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Bile acids

Bharat Bhushan, S K Tomar, Arun Chauhan
An appropriate selection of Lactobacillus strain (probiotic/starter/functional) on the basis of its techno-functional characteristics is required before developing a novel fermented functional food. We compared vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin) producing Lactobacillus plantarum isolates, BHM10 and BCF20, for functional (vitamin over-production, genomic insight to B12 structural genes, and probiotic attributes) and technological [milks (skim and soy) fermentation and B12 bio-fortification] characteristics. Addition of B12 precursors (5-amonolevulinate and dimethylbenzimidazole) to cobalamin-free fermentation medium increased vitamin production in BHM10, BCF20, and DSM20016 (a positive standard) by 3...
October 17, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Petrus R de Jong, José M González-Navajas, Nicolaas J G Jansen
Failure of gut homeostasis is an important factor in the pathogenesis and progression of systemic inflammation, which can culminate in multiple organ failure and fatality. Pathogenic events in critically ill patients include mesenteric hypoperfusion, dysregulation of gut motility, and failure of the gut barrier with resultant translocation of luminal substrates. This is followed by the exacerbation of local and systemic immune responses. All these events can contribute to pathogenic crosstalk between the gut, circulating cells, and other organs like the liver, pancreas, and lungs...
October 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Xiang Kong, Yan Kong, Fangyuan Zhang, Tingting Wang, Jin Yan
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a specific pregnancy-related disorder without standard medical therapies. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the most used medicine, but the efficacy and safety of UDCA remain uncertain. Several meta-analyses had been made to assess the effects of UDCA in ICP. However, the samples were not large enough to convince obstetricians to use UDCA. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects and safety of UDCA in patients with ICP, which included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Vishnubhotla Venkata Ravikanth, Guduru Venkat Rao, Bale Govardhan, Mitnala Sasikala, Chivukula Subramanyam, H V Vivekananda Murthy, Siddapuram Siva Prasad, G Deepika, Rebala Pradeep, Duvvuru Nageshwar Reddy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pigmentous gallstones occur in South Indians despite significant higher levels of circulating cholesterol. This study was conducted to identify the biochemical and/or genetic causes for the formation of pigmentous gallstones in this ethnic group. METHODS: Plasma lipid profile, bile cholesterol, acids, and phospholipid levels were estimated in patients with gall stone disease and age, sex matched controls using standard protocols. Twenty-seven SNPs related to cholesterol and bilirubin metabolism pathway genes were genotyped in the study population using the Sequenom platform...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Natalia Yanguas-Casás, M Asunción Barreda-Manso, Sandra Pérez-Rial, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro, Lorenzo Romero-Ramírez
The bile acid conjugate tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a neuroprotective agent in various animal models of neuropathologies. We have previously shown the anti-inflammatory properties of TUDCA in an animal model of acute neuroinflammation. Here, we present a new anti-inflammatory mechanism of TUDCA through the regulation of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway. The bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected intravenously (iv) on TGFβ reporter mice (Smad-binding element (SBE)/Tk-Luc) to study in their brains the real-time activation profile of the TGFβ pathway in a non-invasive way...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Xiaojiaoyang Li, Zihang Yuan, Runping Liu, Hozeifa M Hassan, Hang Yang, Rong Sun, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
Estrogen-induced cholestasis, known as intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), is an estrogen-related liver disease that is widely recognized as female or pregnancy-specific. Our previous findings showed that the synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE), induced cholestatic injury through ERK1/2-LKB1-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and its mediated suppression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR). To investigate the role played by bile acids in EE-induced cholestasis, we evaluated the effects of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) on sandwich cultured rat primary hepatocytes (SCRHs) and an in vivo rat model...
October 12, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
J E Edwards, C LaCerte, T Peyret, N H Gosselin, J F Marier, A F Hofmann, D Shapiro
Obeticholic acid (OCA), a semisynthetic bile acid, is a selective and potent farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist in development for the treatment of chronic nonviral liver diseases. Physiologic pharmacokinetic models have been previously used to describe the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of bile acids. OCA plasma levels were measured in healthy volunteers and cirrhotic subjects. A physiologic pharmacokinetic model was developed to quantitatively describe the ADME of OCA in patients with and without hepatic impairment...
