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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425719/cell-reprogramming-by-3d-bioprinting-of-human-fibroblasts-in-polyurethane-hydrogel-for-fabrication-of-neural-like-constructs
#1
Lin Ho, Shan-Hui Hsu
3D bioprinting is a technique which enables the direct printing of biodegradable materials with cells into 3D tissue. So far there is no cell reprogramming in situ performed with the 3D bioprinting process. Forkhead box D3 (FoxD3) is a transcription factor and neural crest marker, which was reported to reprogram human fibroblasts into neural crest stem-like cells. In this study, we synthesized a new biodegradable thermo-responsive waterborne polyurethane (PU) gel as a bioink. FoxD3 plasmids and human fibroblasts were co-extruded with the PU hydrogel through the syringe needle tip for cell reprogramming...
February 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372464/the-potential-of-stem-cells-in-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
REVIEW
Nicole M Weston, Dong Sun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global public health concern, with limited treatment options available. Despite improving survival rate after TBI, treatment is lacking for brain functional recovery and structural repair in clinic. Recent studies have suggested that the mature brain harbors neural stem cells which have regenerative capacity following brain insults. Much progress has been made in preclinical TBI model studies in understanding the behaviors, functions, and regulatory mechanisms of neural stem cells in the injured brain...
January 25, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364269/three-dimensional-tissue-engineered-aligned-astrocyte-networks-to-recapitulate-developmental-mechanisms-and-facilitate-nervous-system-regeneration
#3
Kritika S Katiyar, Carla C Winter, Wisberty J Gordián-Vélez, John C O'Donnell, Yeri J Song, Nicole S Hernandez, Laura A Struzyna, D Kacy Cullen
Neurotrauma and neurodegenerative disease often result in lasting neurological deficits due to the limited capacity of the central nervous system (CNS) to replace lost neurons and regenerate axonal pathways. However, during nervous system development, neuronal migration and axonal extension often occur along pathways formed by other cells, referred to as "living scaffolds". Seeking to emulate these mechanisms and to design a strategy that circumvents the inhibitory environment of the CNS, this manuscript presents a protocol to fabricate tissue engineered astrocyte-based "living scaffolds"...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353456/in-vivo-transient-and-partial-cell-reprogramming-to-pluripotency-as-a-therapeutic-tool-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#4
REVIEW
S Tamanini, G P Comi, S Corti
In theory, human diseases in which a specific cell type degenerates, such as neurodegenerative diseases, can be therapeutically addressed by replacement of the lost cells. The classical strategy for cell replacement is exogenous cell transplantation, but now, cell replacement can also be achieved with in situ reprogramming. Indeed, many of these disorders are age-dependent, and "rejuvenating" strategies based on cell epigenetic modifications are a possible approach to counteract disease progression. In this context, transient and/or partial reprogramming of adult somatic cells towards pluripotency can be a promising tool for neuroregeneration...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330870/cell-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-with-olfactory-ensheathing-glia-cells-oecs
#5
REVIEW
Rosa M Gómez, Magdy Y Sánchez, Maria Portela-Lomba, Kemel Ghotme, George E Barreto, Javier Sierra, M Teresa Moreno-Flores
The prospects of achieving regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) have changed, as most recent findings indicate that several species, including humans, can produce neurons in adulthood. Studies targeting this property may be considered as potential therapeutic strategies to respond to injury or the effects of demyelinating diseases in the CNS. While CNS trauma may interrupt the axonal tracts that connect neurons with their targets, some neurons remain alive, as seen in optic nerve and spinal cord (SC) injuries (SCIs)...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302617/genetic-pathways-of-neuroregeneration-in-a-novel-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-model-in-adult-zebrafish
#6
Amanda L Maheras, Brian Dix, Olivia M S Carmo, Aleena E Young, Vanessa N Gill, Julia L Sun, Aleah R Booker, Helen A Thomason, Anastasia E Ibrahim, Lauren Stanislaw, Jennifer C Dallego, Cat N Ngo, Audrey Chen, Barbara K Fortini, Rory D Spence
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are one of the most prevalent neurological disorders, and humans are severely limited in their ability to repair and regenerate central nervous system (CNS) tissue postinjury. However, zebrafish (Danio rerio) maintain the remarkable ability to undergo complete and functional neuroregeneration as an adult. We wish to extend knowledge of the known mechanisms of neuroregeneration by analyzing the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in a novel adult zebrafish model of mTBI...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285620/effect-of-the-combined-treatment-of-albumin-with-plasma-synthesised-pyrrole-polymers-on-motor-recovery-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#7
Omar Fabela-Sánchez, Hermelinda Salgado-Ceballos, Luis Medina-Torres, Laura Álvarez-Mejía, Stephany Sánchez-Torres, Rodrigo Mondragón-Lozano, Axayácatl Morales-Guadarrama, Araceli Díaz-Ruiz, María-Guadalupe Olayo, Guillermo J Cruz, Juan Morales, Camilo Ríos, Roberto Olayo
Traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) is a health problem for which there is currently no treatment or definitive therapy. Medicine has explored therapeutic options for patients with TSCI with the aim to improve their quality of life. One alternative has been the development of biomaterials that offer neuroprotection or neuroregeneration of damaged nerve tissue. The microinjection of iodine-doped polypyrrole particles synthesised by plasma (PPPy/I) has shown neuroprotective effects that favour motor function recovery in experimental animals with TSCI...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244816/treatment-with-albumin-hydroxyoleic-acid-complex-restores-sensorimotor-function-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury-efficacy-and-gene-expression-regulation
#8
Gerardo Avila-Martin, Manuel Mata-Roig, Iriana Galán-Arriero, Julian S Taylor, Xavier Busquets, Pablo V Escribá
Sensorimotor dysfunction following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) is often characterized by paralysis, spasticity and pain. Previously, we showed that intrathecal (i.t.) administration of the albumin-oleic acid (A-OA) complex in rats with SCI produced partial improvement of these symptoms and that oral 2-hydroxyoleic acid (HOA, a non-hydrolyzable OA analogue), was efficacious in the modulation and treatment of nociception and pain-related anxiety, respectively. Here we observed that intrathecal treatment with the complex albumin-HOA (A-HOA) every 3 days following T9 spinal contusion injury improved locomotor function assessed with the Rotarod and inhibited TA noxious reflex activity in Wistar rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239336/neural-progenitor-cells-but-not-astrocytes-respond-distally-to-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat-models
#9
Tara Nguyen, Yilin Mao, Theresa Sutherland, Catherine Anne Gorrie
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a detrimental condition that causes loss of sensory and motor function in an individual. Many complex secondary injury cascades occur after SCI and they offer great potential for therapeutic targeting. In this study, we investigated the response of endogenous neural progenitor cells, astrocytes, and microglia to a localized thoracic SCI throughout the neuroaxis. Twenty-five adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent mild-contusion thoracic SCI (n = 9), sham surgery (n = 8), or no surgery (n = 8)...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188434/photothrombotic-stroke-as-a-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#10
REVIEW
Anatoly B Uzdensky
The search of effective anti-stroke neuroprotectors requires various stroke models adequate for different aspects of the ischemic processes. The photothrombotic stroke model is particularly suitable for the study of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration. It is a model of occlusion of small cerebral vessels, which provides detailed study of molecular mechanisms of ischemic cell death and useful for search of potential anti-stroke agents. Its advantages include well-defined location and size of ischemic lesion that are determined by the aiming of the laser beam at the predetermined brain region; easy impact dosing by changing light intensity and duration; low invasiveness and minimal surgical intervention without craniotomy and mechanical manipulations with blood vessel, which carry the risk of brain trauma; low animal mortality and prolonged sensorimotor impairment that provide long-term study of stroke consequences including behavior impairment and recovery; independence on genetic variations of blood pressure and vascular architecture; and high reproducibility...
November 29, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176876/neuroprotection-and-neuroregeneration-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-after-intravitreal-carbon-monoxide-release
#11
Julia Stifter, Felix Ulbrich, Ulrich Goebel, Daniel Böhringer, Wolf Alexander Lagrèze, Julia Biermann
PURPOSE: Retinal ischemia induces apoptosis leading to neurodegeneration and vision impairment. Carbon monoxide (CO) in gaseous form showed cell-protective and anti-inflammatory effects after retinal ischemia-reperfusion-injury (IRI). These effects were also demonstrated for the intravenously administered CO-releasing molecule (CORM) ALF-186. This article summarizes the results of intravitreally released CO to assess its suitability as a neuroprotective and neuroregenerative agent. METHODS: Water-soluble CORM ALF-186 (25 μg), PBS, or inactivated ALF (iALF) (all 5 μl) were intravitreally applied into the left eyes of rats directly after retinal IRI for 1 h...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171440/brain-derived-neurotropic-factor-and-gabaergic-transmission-in-neurodegeneration-and-neuroregeneration
#12
REVIEW
Jinwook Kim, Sueun Lee, Sohi Kang, Sung-Ho Kim, Jong-Choon Kim, Miyoung Yang, Changjong Moon
Neurotoxicity induced by stress, radiation, chemicals, or metabolic diseases, is commonly associated with excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. The pathological process of neurotoxicity induces neuronal death, interrupts synaptic plasticity in the brain, and is similar to that of diverse neurodegenerative diseases. Animal models of neurotoxicity have revealed that clinical symptoms and brain lesions can recover over time via neuroregenerative processes. Specifically, brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic transmission are related to both neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration...
