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Bile acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441661/defective-platelet-activation-and-bleeding-complications-upon-cholestasis-in-mice
#1
Nina Sarah Gowert, Meike Klier, Maria Reich, Friedrich Reusswig, Lili Donner, Verena Keitel, Dieter Häussinger, Margitta Elvers
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Platelets are essential mediators of hemostasis to avoid excessive blood loss. Cirrhosis and chronic liver diseases are characterized by alterations in hemostasis. Alterations in the secondary hemostasis have been well studied, while defects in primary hemostasis, especially the consequences of cholestatic liver disease on platelet function are not well defined. METHODS: After bile duct ligation (BDL) platelet activation and thrombus formation were analyzed in mice...
April 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439767/a-bacillus-subtilis-strain-as-probiotic-in-poultry-selection-based-on-in-vitro-functional-properties-and-enzymatic-potentialities
#2
Houda Hmani, Lobna Daoud, Mouna Jlidi, Karim Jalleli, Manel Ben Ali, Adel Hadj Brahim, Mansour Bargui, Alaeddine Dammak, Mamdouh Ben Ali
We have proposed and validate an in vitro probiotic selection, based on enzymatic potentialities associated to well-established probiotic functional properties. A new Bacillus subtilis HB2 isolate, selected based on its high extracellular enzyme production, was chosen as a probiotic candidate for application as animal feed supplement. The HB2 strain showed an excellent acid and bile salts tolerance, a strong adhesion to chick enterocytes and produced antimicrobials against pathogens. An in vivo trial in poultry farming was conducted to evaluate the HB2 probiotic performance...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439489/detection-and-analysis-of-lactobacillus-paracasei-penicillin-binding-proteins-revealed-the-presence-of-cholate-sensitive-penicillin-binding-protein-3-and-an-elongated-cell-shape-in-a-cholate-sensitive-strain
#3
Masahiro Hattori, Glaezel Angelique Torres, Naoto Tanaka, Sanae Okada, Akihito Endo, Junichi Nakagawa
Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are responsible for peptidoglycan synthesis. By using biotinylated ampicillin, we detected PBPs of Lactobacillus paracasei strains. Ten PBPs were identified, 7 of which had apparent molecular sizes similar to those of Escherichia coli. In the presence of cholate, strain NRIC 0625 showed an elongated shape, and its putative PBP3 showed cholate-sensitive penicillin-binding activity. Furthermore, this strain was highly sensitive to cefalexin, which is known to inhibit cell division by inactivating PBP3...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438205/expression-of-the-clonostachys-rosea-lactonohydrolase-gene-by-lactobacillus-reuteri-to-increase-its-zearalenone-removing-ability
#4
Wen-Chun Yang, Tsui-Chun Hsu, Kuan-Chen Cheng, Je-Ruei Liu
BACKGROUND: Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that can contaminate agricultural crops in the field as well as during harvest, transportation, processing, or storage. Zearalenone (ZEN), a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin, produced by Fusarium species, has been shown to be associated with reproductive disorders in farm animals and to a lesser extent in hyperoestrogenic syndromes in humans. Thus, the decontamination of ZEN in foods and feeds is an important issue...
April 24, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437712/raspberry-pomace-alters-cecal-microbial-activity-and-reduces-secondary-bile-acids-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#5
Bartosz Fotschki, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Adam Jurgoński, Neil Rigby, Michał Sójka, Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk, Alan Mackie, Zenon Zduńczyk
The profile of bile acids (BA) largely depends on the enzymatic activity of the microbiota, but this can be modulated by the dietary addition of biologically active compounds, e.g., polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dietary raspberry pomace as a rich source of biologically active compounds on microbial activity and the BA profile in the caecum of rats fed a high-fat diet. Wistar rats were fed the standard diet AIN-93, a high-fat diet or a modified high-fat diet enriched with 7% different types of processed raspberry pomaces produced by standard grinding and fine grinding, with or without seeds...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437613/evaluating-the-role-of-multidrug-resistance-protein-3-mdr3-inhibition-in-predicting-drug-induced-liver-injury-using-125-pharmaceuticals
#6
Michael D Aleo, Falgun Shah, Kan He, Paul D Bonin, A David Rodrigues
The role of bile salt export protein (BSEP) inhibition in drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been investigated widely, while inhibition of the canalicular multidrug resistant protein 3 (MDR3) has received less attention. This transporter plays a pivotal role in secretion of phospholipids into bile and functions coordinately with BSEP to mediate the formation of bile acid-containing biliary micelles. Therefore, inhibition of MDR3 in human hepatocytes was examined across 125 drugs (70 of Most- and 55 of No-DILI-concern)...
