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Richard Chu, Jed Shumsky, Barry D Waterhouse
Methyphenidate (MPH) is the primary drug treatment of choice for ADHD. It is also frequently used off-label as a cognitive enhancer by otherwise healthy individuals from all age groups and walks of life. Military personnel, students, and health professionals use MPH illicitly to increase attention and improve workplace performance over extended periods of work activity. Despite the frequency of its use, the efficacy of MPH to enhance cognitive function across individuals and in a variety of circumstances is not well characterized...
June 15, 2016: Brain Research
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem, Qurrat-ul-Aen Inam, Muhammad Abdul Haleem
The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD) is a first-line drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite acceptable therapeutic efficacy, there is limited data regarding the long-term consequences of MPD exposure over extended periods. The present study concerns effects of clinically relevant doses of MPD, administered orally to rats for an extended period, on spatial memory, behavioral sensitization and habituation to an open field. Water maze test was used to monitor memory acquisition (2 h after training), retention (day next to training), extinction (1 week after training) and reconsolidation (weekly for 4 weeks)...
March 15, 2015: Behavioural Brain Research
Ann Childress, Floyd R Sallee
More than 50 years ago, methylphenidate immediate-release (MPH-IR) was found to be effective in relieving symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Although the exact mechanism of the action is unknown, the efficacy of MPH is thought to be mediated by blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increasing the release of these neurotransmitters into the extraneuronal space. Because of its short duration of effect, MPH-IR had to be dosed multiple times daily...
September 2013: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Barry Rowlingson, Euan Lawson, Benjamin Taylor, Peter J Diggle
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to show that easily interpretable maps of local and national prescribing data, available from open sources, can be used to demonstrate meaningful variations in prescribing performance. DESIGN: The prescription dispensing data from the National Health Service (NHS) Information Centre for the medications metformin hydrochloride and methylphenidate were compared with reported incidence data for the conditions, diabetes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, respectively...
January 3, 2013: BMJ Open
Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi, Poopak Hafezi, Ali Galeiha, Reza Hajiaghaee, Shahin Akhondzadeh
A recent randomized clinical trial showed buspirone efficacy in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. However, results from a recent multi-site controlled clinical trial of transdermal buspirone failed to separate it from placebo in a large sample of children with ADHD. Therefore, due to these inconsistent findings, this study was designed to assess the efficacy of buspirone in the treatment of children with ADHD compared to methylphenidate in a double blind randomized clinical trial...
2012: Acta Medica Iranica
Philip Seeman
BACKGROUND: The dopamine D2 receptor is the common target for antipsychotics, and the antipsychotic clinical doses correlate with their affinities for this receptor. Antipsychotics quickly enter the brain to occupy 60-80% of brain D2 receptors in patients (the agonist aripiprazole occupies up to 90%), with most clinical improvement occurring within a few days. The D2 receptor can exist in a state of high-affinity (D2(High) ) or in a state of low-affinity for dopamine (D2Low). AIM: The present aim is to review why individuals with schizophrenia are generally supersensitive to dopamine-like drugs such as amphetamine or methyphenidate, and whether the D2(High) state is a common basis for dopamine supersensitivity in the animal models of schizophrenia...
April 2011: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Bahman Salehi, Reza Imani, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Jalil Fallah, Mohammad Mohammadi, Ahmad Ghanizadeh, Ali Akbar Tasviechi, Ardalan Vossoughi, Shams-Ali Rezazadeh, Shahin Akhondzadeh
BACKGROUND: Although stimulants are highly effective in controlling the symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), some children will not respond to, or are intolerant of stimulants. Thus, the desire for safe and effective nonstimulant medications has risen during the past several years. Ginkgo biloba has been suggested in the treatment of dementia and memory impairment. We hypothesized that G.biloba would be beneficial for treatment of ADHD, and this could be evaluated in a double blind, randomized, parallel group comparison of G...
February 1, 2010: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
S Premji, K Benzies, K Serrett, K A Hayden
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use during pregnancy can result in a continuum of effects including growth deficits, dysmorphology and/or complex patterns of behavioural and cognitive difficulties that influence an individual's functioning throughout their lifespan. We conducted a systematic review to identify research-based interventions for children and youth with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and areas for future study. METHODS: We identified the substantive literature by searching 40 peer-reviewed and 23 grey literature databases, as well as reference lists...
July 2007: Child: Care, Health and Development
P J Santosh, G Baird, N Pityaratstian, E Tavare, P Gringras
BACKGROUND: In the recent past, psychiatrists and paediatricians have avoided prescribing stimulant medication, such as methylphenidate and dexamphetamine to patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) because of both doubts about efficacy and concern that these medications make stereotypies worse. Recently, a number of small trials have suggested that methyphenidate does have a role in the management of hyperactivity in children with autistic spectrum disorders. METHODS: Children with ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and children with ADHD without ASD received standard treatment with methyphenidate from one specialist centre...
September 2006: Child: Care, Health and Development
M-F Le Heuzey, S Vergnaud, M-C Mouren
Multimodal treatment of hyperactive child includes psychostimulant medication, methylphenidate (MPH) marketed in France in its short-acting form since about ten years. We report our clinical experience about the first fifty methylphenidate responders who received one of the two sustained-release forms available since summer 2004, tablets of oros-methyphenidate (Concerta LP) or microgranule-filled capsules (Ritaline LP).
January 2006: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Philip Hazell
OBJECTIVE: To examine the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, efficacy, safety and cost of Ritalin LA, Concerta and Strattera, three compounds recently released in Australia for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: MEDLINE was searched for relevant review articles and primary treatment studies. Data were augmented by product information supplied by the respective manufacturers. Costing information was obtained by surveying five community pharmacy outlets in Newcastle-Lake Macquarie, New South Wales...
December 2004: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1961: Naika Hokan. Japanese Archives of Internal Medicine
S N Lin, D M Andrenyak, D E Moody, R L Foltz
Therapeutic doses of Ritalin, a racemic mixture of d- and l-threo-methyphenidate, result in low plasma concentrations of methylphenidate. In order to assess the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate, a sensitive analytical method is needed. A gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) assay capable of measuring both d- and l-enantiomers in human plasma was developed and validated to support clinical studies involving administration of d,l-methylphenidate. d,l-Methylphenidate-d3 is added to 1-mL plasma samples...
October 1999: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
M Kleven, E P Prinssen, W Koek
Behavioral effects produced by the indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonist, methylphenidate (40 mg/kg i.p.) were examined in rats after administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonists (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and flesinoxan, the mixed 5-HT1A receptor agonist/dopamine D2 receptor antagonists buspirone and 1-[-4-fluorobenzoylamino)ethyl]-ethyl]-4-(7-methoxynaphthyl) piperazine (S 14506), the neuroleptics haloperidol and clozapine, and the sigma receptor ligand/partial 5-HT1A receptor agonist alpha-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-(5-fluoro-2-pyrimidinyl)-1-piperazine-butanol (BMY 14802)...
October 10, 1996: European Journal of Pharmacology
C K Conners, R Kramer, G H Rothschild, L Schwartz, A Stone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1971: Archives of General Psychiatry
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