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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934090/adipogenic-effects-and-gene-expression-profiling-of-firemaster%C3%A2-550-components-in-human-primary-preadipocytes
#1
Emily W Y Tung, Vian Peshdary, Remi Gagné, Andrea Rowan-Carroll, Carole L Yauk, Adéle Boudreau, Ella Atlas
BACKGROUND: Exposure to flame retardants has been associated with negative health outcomes including metabolic effects. As polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants were pulled from commerce, human exposure to new flame retardants such as Firemaster® 550 (FM550) has increased. Although previous studies in murine systems have shown that FM550 and its main components increase adipogenesis, the effects of FM550 in human models have not been elucidated. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine if FM550 and its components are active in human preadipocytes, and to further investigate their mode of action...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926619/liver-x-receptor-activation-promotes-differentiation-of-regulatory-t-cells
#2
Martin Herold, Johanna Breuer, Stephanie Hucke, Percy Knolle, Nicholas Schwab, Heinz Wiendl, Luisa Klotz
The nuclear receptor Liver X Receptor (LXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that has been implicated in control of chronic inflammation by downregulating pro-inflammatory T cell responses. An impaired function of regulatory T cells, a subset of CD4+ T cells with a crucial role in maintaining lymphocytes homeostasis and immune regulation, is frequently observed in chronic inflammatory diseases. We observed that pharmacological activation of LXR in T cells not only resulted in a thorough suppression of Th1 and Th17 polarization in vitro, but also significantly induced regulatory T cells (Treg) cell differentiation in a receptor-specific fashion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874658/liver-x-receptors-constrain-tumor-development-and-metastasis-dissemination-in-pten-deficient-prostate-cancer
#3
Anthony Alioui, Julie Dufour, Valerio Leoni, Anke Loregger, Martina Moeton, Luigi Iuliano, Chiara Zerbinati, Amandine Septier, Pierre Val, Allan Fouache, Vincenzo Russo, David H Volle, Jean-Marc A Lobaccaro, Noam Zelcer, Silvère Baron
Advanced prostate cancer (PCa) is a clinical challenge as no curative therapeutic is available. In this context, a better understanding of metastasis and resistance mechanisms in PCa is an important issue. As phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss is the most common genetic lesion in such cancer, we investigate human data sets for mechanisms that can constrain cancer evolution in this setting. Here we report a liver X receptor (LXR) signature, which tightly correlates with PTEN loss, in PCa. Accordingly, the LXR pathway is deregulated in prostate carcinomas in Pten-null mice...
September 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854753/proteomic-identification-of-turkey-meleagris-gallopavo-seminal-plasma-proteins
#4
M Slowinska, J Nynca, G J Arnold, T Fröhlich, J Jankowski, K Kozlowski, A Mostek, A Ciereszko
SDS-PAGE combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF) were applied to characterize the turkey seminal plasma proteome. LC-MS/MS led to the identification of 175 proteins, which were classified according to their function and to corresponding biochemical pathways. Using 2DE and MALDI TOF/TOF, 34 different turkey seminal plasma proteins could be identified, of which 20 were found in more than one spot, indicating different proteoforms of these proteins...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846071/er-phospholipid-composition-modulates-lipogenesis-during-feeding-and-in-obesity
#5
Xin Rong, Bo Wang, Elisa Nd Palladino, Thomas Q de Aguiar Vallim, David A Ford, Peter Tontonoz
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) is a central regulator of lipogenesis whose activity is controlled by proteolytic cleavage. The metabolic factors that affect its processing are incompletely understood. Here, we show that dynamic changes in the acyl chain composition of ER phospholipids affect SREBP-1c maturation in physiology and disease. The abundance of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine in liver ER is selectively increased in response to feeding and in the setting of obesity-linked insulin resistance...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842423/activation-of-liver-x-receptor-suppresses-angiogenesis-via-induction-of-apod
#6
Chih-Jen Lai, Hsu-Chen Cheng, Ching-Yu Lin, Shih-Han Huang, Ting-Huan Chen, Chi-Jung Chung, Chung-Ho Chang, Horng-Dar Wang, Chih-Pin Chuu
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are important sensors and regulators for cholesterol, fatty acid, and glucose. LXRs play essential roles in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We examined the effects of T0901317, a potent LXR agonist, on angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment with T0901317 inhibited the tube formation and migration of HUVECs as well as reduced the in vivo angiogenesis determined by chorioallantoic membrane assay. T0901317 stimulated gene and protein expression of LXR target gene apolipoprotein D (ApoD)...