April 24, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437442/relationship-between-early-onset-severe-intrahepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy-and-higher-risk-of-meconium-stained-fluid
#7
Maria C Estiú, Maria A Frailuna, Carla Otero, Marcela Dericco, Catherine Williamson, Jose J G Marin, Rocio I R Macias
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the commonest gestational liver disease. The risk of adverse fetal outcome has been associated with the severity of maternal hypercholanemia after diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there is a relationship between the severity and timing of onset of hypercholanemia and the risk of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and adverse neonatal events. STUDY DESIGN: The study included 382 pregnancies complicated by ICP managed at a referral hospital in Buenos Aires (Argentina) between June 2009 and December 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436439/discovery-of-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-biotransformation-enzymes-from-the-gut-microbiome-of-black-bears-using-metagenomics
#8
Can Song, Bochu Wang, Jun Tan, Liancai Zhu, Deshuai Lou
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) has been used to treat many diseases effectively. 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7α-HSDH) and 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7β-HSDH) are two key enzymes that drive the efficient biosynthesis of TUDCA from taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) in vitro. In this study, a metagenomic approach was used to isolate 7α- and 7β-HSDHs from fecal samples of black bears. Five new 7α-HSDHs and one new 7β-HSDH enzyme were discovered and identified from the gut microbiota of black bears, and four of them presented good enzymatic properties...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435224/investigation-of-triamterene-as-an-inhibitor-of-the-tgr5-receptor-identification-in-cells-and-animals
#9
Yingxiao Li, Kai Chun Cheng, Chiang-Shan Niu, Shih-Hsiang Lo, Juei-Tang Cheng, Ho-Shan Niu
BACKGROUND: G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1, also known as TGR5) has been shown to participate in glucose homeostasis. In animal models, a TGR5 agonist increases incretin secretion to reduce hyperglycemia. Many agonists have been developed for clinical use. However, the effects of TGR5 blockade have not been studied extensively, with the exception of studies using TGR5 knockout mice. Therefore, we investigated the potential effect of triamterene on TGR5. METHODS: We transfected the TGR5 gene into cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells) to express TGR5...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434196/role-of-gut-microbiota-bile-acids-and-their-crosstalk-in-the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#10
Haijun Liu, Cheng Hu, Xueli Zhang, Weiping Jia
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide and has become one of the greatest threats to global health. Bariatric surgery was initially designed to achieve weight loss and subsequently was noted to induce improvements or remission of type 2 diabetes. Currently, these bariatric operations such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the most effective procedures for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, the specific mechanism mediating the beneficial effects of metabolic surgery has remained largely unknown...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432216/embryonic-cholecystitis-and-defective-gallbladder-contraction-in-the-sox17-haploinsufficient-model-of-biliary-atresia
#11
Hiroki Higashiyama, Aisa Ozawa, Hiroyuki Sumitomo, Mami Uemura, Ko Fujino, Hitomi Igarashi, Kenya Imaimatsu, Naoki Tsunekawa, Yoshikazu Hirate, Masamichi Kurohmaru, Yukio Saijoh, Masami Kanai-Azuma, Yoshiakira Kanai
The gallbladder excretes cytotoxic bile acids to the duodenum through the cystic duct and common bile duct system. Sox17 haploinsufficiency causes the biliary atresia-like phenotypes and hepatitis in late organogenesis mouse embryos. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms in the Sox17-haploinsufficient gallbladder and liver in the etiology of biliary atresia remain unclear. In this study, transcriptomic analyses revealed the early onset of cholecystitis in the Sox17(+/-) embryos, together with the appearance of ectopic cystic duct-like epithelia in their gallbladders...