October 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161771/tetramethylpyrazine-nitrone-activates-akt-creb-through-increasing-bdnf-expression-to-promote-post-ischemic-neuroregeneration-and-recovery-of-neurological-functions-in-rats
#13
Gaoxiao Zhang, Tao Zhang, Ning Li, Liangmiao Wu, Jianbo Gu, Cuimei Li, Chen Zhao, Wei Liu, Luchen Shan, Pei Yu, Xifei Yang, Yaohui Tang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yuqiang Wang, Yewei Sun, Zaijun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuronal regeneration from endogenous precursors is an attractive strategy for the treatment of ischemic stroke; however, most stroke-generated new born neurons die over time. Therefore, a drug that is both neuroprotective and pro-neurogenic may be promising. In this study, we assessed the neurogenic and oligodendrogenic effects of tetramethylpyrazine nitrone (TBN), a neuroprotective drug candidate for stroke, in a rat model of ischemic stroke. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154836/a-new-promising-simultaneous-approach-for-attenuating-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-rats-inos-inhibition-and-neuroregeneration
#14
Abhilasha Ahlawat, Saurabh Sharma
In view of the pathologic basis for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, it is important to enhance nerve regeneration as well as prevent nerve degeneration. So, in the present study, we have investigated the effect of S-Methylisothiourea Sulfate (selective iNOS inhibitor) and Citicoline, alone and in combination, on Type II diabetes mellitus induced neuropathic pain in wistar rats. Type II diabetes was induced by providing high fat diet and low dose of Streptozotocin for 35 days in rats. Type II diabetes mellitus was assessed in terms of increased glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL levels, glucose tolerance and decrease in HDL levels...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153852/the-therapeutic-potential-of-pten-modulation-targeting-strategies-from-gene-to-protein
#15
REVIEW
Niall M McLoughlin, Carolin Mueller, Tom N Grossmann
Two decades have passed since the discovery of the tumor suppressor, PTEN. A multitude of biological functions have since been revealed, suggesting potential therapeutic applications for both PTEN activation (e.g., cancer) and inhibition (e.g., neuroregeneration). Nevertheless, PTEN's therapeutic suitability has been called into question due to its "risky" profile as a tumor suppressor. To evaluate PTEN function and its various roles in disease a number of molecules have so far been developed. However, intrinsic problems associated with phosphatase inhibition and PTEN's complex regulation via post-translational modifications hinder straightforward access to selective modulators...
November 13, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149058/neurotrophic-and-neuroregenerative-effects-of-gh-igf1
#16
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi, Vittorio Locatelli, Laura Rizzi
INTRODUCTION: Human neurodegenerative diseases increase progressively with age and present a high social and economic burden. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are both growth factors exerting trophic effects on neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). GH and IGF-1 stimulate protein synthesis in neurons, glia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells, and favor neuronal survival, inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GH and IGF-1 on neurons, and their possible therapeutic clinical applications on neuron regeneration in human subjects...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099173/discovery-of-a-small-molecule-modulator-of-glycosaminoglycan-sulfation
#17
Sheldon T Cheung, Michelle S Miller, Reynand Pacoma, Jason Roland, Jian Liu, Andrew M Schumacher, Linda C Hsieh-Wilson
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play critical roles in diverse processes ranging from viral infection to neuroregeneration. Their regiospecific sulfation patterns, which are generated by sulfotransferases, are key structural determinants that underlie their biological activity. Small-molecule modulators of these sulfotransferases could serve as powerful tools for understanding the physiological functions of GAGs, as well as potential therapeutic leads for human diseases. Here, we report the development of the first cell-permeable, small-molecule inhibitor selec-tive for GAG sulfotransferases, which was obtained using a high-throughput screen targeted against Chst15, the sulfotransferase responsible for biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E)...
November 3, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081811/transplanted-adult-neural-stem-cells-express-sonic-hedgehog-in-vivo-and-suppress-white-matter-neuroinflammation-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Genevieve M Sullivan, Regina C Armstrong
Neural stem cells (NSCs) delivered intraventricularly may be therapeutic for diffuse white matter pathology after traumatic brain injury (TBI). To test this concept, NSCs isolated from adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ) were transplanted into the lateral ventricle of adult mice at two weeks post-TBI followed by analysis at four weeks post-TBI. We examined sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling as a candidate mechanism by which transplanted NSCs may regulate neuroregeneration and/or neuroinflammation responses of endogenous cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039596/the-role-of-the-mir-99b-5p-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-neuroregeneration-in-mice-following-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Fujiang Cao, Tao Liu, Shiwei Sun, Shiqing Feng
The present study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)‑99b‑5p in spinal cord injury (SCI). Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that, compared with control mice, the expression levels of miR‑99b‑5p were upregulated in the mouse spinal cord following SCI. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) was predicted to be the possible target of miR‑99b‑5p according to TargetScan and microrna databases. Dual‑luciferase reporter assay verified that miR‑99b‑5p was able to target mTOR...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028747/nervous-system-delivery-of-antilysophosphatidic-acid-antibody-by-nasal-application-attenuates-mechanical-allodynia-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#20
Andreas Eisenried, Anders C N Meidahl, Michael Klukinov, Alexander Z Tzabazis, Roger A Sabbadini, J David Clark, David C Yeomans
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that impacts neurological outcomes after neurotrauma by inhibiting neuroregeneration, promoting inflammation, and contributing to behavioral deficits. Blocking LPA signaling with a novel anti-LPA monoclonal antibody (mAb) is neuroprotective after traumatic brain injury (TBI) if given to injured animals whose blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been compromised. It is hypothesized that the anti-LPA mAb could improve chronic pain initiated by TBI. However, poor brain penetration after systemic application of the antibody makes access to the central nervous system (CNS) problematic in situations where the BBB is intact...
November 2017: Pain
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