August 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822685/28-homocastasterone-down-regulates-blood-glucose-cholesterol-triglycerides-srebp1c-and-activates-lxr-expression-in-normal-diabetic-male-rat
#7
Velan Athithan, Kotteazeth Srikumar
Plant steroids are being recognized as influential secondary bio factors, assimilating in animal tissues through diet and affecting their cellular metabolic function to varying degree. They modulate catalytic and signaling functions in mammalian cells, affecting cellular homeostasis. The effect of phyto brassinosteroid ketoisoform 28-homocastasterone (28-HC), was assessed for its influence on blood glucose, plasma lipid and selective signal marker levels in normal and diabetic male wistar rat models. A 15 day oral feed regimen employing the experimental rat, noted that circulating blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride level in diabetic rat were markedly reduced by this compound...
August 16, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821440/apelin-protects-against-liver-x-receptor-mediated-steatosis-through-ampk-and-ppar%C3%AE-in-human-and-mouse-hepatocytes
#8
Jin Huang, Saeromi Kang, Soo-Jin Park, Dong-Soon Im
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most commonly occurring chronic liver disease, and hepatic steatosis, a condition defined as extensive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, is associated with liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases, such as, obesity and type II diabetes. Apelin is an adipokine that acts on a G protein-coupled receptor named APJ, and has been established to play pivotal roles in various physiological conditions. However, the function of apelin in hepatocytes has not been fully investigated...
November 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816564/cytotoxicity-screening-and-cytokine-profiling-of-nineteen-nanomaterials-enables-hazard-ranking-and-grouping-based-on-inflammogenic-potential
#9
Kunal Bhattacharya, Gözde Kiliç, Pedro M Costa, Bengt Fadeel
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are being produced for an increasing number of applications. Therefore, it is important to assess and categorize ENMs on the basis of their hazard potential. The immune system is the foremost defence against foreign bodies. Here we performed cytokine profiling of a panel of nineteen representative ENMs procured from the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and commercial sources. Physicochemical characterization was performed using dynamic light scattering. The ENMs were all shown to be endotoxin content free...
August 17, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812343/xanthohumol-suppresses-mylip-idol-gene-expression-and-modulates-ldlr-abundance-and-activity-in-hepg2-cells
#10
Shih-Fen Chen, Pei-Yi Chen, Hao-Jen Hsu, Ming-Jiuan Wu, Jui-Hung Yen
Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid found in hops (Humulus lupulus L.), exhibits multiple biological activities such as antiatherosclerosis and hypolipidemic activities. In this study, we aim to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects and molecular mechanisms of xanthohumol in hepatic cells. We found that xanthohumol (10 and 20 μM) increased the amount of cell-surface low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) from 100.0 ± 2.1% to 115.0 ± 1.3% and 135.2 ± 2.7%, and enhanced the LDL uptake activity from 100...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810520/studies-on-the-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism-and-the-mechanism-of-the-aqueous-and-ethanol-extracts-of-usnea
#11
Jiali Zhu, Xuemei Zhang, Xiu Chen, Yong Sun, Yaolan Dai, Chang Chen, Tiane Zhang, Zhiyong Yan
OBJECTIVES: Usnea is a lichen of Usnea diffracta Vain and Usnea longissima Ach, which belongs to the genus Usnea Adans of Usneaceae. Usnea exerts numerous pharmacological activities, while its lipid regulatory activities remain unreported. This study aims to evaluate the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Usnea on the regulation of lipid metabolism and to explore the possible mechanism. METHODS: Hyperlipidemia rat model was established by feeding with high-fat diet for 45days...
