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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793062/functional-mri-of-brain-physiology-in-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
J Jean Chen
Brain aging and associated neurodegeneration constitute a major societal challenge as well as one for the neuroimaging community. A full understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration still eludes medical researchers, fuelling the development of in vivo neuroimaging markers. Hence it is increasingly recognized that our understanding of neurodegenerative processes likely will depend upon the available information provided by imaging techniques. At the same time, the imaging techniques are often developed in response to the desire to observe certain physiological processes...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792920/inner-ear-drug-delivery-recent-advances-challenges-and-perspective
#2
Jinsong Hao, S Kevin Li
Effective and safe treatment of auditory and vestibular diseases has become increasingly dependent on inner ear drug delivery systems. This review highlights recent advances in inner ear drug delivery research and technologies. The focus is on strategies to overcome delivery barriers and to improve drug residence and targeting, with special attention to in vivo animal and human studies. The research in gene and stem cell delivery to the inner ear is briefly reviewed. Newly developed research tools to address experimental challenges and safety issues are discussed...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792673/recent-advances-on-sodium-oxygen-batteries-a-chemical-perspective
#3
Hossein Yadegari, Xueliang Sun
Releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere because of widespread use of fossil fuels by humankind has resulted in raising the earth's temperature during the past few decades. Known as global warming, increasing the earth's temperature may in turn endanger civilization on the earth by starting a cycle of environmental changes including climate change and sea level rise. Therefore, replacing fossil fuels with more sustainable energy resources has been considered as one of the main strategies to tackle the global warming crisis...
May 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792470/the-science-of-teamwork-progress-reflections-and-the-road-ahead
#4
Eduardo Salas, Denise L Reyes, Susan H McDaniel
We need teams in nearly every aspect of our lives (e.g., hospitals, schools, flight decks, nuclear power plants, oil rigs, the military, and corporate offices). Nearly a century of psychological science has uncovered extensive knowledge about team-related processes and outcomes. In this article, we draw from the reviews and articles of this special issue to identify 10 key reflections that have arisen in the team literature, briefly summarized here. Team researchers have developed many theories surrounding the multilayered aspects of teams, such that now we have a solid theoretical basis for teams...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792456/teamwork-situated-in-multiteam-systems-key-lessons-learned-and-future-opportunities
#5
Marissa L Shuffler, Dorothy R Carter
Many important contexts requiring teamwork, including health care, space exploration, national defense, and scientific discovery, present important challenges that cannot be addressed by a single team working independently. Instead, the complex goals these contexts present often require effectively coordinated efforts of multiple specialized teams working together as a multiteam system (MTS). For almost 2 decades, researchers have endeavored to understand the novelties and nuances for teamwork and collaboration that ensue when teams operate together as "component teams" in these interdependent systems...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792417/directional-passive-transport-of-micro-droplets-in-oil-infused-diverging-channels-for-effective-condensate-removal
#6
Hongxia Li, Ablimit Aili, Mohamed H Alhosani, Qiaoyu Ge, TieJun Zhang
Condensation widely exists in nature and industry, and its performance heavily relies on the efficiency of condensate removal. Recent advances in micro/nano-scale surface engineering enable condensing droplet removal from solid surfaces without extra energy cost, but it is still challenging to achieve passive transport of micro-droplets over long distance along horizontal surfaces. The mobility of these condensate droplets can be enhanced by lubricant oil infusion on flat surfaces and frequent coalescence, which lead to fast growth but random motion of droplets...
