, an inhibitor of the 11β-hydroxylase enzyme, had protective properties of preventive nature against signs of brain damage and neuroinflammation. Herein, our aim was to investigate to which extent, pretreatment with metyrapone (150 mg/kg, i...
December 1, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200998/attenuation-of-the-infiltration-of-angiotensin-ii-expressing-cd3-t-cells-and-the-modulation-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-lumbar-dorsal-root-ganglia-a-possible-mechanism-underpinning-analgesia-produced-by-ema300-an-angiotensin-ii-type-2-at2-receptor-antagonist
#11
Nemat Khan, Arjun Muralidharan, Maree T Smith
Recent preclinical and proof-of-concept clinical studies have shown promising analgesic efficacy of selective small molecule angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor antagonists in the alleviation of peripheral neuropathic pain. However, their cellular and molecular mechanism of action requires further investigation. To address this issue, groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with fully developed unilateral hindpaw hypersensitivity, following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, received a single intraperitoneal bolus dose of the small molecule AT2 receptor antagonist, EMA300 (10 mg kg-1), or vehicle...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200961/posterior-cerebral-fossa-medulloepithelioma-report-of-a-case
#12
Nezha Oumghar, Fatima Ezzahra Hazmiri, Abdelhamid El Omrani, Hanane Rais, Mouna Khouchani
Background: Medulloepithelioma is a rare primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the central nervous system, usually developing in childhood. Due to its rarity, the optimal management is still unknown. The prognosis is poor, especially when resection is incomplete. Adjuvant radiochemotherapy is often indicated. Case presentation: We report a rare case of infratentorial medulloepithelioma in a 3 year old girl. She presented symptoms of increased intracranial pressure...
2017: BMC Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196434/type-iii-intermediate-filaments-desmin-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-gfap-vimentin-and-peripherin
#13
REVIEW
Elly M Hol, Yassemi Capetanaki
SummaryType III intermediate filament (IF) proteins assemble into cytoplasmic homopolymeric and heteropolymeric filaments with other type III and some type IV IFs. These highly dynamic structures form an integral component of the cytoskeleton of muscle, brain, and mesenchymal cells. Here, we review the current ideas on the role of type III IFs in health and disease. It turns out that they not only offer resilience to mechanical strains, but, most importantly, they facilitate very efficiently the integration of cell structure and function, thus providing the necessary scaffolds for optimal cellular responses upon biochemical stresses and protecting against cell death, disease, and aging...
December 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196420/fibrillary-glomerulonephritis-in-primary-sjogren-s-syndrome-a-rare-cause-of-renal-failure
#14
Rahul Sehgal, Syed M Sajjad, Jiwan K Thapa
Renal involvement in primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) varies in severity and prevalence. Although previously felt to be uncommon, kidneys can be involved in up to 25%-30% of pSS patients. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN) is a rare primary glomerular disease that can occur in association with another autoimmune condition or malignancy. The diagnosis relies on renal biopsy findings of haphazardly arranged fibrils in all glomerular compartments and distinction from other forms of fibrillary glomerulopathies such as renal amyloidosis and immunotactoid glomerulopathy...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Medicine & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196060/mir-365-promotes-diabetic-retinopathy-through-inhibiting-timp3-and-increasing-oxidative-stress
#15
Juan Wang, Jieping Zhang, Xin Chen, Yiting Yang, Fang Wang, Weiye Li, Maihemuti Awuti, Yaping Sun, Chunpin Lian, Zongyi Li, Min Wang, Jing-Ying Xu, Caixia Jin, Haibin Tian, Furong Gao, Jingfa Zhang, Debasish Sinha, Lixia Lu, Guo-Tong Xu
miRs play critical roles in oxidative stress-related retinopathy pathogenesis. miR-365 was identified in a previously constructed library from glyoxal-treated rat Müller cell. This report explores epigenetic alterations in Müller cells under oxidative stress to develop a novel therapeutic strategy. To examine the miR-365 expression pattern, in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR were performed. Bioinformatical analysis and dual luciferase report assay were applied to identify and confirm target genes...
November 28, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193488/a-path-to-understanding-autoimmune-gfap-astrocytopathy
#16
Anastasia Zekeridou, Andrew McKeon, Eoin P Flanagan
Autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy was first described in humans in 2016 at the Mayo Clinic, USA and has been confirmed independently in Europe and Asia within the last year.[1-4] This disorder manifests as a distinctive corticosteroid-responsive meningoencephalomyelitis or limited form thereof, with lymphocytic pleocytosis often accompanied by a hallmark brain linear perivascular radial gadolinium enhancement.[1-4] It can be accompanied by a neoplasm in 20% (usually teratoma)...
November 29, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193473/autoimmune-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-astrocytopathy-in-chinese-patients-a-retrospective-study
#17
Youming Long, Junyan Liang, Huiming Xu, Qingmei Huang, Jie Yang, Cong Gao, Wei Qiu, Shaopeng Lin, Xiaohui Chen
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of an autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy. METHODS: Data from 19 patients with positive GFAP-IgG in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The main disease manifestations included myelitis (68.4%), headache (63.2%), abnormal vision (63.2%), fever (52.6%), ataxia (36.8%), psychosis (31.6%), dyskinesia (15...
November 29, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192282/functionalized-gold-nanorod-nanocomposite-system-to-modulate-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-neural-like-progenitors
#18
Karrer M Alghazali, Steven D Newby, Zeid A Nima, Rabab N Hamzah, Fumiya Watanabe, Shawn E Bourdo, Thomas J Masi, Stacy M Stephenson, David E Anderson, Madhu S Dhar, Alexandru S Biris
A 2D multifunctional nanocomposite system of gold nanorods (AuNRs) was developed. Gold nanorods were functionalized via polyethylene glycol with a terminal amine, and, were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, ultra violet-visible and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Zeta-potential. The system was cytocompatible to and maintained the integrity of Schwann cells. The neurogenic potential of adipose tissue - derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was evaluated in vitro...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188215/astroblastoma-in-a-young-female-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review-of-clinicopathological-radiological-and-prognostic-characteristics-and-current-treatment-strategies
#19
Muhammad Sadiq, Iftikhar Ahmad, Jamila Shuja, Zubair Ahmad, Riyasat Ahmed, Khushnaseeb Ahmad
Astroblastoma is an uncommon glial tumor with predominant manifestation in the young age. Herein, we report a case of 18-year-old astroblastoma female patient who presented with history of two months headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain demonstrated well circumscribed, intra-axial abnormal signal intensity lesion (size=5×4 cm2) in the right parieto-occipital region of the brain. The patient underwent complete surgical resection of the gross tumor, as confirmed by an early post-surgical MRI (i...
October 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187256/astrocytes-in-mouse-models-of-tauopathies-acquire-early-deficits-and-lose-neurosupportive-functions
#20
Marta Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz, Yannick N Gerber, Miriam Ries, Magdalena Sastre, Aviva M Tolkovsky, Maria Grazia Spillantini
Microtubule-associated protein tau aggregates constitute the characteristic neuropathological features of several neurodegenerative diseases grouped under the name of tauopathies. It is now clear that the process of tau aggregation is associated with neurodegeneration. Several transgenic tau mouse models have been developed where tau progressively aggregates, causing neuronal death. Previously we have shown that transplantation of astrocytes in P301S tau transgenic mice rescues cortical neuron death, implying that the endogenous astrocytes are deficient in survival support...
November 29, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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