October 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807695/doxorubicin-enhances-oxysterol-levels-resulting-in-a-lxr-mediated-upregulation-of-cardiac-cholesterol-transporters
#12
Judith V Monzel, Thomas Budde, Henriette E Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Matthias Schwebe, Sandra Bien-Möller, Dieter Lütjohann, Heyo K Kroemer, Gabriele Jedlitschky, Markus Grube
The anthracycline-mediated cardiotoxicity is still not completely understood. To examine the impact of cholesterol metabolism and transport in this context, cholesterol and oxysterol levels as well as the expression of the cholesterol transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 were analyzed in doxorubicin-treated HL-1 murine cardiomyocytes as well as in mouse model for acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Doxorubicin-treated HL-1 cells exhibited enhanced cholesterol (153±20% of control), oxysterol (24S-hydroxycholesterol: 206±29% of control) and cholesterol precursor levels (lathosterol: 122±12% of control; desmosterol: 188±10% of control) indicating enhanced cholesterol synthesis...
August 12, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798155/ifn-%C3%AE-aggravates-neointimal-hyperplasia-by-inducing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-apoptosis-in-macrophages-by-promoting-ubiquitin-dependent-liver-x-receptor-%C3%AE-degradation
#13
Qiang Zhao, Dong Zhou, Hongjun You, Bowen Lou, Yan Zhang, Yuling Tian, Ning Guo, Xiaoli Chen, Yan Liu, Yue Wu, Zuyi Yuan, Juan Zhou
Neointimal hyperplasia is the main cause of restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Both IFN-γ and macrophages play nonredundant roles in the pathogenesis of vascular intimal hyperplasia; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive and must be further investigated. In mouse peritoneal macrophages, IFN-γ significantly accelerated degradation and up-regulated polyubiquitination of liver X receptor (LXR)-α. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) inhibitor, fludarabine, and PIAS1 knockdown reduced ubiquitination and increased the expression of LXR-α in IFN-γ-treated macrophages...
August 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797077/gender-difference-in-nash-susceptibility-roles-of-hepatocyte-ikk%C3%AE-and-sult1e1
#14
Noriko Matsushita, Mohamed T Hassanein, Marcos Martinez-Clemente, Raul Lazaro, Samuel W French, Wen Xie, Keane Lai, Michael Karin, Hidekazu Tsukamoto
Myeloid cell and hepatocyte IKKβ may mediate the genesis of obesity and insulin resistance in mice fed high fat diet. However, their gender-specific roles in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are not known. Here we demonstrate myeloid IKKβ deficiency prevents Western diet-induced obesity and visceral adiposity in females but not in males, and attenuates hyperglycemia, global IR, and NASH in both genders. In contrast, all metabolic sequela including NASH are aggravated by hepatocyte IKKβ deficiency (IkbkbΔhep) in male but not female mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794002/klf4-regulation-of-ch25h-and-lxr-mitigates-atherosclerosis-susceptibility
#15
Zhao Li, Marcy Martin, Jin Zhang, Hsi-Yuan Huang, Liang Bai, Jiao Zhang, Jian Kang, Ming He, Jie Li, Mano R Maurya, Shakti Gupta, Guangjin Zhou, Panjamaporn Sangwung, Yong-Jiang Xu, Ting Lei, Hsien-Da Huang, Mohit Jain, Mukesh K Jain, Shankar Subramaniam, John Y-J Shyy
Background -Atherosclerosis is a multifaceted inflammatory disease involving cells in the vascular wall [e.g., endothelial cells (ECs)] as well as circulating and resident immunogenic cells (e.g., monocytes/macrophages). Acting as a ligand for liver X receptor (LXR), but an inhibitor of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2), 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) and its catalyzing enzyme cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (Ch25h) are important in regulating cellular inflammatory status and cholesterol biosynthesis in both ECs and monocytes/macrophages...
