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Neuroregeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188434/photothrombotic-stroke-as-a-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#1
REVIEW
Anatoly B Uzdensky
The search of effective anti-stroke neuroprotectors requires various stroke models adequate for different aspects of the ischemic processes. The photothrombotic stroke model is particularly suitable for the study of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration. It is a model of occlusion of small cerebral vessels, which provides detailed study of molecular mechanisms of ischemic cell death and useful for search of potential anti-stroke agents. Its advantages include well-defined location and size of ischemic lesion that are determined by the aiming of the laser beam at the predetermined brain region; easy impact dosing by changing light intensity and duration; low invasiveness and minimal surgical intervention without craniotomy and mechanical manipulations with blood vessel, which carry the risk of brain trauma; low animal mortality and prolonged sensorimotor impairment that provide long-term study of stroke consequences including behavior impairment and recovery; independence on genetic variations of blood pressure and vascular architecture; and high reproducibility...
November 29, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176876/neuroprotection-and-neuroregeneration-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-after-intravitreal-carbon-monoxide-release
#2
Julia Stifter, Felix Ulbrich, Ulrich Goebel, Daniel Böhringer, Wolf Alexander Lagrèze, Julia Biermann
PURPOSE: Retinal ischemia induces apoptosis leading to neurodegeneration and vision impairment. Carbon monoxide (CO) in gaseous form showed cell-protective and anti-inflammatory effects after retinal ischemia-reperfusion-injury (IRI). These effects were also demonstrated for the intravenously administered CO-releasing molecule (CORM) ALF-186. This article summarizes the results of intravitreally released CO to assess its suitability as a neuroprotective and neuroregenerative agent. METHODS: Water-soluble CORM ALF-186 (25 μg), PBS, or inactivated ALF (iALF) (all 5 μl) were intravitreally applied into the left eyes of rats directly after retinal IRI for 1 h...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171440/brain-derived-neurotropic-factor-and-gabaergic-transmission-in-neurodegeneration-and-neuroregeneration
#3
REVIEW
Jinwook Kim, Sueun Lee, Sohi Kang, Sung-Ho Kim, Jong-Choon Kim, Miyoung Yang, Changjong Moon
Neurotoxicity induced by stress, radiation, chemicals, or metabolic diseases, is commonly associated with excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. The pathological process of neurotoxicity induces neuronal death, interrupts synaptic plasticity in the brain, and is similar to that of diverse neurodegenerative diseases. Animal models of neurotoxicity have revealed that clinical symptoms and brain lesions can recover over time via neuroregenerative processes. Specifically, brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic transmission are related to both neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration...
October 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161771/tetramethylpyrazine-nitrone-activates-akt-creb-through-increasing-bdnf-expression-to-promote-post-ischemic-neuroregeneration-and-recovery-of-neurological-functions-in-rats
#4
Gaoxiao Zhang, Tao Zhang, Ning Li, Liangmiao Wu, Jianbo Gu, Cuimei Li, Chen Zhao, Wei Liu, Luchen Shan, Pei Yu, Xifei Yang, Yaohui Tang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yuqiang Wang, Yewei Sun, Zaijun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuronal regeneration from endogenous precursors is an attractive strategy for the treatment of ischemic stroke; however, most stroke-generated new born neurons die over time. Therefore, a drug that is both neuroprotective and pro-neurogenic may be promising. In this study, we assessed the neurogenic and oligodendrogenic effects of tetramethylpyrazine nitrone (TBN), a neuroprotective drug candidate for stroke, in a rat model of ischemic stroke. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154836/a-new-promising-simultaneous-approach-for-attenuating-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-rats-inos-inhibition-and-neuroregeneration
#5
Abhilasha Ahlawat, Saurabh Sharma
In view of the pathologic basis for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, it is important to enhance nerve regeneration as well as prevent nerve degeneration. So, in the present study, we have investigated the effect of S-Methylisothiourea Sulfate (selective iNOS inhibitor) and Citicoline, alone and in combination, on Type II diabetes mellitus induced neuropathic pain in wistar rats. Type II diabetes was induced by providing high fat diet and low dose of Streptozotocin for 35 days in rats. Type II diabetes mellitus was assessed in terms of increased glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL levels, glucose tolerance and decrease in HDL levels...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153852/the-therapeutic-potential-of-pten-modulation-targeting-strategies-from-gene-to-protein
#6
REVIEW
Niall M McLoughlin, Carolin Mueller, Tom N Grossmann
Two decades have passed since the discovery of the tumor suppressor, PTEN. A multitude of biological functions have since been revealed, suggesting potential therapeutic applications for both PTEN activation (e.g., cancer) and inhibition (e.g., neuroregeneration). Nevertheless, PTEN's therapeutic suitability has been called into question due to its "risky" profile as a tumor suppressor. To evaluate PTEN function and its various roles in disease a number of molecules have so far been developed. However, intrinsic problems associated with phosphatase inhibition and PTEN's complex regulation via post-translational modifications hinder straightforward access to selective modulators...