October 15, 2016: Clinical and Translational Science
Jovana Trifunović, Vladan Borčić, Momir Mikov
Some biological properties of bile acids and their oxo derivatives have not been sufficiently investigated, although the interest for bile acids as signaling molecules is rising. The aim of this work was to evaluate physico-chemical parametar b (slope) that represents lipophilicity of the examined molecules and to investigate interactions of bile acids with carbonic anhydrase I, II, androgen receptor and CYP450s. 13 candidates were investigated using normal phase thin layer chromatography in two solvent systems...
October 14, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Romana Furrer, Katharina Winter, Leonhard Schäffer, Roland Zimmermann, Tilo Burkhardt, Christian Haslinger
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate postpartum blood loss in women with treated intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, 15,083 deliveries including 348 women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (2.3%) were analyzed from 2004 to 2014. To adjust for differences in baseline characteristics, a propensity analysis was performed and women in the control group were matched to the women in the intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy group in a 5:1 ratio...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
M Chondronikola, L L S Harris, S Klein
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major worldwide public health concern. Despite a large armamentarium of T2D medications, a large proportion of patients fail to achieve recommended treatment goals for glycemic control. Weight loss has profound beneficial effects on the metabolic abnormalities involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. Accordingly, bariatric surgery, which is the most effective available weight loss therapy, is also the most effective therapy for treating patients with T2D. Surgical procedures that bypass the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract are particularly effective in achieving partial and even complete remission of T2D, suggesting that UGI bypass has weight loss-independent effects on glycemic control...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Lauren Peruffo, Janice D Boyd, Sharman Hoppes, Donald J Brightsmith
Blood biochemical values are useful as indicators of disease in veterinary practice and for health assessments of free-ranging animal populations. We analyzed blood biochemical values for free-living nestling and adult scarlet macaws ( Ara macao macao) in southeastern Peru with an Abaxis VetScan VS2 portable analyzer with Avian/Reptilian Profile Plus rotors. The resulting data were used to create provisional age-independent reference intervals for this instrument for wild scarlet macaw nestlings, calculate blood biochemical ranges for this instrument for wild adults, and examine age-related trends in nestlings...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Sabrina Krautbauer, Christa Büchler, Gerhard Liebisch
Compensation of matrix effects is the main obstacle to achieve accurate quantification in LC-MS/MS. Therefore, quantitative LC-MS/MS typically relies on addition of internal standards (ISs). Here, we present a systematic comparison of ISs from a routine LC-MS/MS method for bile acid (BA) analysis with a focus on tauro-conjugated. Both human serum based quality control (QCs) and patient samples were quantified with a variety of stable isotope labelled (SIL) ISs BAs including D5-tauro BAs. As expected, SIL-ISs that match the endogenous analytes provide the highest data quality (precision, accuracy)...
October 13, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Dongyan Shao, Yilin Wang, Qingsheng Huang, Junling Shi, Hui Yang, Zhongli Pan, Mingliang Jin, Haobin Zhao, Xiaoguang Xu
Resveratrol (Res) was previously reported to be capable of lowering plasma TC and LDL-C. The mechanism behind Res is not clearly understood, although it is presumed to have an effect on bile acid metabolism in the liver: a significant way in eliminating cholesterol from the body. As one of the major metabolites of Res in the liver, resveratrol glucuronides (Gres) is suspected to also contribute to the overall cholestrol-lowering activity of Res, which needs to be studied. In this research, when HepG2 steatosis hepatic cells were treated with Res and Gres at different concentration levels, Res and Gres showed similar activity in lowering cellular TC content...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Ming Gu, Ping Zhao, Jinwen Huang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Yahui Wang, Yin Li, Yifei Li, Shengjie Fan, Yue-Ming Ma, Qingchun Tong, Li Yang, Guang Ji, Cheng Huang
Background and purpose: Silymarin, a standardized extract of the milk thistle seeds, has been widely used to treat chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other types of toxic liver damage. Despite increasing studies on the action of silymarin and its major active constituent, silybin in their therapeutic properties against insulin resistance, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia in vitro and in vivo, the mechanism underlying silymarin action remains unclear. Experimental approach: C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months to induce obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidaemia, and fatty liver...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Bao-Bin Hao, Xiong-Xiong Pan, Ye Fan, Ling Lu, Xiao-Feng Qian, Xue-Hao Wang, Feng Zhang, Jian-Hua Rao
BACKGROUND: Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is unavoidable in liver transplantation and hepatectomy. The present study aimed to explore the possible mechanism and the effect of oleanolic acid (OA) in hepatic IRI. METHODS: Mice were randomly divided into 6 groups based on different treatment. IRI model: The hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct to the left and median liver lobes (70% of the liver) were occluded with an atraumatic bulldog clamp for 90 minutes and then the clamp was removed for reperfusion...