August 9, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792854/phytosterols-synergize-with-endotoxin-to-augment-inflammation-in-kupffer-cells-but-alone-have-limited-direct-effect-on-hepatocytes
#16
Gregory Guthrie, Bryan Tackett, Barbara Stoll, Camilia Martin, Oluyinka Olutoye, Douglas G Burrin
INTRODUCTION: Phytosterols are implicated in the development of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease. A newly proposed mechanism for phytosterol-mediated parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease is through phytosterol-facilitated hepatic proinflammatory cytokine release following exposure to intestinally derived bacteria. Whether the proinflammatory effects are liver cell specific is not known. AIM: To determine if phytosterols cause inflammation in hepatocytes or Kupffer cells independently or require costimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
August 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790455/the-transcription-factor-mafb-promotes-anti-inflammatory-m2-polarization-and-cholesterol-efflux-in-macrophages
#17
Hwijin Kim
Macrophages play pivotal roles in the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that macrophage polarization into an anti-inflammatory M2 state is a key characteristic of atherosclerotic plaques undergoing regression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this potential association of the M2 polarization with atherosclerosis regression remain poorly understood. Further, human genetic factors that facilitate these anti-atherogenic processes remain largely unknown. We report that the transcription factor MafB plays pivotal roles in promoting macrophage M2 polarization...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790326/intestinal-toxicity-of-the-type-b-trichothecene-mycotoxin-fusarenon-x-whole-transcriptome-profiling-reveals-new-signaling-pathways
#18
Imourana Alassane-Kpembi, Juliana Rubira Gerez, Anne-Marie Cossalter, Manon Neves, Joëlle Laffitte, Claire Naylies, Yannick Lippi, Martine Kolf-Clauw, Ana Paula L Bracarense, Philippe Pinton, Isabelle P Oswald
The few data available on fusarenon-X (FX) do not support the derivation of health-based guidance values, although preliminary results suggest higher toxicity than other regulated trichothecenes. Using histo-morphological analysis and whole transcriptome profiling, this study was designed to obtain a global view of the intestinal alterations induced by FX. Deoxynivalenol (DON) served as a benchmark. FX induced more severe histological alterations than DON. Inflammation was the hallmark of the molecular toxicity of both mycotoxins...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774737/the-mechanism-of-diabetic-retinopathy-pathogenesis-unifying-key-lipid-regulators-sirtuin-1-and-liver-x-receptor
#19
Sandra S Hammer, Eleni Beli, Nermin Kady, Qi Wang, Kiana Wood, Todd A Lydic, Goldis Malek, Daniel R Saban, Xiaoxin X Wang, Sugata Hazra, Moshe Levi, Julia V Busik, Maria B Grant
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication secondary to diabetes and is the number one cause of blindness among working age individuals worldwide. Despite recent therapeutic breakthroughs using pharmacotherapy, a cure for DR has yet to be realized. Several clinical trials have highlighted the vital role dyslipidemia plays in the progression of DR. Additionally, it has recently been shown that activation of Liver X receptor (LXRα/LXRβ) prevents DR in diabetic animal models. LXRs are nuclear receptors that play key roles in regulating cholesterol metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and inflammation...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767424/induction-of-socs3-by-liver-x-receptor-suppresses-the-proliferation-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#20
Haojun Xiong, Yan Zhang, Shan Chen, Zhenhong Ni, Jintao He, Xinzhe Li, Bo Li, Kai Zhao, Fan Yang, Yijun Zeng, Bingbo Chen, Fengtian He
Liver X receptor (LXR), a member of nuclear receptor superfamily, is involved in the regulation of glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism. Recently, it has been reported that LXR suppress different kinds of cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the corresponding mechanism is still not well elucidated. In the present study, we found that activation of LXR downregulated cyclin D1 while upregulated p21 and p27 by elevating the level of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), leading to the cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase and growth inhibition of HCC cells...
July 18, 2017: Oncotarget
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