November 13, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149058/neurotrophic-and-neuroregenerative-effects-of-gh-igf1
#7
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi, Vittorio Locatelli, Laura Rizzi
INTRODUCTION: Human neurodegenerative diseases increase progressively with age and present a high social and economic burden. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are both growth factors exerting trophic effects on neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). GH and IGF-1 stimulate protein synthesis in neurons, glia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells, and favor neuronal survival, inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GH and IGF-1 on neurons, and their possible therapeutic clinical applications on neuron regeneration in human subjects...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099173/discovery-of-a-small-molecule-modulator-of-glycosaminoglycan-sulfation
#8
Sheldon T Cheung, Michelle S Miller, Reynand Pacoma, Jason Roland, Jian Liu, Andrew M Schumacher, Linda C Hsieh-Wilson
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play critical roles in diverse processes ranging from viral infection to neuroregeneration. Their regiospecific sulfation patterns, which are generated by sulfotransferases, are key structural determinants that underlie their biological activity. Small-molecule modulators of these sulfotransferases could serve as powerful tools for understanding the physiological functions of GAGs, as well as potential therapeutic leads for human diseases. Here, we report the development of the first cell-permeable, small-molecule inhibitor selec-tive for GAG sulfotransferases, which was obtained using a high-throughput screen targeted against Chst15, the sulfotransferase responsible for biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E)...
November 3, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081811/transplanted-adult-neural-stem-cells-express-sonic-hedgehog-in-vivo-and-suppress-white-matter-neuroinflammation-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Genevieve M Sullivan, Regina C Armstrong
Neural stem cells (NSCs) delivered intraventricularly may be therapeutic for diffuse white matter pathology after traumatic brain injury (TBI). To test this concept, NSCs isolated from adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ) were transplanted into the lateral ventricle of adult mice at two weeks post-TBI followed by analysis at four weeks post-TBI. We examined sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling as a candidate mechanism by which transplanted NSCs may regulate neuroregeneration and/or neuroinflammation responses of endogenous cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039596/the-role-of-the-mir-99b-5p-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-neuroregeneration-in-mice-following-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Fujiang Cao, Tao Liu, Shiwei Sun, Shiqing Feng
The present study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)‑99b‑5p in spinal cord injury (SCI). Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that, compared with control mice, the expression levels of miR‑99b‑5p were upregulated in the mouse spinal cord following SCI. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) was predicted to be the possible target of miR‑99b‑5p according to TargetScan and microrna databases. Dual‑luciferase reporter assay verified that miR‑99b‑5p was able to target mTOR...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028747/nervous-system-delivery-of-antilysophosphatidic-acid-antibody-by-nasal-application-attenuates-mechanical-allodynia-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#11
Andreas Eisenried, Anders C N Meidahl, Michael Klukinov, Alexander Z Tzabazis, Roger A Sabbadini, J David Clark, David C Yeomans
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that impacts neurological outcomes after neurotrauma by inhibiting neuroregeneration, promoting inflammation, and contributing to behavioral deficits. Blocking LPA signaling with a novel anti-LPA monoclonal antibody (mAb) is neuroprotective after traumatic brain injury (TBI) if given to injured animals whose blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been compromised. It is hypothesized that the anti-LPA mAb could improve chronic pain initiated by TBI. However, poor brain penetration after systemic application of the antibody makes access to the central nervous system (CNS) problematic in situations where the BBB is intact...
November 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951720/human-umbilical-cord-blood-cell-transplantation-in-neuroregenerative-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Luisa R Galieva, Yana O Mukhamedshina, Svetlana S Arkhipova, Albert A Rizvanov
At present there is no effective treatment of pathologies associated with the death of neurons and glial cells which take place as a result of physical trauma or ischemic lesions of the nervous system. Thus, researchers have high hopes for a treatment based on the use of stem cells (SC), which are potentially able to replace dead cells and synthesize neurotrophic factors and other molecules that stimulate neuroregeneration. We are often faced with ethical issues when selecting a source of SC. In addition to precluding these, human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) presents a number of advantages when compared with other sources of SC...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951213/a-novel-function-of-neuroglobin-for-neuroregeneration-in-mice-after-optic-nerve-injury
#13
Kayo Sugitani, Yoshiki Koriyama, Mayuko Sera, Kunizo Arai, Kazuhiro Ogai, Keisuke Wakasugi
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered heme protein in the vertebrate brain that can bind to oxygen molecules. Mammalian Ngb plays a crucial role in neuroprotection under conditions of oxidative stress. To investigate other potential functions of Ngb, we investigated the mouse retinal Ngb system following optic nerve injury. In the retina of control mice, Ngb immunoreactivity was limited to the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer, and this immunoreactivity rapidly decreased to less than 50% of the control level 5 days after optic nerve injury...