October 2016: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Marie-Agnès Travers, Cissé Sow, Séverine Zirah, Christiane Deregnaucourt, Soraya Chaouch, Rayner M L Queiroz, Sébastien Charneau, Thibault Allain, Isabelle Florent, Philippe Grellier
Giardiasis, currently considered a neglected disease, is caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis and is widely spread in human as well as domestic and wild animals. The lack of appropriate medications and the spread of resistant parasite strains urgently call for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Host microbiota or certain probiotic strains have the capacity to provide some protection against giardiasis. By combining biological and biochemical approaches, we have been able to decipher a molecular mechanism used by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 to prevent Giardia growth in vitro...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hugh Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Ji Hye Jun, Jong Ho Choi, Si Hyun Bae, Seh Hoon Oh, Gi Jin Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic liver disease leads to liver fibrosis, and although the liver does have a certain regenerative capacity, this disease is associated with dysfunction of the liver vessels. C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced in the liver and circulated from there for metabolism. CRP was recently shown to inhibit angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of CRP levels on angiogenesis in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation (BDL)...
September 2016: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Jason Gavin, Fran Quilty, Ferenc Majer, Georgina Gilsenan, Anne Marie Byrne, Aideen Long, Gabor Radics, John F Gilmer
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a cytoprotective ER stress inhibitor and chemical chaperone. It has therapeutic potential in a wide array of diseases but a specific macromolecular target or molecular mechanism of action remains obscure. This Letter describes an effective new synthetic approach to taurine conjugation of bile acids which we used to prepare 3α-dansyl TUDCA (4) as a probe for TUDCA actions. As a model of ER stress we used the hepatocarcinoma cell line HUH7 and stimulation with either deoxycholic acid (DCA, 200μM) or tunicamycin (5μg/ml) and measured levels of Bip/GRP78, ATF4, CHOP and XBP1s/XBP1u...
June 23, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Jun Wang, Louise B Thingholm, Jurgita Skiecevičienė, Philipp Rausch, Martin Kummen, Johannes R Hov, Frauke Degenhardt, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Malte C Rühlemann, Silke Szymczak, Kristian Holm, Tönu Esko, Jun Sun, Mihaela Pricop-Jeckstadt, Samer Al-Dury, Pavol Bohov, Jörn Bethune, Felix Sommer, David Ellinghaus, Rolf K Berge, Matthias Hübenthal, Manja Koch, Karin Schwarz, Gerald Rimbach, Patricia Hübbe, Wei-Hung Pan, Raheleh Sheibani-Tezerji, Robert Häsler, Philipp Rosenstiel, Mauro D'Amato, Katja Cloppenborg-Schmidt, Sven Künzel, Matthias Laudes, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Wolfgang Lieb, Ute Nöthlings, Tom H Karlsen, John F Baines, Andre Franke
Human gut microbiota is an important determinant for health and disease, and recent studies emphasize the numerous factors shaping its diversity. Here we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the gut microbiota using two cohorts from northern Germany totaling 1,812 individuals. Comprehensively controlling for diet and non-genetic parameters, we identify genome-wide significant associations for overall microbial variation and individual taxa at multiple genetic loci, including the VDR gene (encoding vitamin D receptor)...
October 10, 2016: Nature Genetics
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