April 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432031/membrane-lipid-replacement-for-chronic-illnesses-aging-and-cancer-using-oral-glycerolphospholipid-formulations-with-fructooligosaccharides-to-restore-phospholipid-function-in-cellular-membranes-organelles-cells-and-tissues
#12
REVIEW
Garth L Nicolson, Michael E Ash
Membrane Lipid Replacement is the use of functional, oral supplements containing mixtures of cell membrane glycerolphospholipids, plus fructooligosaccharides (for protection against oxidative, bile acid and enzymatic damage) and antioxidants, in order to safely replace damaged, oxidized, membrane phospholipids and restore membrane, organelle, cellular and organ function. Defects in cellular and intracellular membranes are characteristic of all chronic medical conditions, including cancer, and normal processes, such as aging...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430398/impact-of-acid-reducing-agents-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-palbociclib-a-weak-base-with-ph-dependent-solubility-with-different-food-intake-conditions
#13
Wan Sun, Karen J Klamerus, Lisa M Yuhas, Sylvester Pawlak, Anna Plotka, Melissa O'Gorman, Leonid Kirkovsky, Maha Kosa, Diane Wang
Palbociclib free base capsule is a weak base drug with highly pH-dependent solubility. In vitro and in vivo studies evaluated the impact of acid-reducing agents on exposure of palbociclib and determined whether the impact, if any, can be mitigated by food. A drug-drug interaction study (study 1) was conducted first under fasted conditions and showed that coadministration of multiple doses of the proton-pump inhibitor rabeprazole substantially reduced palbociclib mean area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity and maximum observed plasma concentration by 62% and 80%, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429841/the-development-evidence-and-current-use-of-atx-101-for-the-treatment-of-submental-fat
#14
REVIEW
Corey Georgesen, Shari R Lipner
ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid) is the first pharmaceutical therapy approved by the FDA for the reduction in submental fat. Deoxycholic acid is an endogenous secondary bile acid that normally solubilizes dietary fat, contributing to its breakdown and absorption within the gut. This article reviews the identification of deoxycholic acid as a lipolytic agent, and the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ATX-101. In addition to phase I/II trials, four Phase III clinical trials have evaluated safety and efficacy of ATX-101...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429701/-microbiota-and-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Yüksel Altuntaş, Adnan Batman
The role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis and treatment of various diseases has been a focus of attention in the last 10 years. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases continues to increase, in spite of technological developments and treatment alternatives. Microbial dysbiosis, described as the decrease of useful bacteria and the increase of harmful bacteria, has been associated with diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. In microbial dysbiosis, increase of harmful metabolites and changes to composition of bile acids occur via carbohydrate and protein fermentation...
April 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428635/sepsis-bile-acids-promote-inflammation-in-cholestasis-associated-sepsis
#16
Hugh Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428116/cycloastragenol-improves-hepatic-steatosis-by-activating-farnesoid-x-receptor-signalling
#17
Ming Gu, Shiying Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Jinwen Huang, Yahui Wang, Yin Li, Shengjie Fan, Li Yang, Guang Ji, Qingchun Tong, Cheng Huang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a global health problem. However, there is no approved therapy for NAFLD. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a potential drug target for treatment of NAFLD. In an attempt to screen FXR agonists, we found that cycloastragenol (CAG), a natural occurring compound in Astragali Radix, stimulated FXR transcription activity. In animal studies, we demonstrated that CAG treatment resulted in obvious reduction of high-fat diet induced lipid accumulation in liver accompanied by lowered blood glucose, serum triglyceride levels and hepatic bile acid pool size...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428001/cholesterol-and-related-sterols-autoxidation
#18
REVIEW
Chiara Zerbinati, Luigi Iuliano
Cholesterol is a unique lipid molecule providing the building block for membranes, hormone, vitamin D and bile acid synthesis. Metabolism of cholesterol involves several enzymes acting on the sterol nucleus or the iso-octyl tail. In the recent years, research interest has been focused on oxysterols, cholesterol derivatives generated by the addition of oxygen to the cholesterol backbone. Oxysterols can be produced enzymatically or by autoxidation. Autoxidation of cholesterol proceeds through type I or type II mechanisms...
April 17, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426249/non-enzymatic-electrochemistry-in-characterization-and-analysis-of-steroid-compounds
#19
Jan Klouda, Jiří Barek, Karel Nesměrák, Karolina Schwarzová-Pecková
This review summarizes achievements in electrochemistry-related research of steroid-based compounds in clinical, pharmaceutical, and environmental analysis. Special attention is paid to compounds possessing none or only isolated double bonds at the steroid core. Their direct redox activity is limited to far positive/negative potentials under variety of conditions and electrode materials and relies on the functional groups attached to the steroid skeleton, or as the case may be its double bond, or moieties present at the side chain...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425490/urinary-and-fecal-metabonomics-study-of-the-protective-effect-of-chaihu-shu-gan-san-on-antibiotic-induced-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-rats
#20
Meng Yu, Hong-Mei Jia, Chao Zhou, Yong Yang, Li-Li Sun, Zhong-Mei Zou
Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota dysbiosis and their host metabolic phenotype alteration is an important factor in human disease development. A traditional Chinese herbal formula, Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), has been effectively used in the treatment of various gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate whether CSGS modulates the host metabolic phenotype under the condition of gut microbiota dysbiosis. The metabonomics studies of biochemical changes in urine and feces of antibiotic-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis rats after treatment with CSGS were performed using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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