November 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949952/promoting-neuroregeneration-after-perinatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-neurotrophic-factors-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
REVIEW
Nienke Wagenaar, Caroline G M de Theije, Linda S de Vries, Floris Groenendaal, Manon J N L Benders, Cora H A Nijboer
Newborns suffering from perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS) are at risk of neurodevelopmental problems. Current treatment options for PAIS are limited and mainly focus on supportive care, as presentation of PAIS is beyond the time window of current treatment strategies. Therefore, recent focus has shifted to interventions that stimulate regeneration of damaged brain tissue. From animal models it is known that the brain increases its neurogenic capability after ischemic injury, by promoting neural cell proliferation and differentiation...
September 26, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937975/umbilical-cord-blood-cells-for-treatment-of-cerebral-palsy-timing-and-treatment-options
#15
REVIEW
Courtney A McDonald, Michael C Fahey, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in children, and there is no cure. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) cell therapy for the treatment of children with cerebral palsy is currently being assessed in clinical trials. While there is much interest in the use of UCB stem cells for neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Further, UCB contains many stem and progenitor cells of interest, and we will point out that individual cell types within UCB may elicit specific effects...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899730/a-green-tea-polyphenol-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-enhances-neuroregeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-altering-levels-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#16
Lucia Machova Urdzikova, Jiri Ruzicka, Kristyna Karova, Anna Kloudova, Barbora Svobodova, Anubhav Amin, Jana Dubisova, Meic Schmidt, Sarka Kubinova, Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal, Pavla Jendelova
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition which is characterized by an extended secondary injury due to the presence of inflammatory local milieu. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) appears to possess strong neuroprotective properties. Here, we evaluated the beneficial effect of EGCG on recovery from SCI. Male Wistar rats were given either EGCG or saline directly to the injured spinal cord and thereafter a daily IP injection. Behavior recovery was monitored by BBB, plantar, rotarod and flat-beam tests...
September 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879677/transcriptomic-analysis-of-gingival-mesenchymal-stem-cells-cultured-on-3d-bioprinted-scaffold-a-promising-strategy-for-neuroregeneration
#17
Agnese Gugliandolo, Francesca Diomede, Paolo Cardelli, Alessia Bramanti, Domenico Scionti, Placido Bramanti, Oriana Trubiani, Emanuela Mazzon
The combined approach of Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and scaffolds has been proposed as a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, even if MSCs can promote neuronal regeneration, replacing lost neurons or secreting neurotrophic factors, many limitations still exist for their application in regenerative medicine, including the low survival and differentiation rate. The scaffolds, by mimicking the endogenous microenvironment, have shown to promote cell survival, proliferation and differentiation...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852386/neuroregeneration-using-in-vivo-cellular-reprogramming
#18
Tu Nguyen, Raymond Ching-Bong Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836485/the-vascularization-pattern-of-acellular-nerve-allografts-after-nerve-repair-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#19
Zhaowei Zhu, Yanyan Huang, Xiaoyan Zou, Canbin Zheng, Jianghui Liu, Longhai Qiu, Bo He, Qingtang Zhu, Xiaolin Liu
OBJECTIVE: We have demonstrated that angiogenesis in acellular nerve allografts (ANAs) can promote neuroregeneration. The present study aimed to investigate the microvascular regeneration pattern of ANAs in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. METHODS: Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into an autologous group and a rat acellular nerve allograft group (rANA), and 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were induced in these rats. On the 7th, 14th and 21st days after surgery, systemic perfusion with Evans Blue (EB) or lead oxide was performed on the rats through carotid intubation...
August 24, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814236/neuroglial-cell-cryopreservation-in-appropriate-inductive-conditions
#20
Rosa M Gomez, Maria Andrea Dominguez-Sanchez, Magdy M Sanchez, George E Barreto
An ability to store cells (if they cannot be used fresh) reduces cell wastage, thereby increasing the supply of transplantable material. Cell storage is also valuable in scientific research, allowing material to be archived and experiments to be repeated from the same tissue source and facilitating research collaboration by allowing stored samples to be distributed. Cryopreservation is currently considered the most promising and successful, long-term biological conservation method. Its use has led to optimizing survival, improving protocols and stem cell and neuroglia viability, thereby assuring its future use in neuroregeneration and restoration regarding cell therapy...
August 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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