May 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792211/the-impact-of-ankle-foot-orthoses-on-toe-clearance-strategy-in-hemiparetic-gait-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Kannit Pongpipatpaiboon, Masahiko Mukaino, Fumihiro Matsuda, Kei Ohtsuka, Hiroki Tanikawa, Junya Yamada, Kazuhiro Tsuchiyama, Eiichi Saitoh
BACKGROUND: Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are frequently used to improve gait stability, toe clearance, and gait efficiency in individuals with hemiparesis. During the swing phase, AFOs enhance lower limb advancement by facilitating the improvement of toe clearance and the reduction of compensatory movements. Clinical monitoring via kinematic analysis would further clarify the changes in biomechanical factors that lead to the beneficial effects of AFOs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual impact of AFOs on toe clearance, and determine the best strategy to achieve toe clearance (including compensatory movements) during the swing phase...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791875/effects-of-potassium-application-on-potato-starch-physicochemical-properties
#8
Wei Zhang, Xinwei Liu, Qiaolan Wang, Haiqing Zhang, Mingfeng Li, Botao Song, Zhuqing Zhao
Potato starch serves as an excellent raw material or food additive in the food industry. With the advancement of the potato staple food strategy in China, improving the potato starch yield and quality has attracted more and more attention. Potassium is an essential nutrient for potato due to its direct effects on the yield and quality of potato tubers. Here, the effects of three different potassium levels on potato starch physicochemical properties were evaluated by field experiments. With increasing potassium application rates, the amylose content, phosphorus content and particle size decreased, thereby resulting in low gelatinization temperature, breakdown and setback viscosity, and high swelling power, relative crystallinity and transparency...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791148/protein-folding-free-energy-landscape-along-the-committor-the-optimal-folding-coordinate
#9
Sergei V Krivov
Recent advances in simulation and experiment have led to dramatic increases in the quantity and complexity of produced data, which makes the development of automated analysis tools very important. A powerful approach to analyze dynamics contained in such datasets is to describe/approximate it by diffusion on a free energy landscape - free energy as a function of reaction coordinates (RC). For the description to be quantitatively accurate RCs should be chosen in an optimal way. Recent theoretical results show that such an optimal RC exists, however determining it for practical systems is a very difficult unsolved problem...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791138/a-three-dimensional-printed-poly-vinyl-alcohol-substrate-with-controlled-on-demand-degradation-for-transient-electronics
#10
Jinsu Yoon, Jungmin Han, Bongsik Choi, Yongwoo Lee, Yeamin Kim, Jinhee Park, Meehyun Lim, Min-Ho Kang, Dae Hwan Kim, Dong Myong Kim, Sungho Kim, Sung-Jin Choi
Electronics that degrade after stable operation for a desired operating time, called transient electrons, are of great interest in many fields, including biomedical implants, secure memory devices, and environmental sensors. Thus, the development of transient materials is critical for the advancement of transient electronics and their applications. However, previous reports have mostly relied on achieving transience in aqueous solutions where the transience time is largely pre-determined based on the materials initially selected at the beginning of fabrication...
May 23, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791071/plastic-rates-of-development-and-the-effect-of-thermal-extremes-on-offspring-fitness-in-a-cold-climate-viviparous-lizard
#11
George D Cunningham, Luisa J Fitzpatrick, Geoffrey M While, Erik Wapstra
Populations at the climatic margins of a species' distribution can be exposed to conditions that cause developmental stress, resulting in developmental abnormalities. Even within the thermal range of normal development, phenotypes often vary with developmental temperature (i.e., thermal phenotypic plasticity). These effects can have significant consequences for organismal fitness and, thus, population persistence. Reptiles, as ectotherms, are particularly vulnerable to thermal effects on development and are, therefore, considered to be at comparatively high risk from changing climates...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790942/exposing-the-science-in-citizen-science-fitness-to-purpose-and-intentional-design
#12
Julia K Parrish, Hillary Burgess, Jake F Weltzin, Lucy Fortson, Andrea Wiggins, Brooke Simmons
Citizen science is a growing phenomenon. With millions of people involved and billions of in-kind dollars contributed annually, this broad extent, fine grain approach to data collection should be garnering enthusiastic support in the mainstream science and higher education communities. However, many academic researchers demonstrate distinct biases against the use of citizen science as a source of rigorous information. To engage the public in scientific research, and the research community in the practice of citizen science, a mutual understanding is needed of accepted quality standards in science, and the corresponding specifics of project design and implementation when working with a broad public base...
May 21, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790723/training-the-skull-base-surgeon-of-the-future-a-comprehensive-approach
#13
Mohammed Aref, A Samy Youssef
The tremendous advances in endoscopic skull base surgery added new a set of intricate less invasive approaches to the neurosurgical armamentarium. The new generations of neurosurgeons face the challenge of adopting the ever-changing technology and quickly learning modern surgical techniques beyond the traditional neurosurgery comfort zone. The future skull base surgeon must be well trained and knowledgeable in all surgical portals to the skull base in order to select the safest least invasive, most direct approach that offers the optimum exposure to handle a complex skull base pathology...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790209/subclinical-leaflet-thrombosis-following-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#14
Somsupha Kanjanauthai, Luigi Pirelli, Nikhil Nalluri, Chad A Kliger
Since the inception of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), there have been significant reductions in complications due to improvements of transcatheter heart valve (THV) designs and technologies. Given expanding TAVR applications, reducing complications further and better understanding THV durability has become a focus within the structural heart space. Recently, dedicated cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CTA) performed at 1 month post-TAVR has identified subclinical leaflet thrombosis (SLT), with rates as high as 40%...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789948/the-application-of-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-nmes-in-cancer-rehabilitation-current-prescription-pitfalls-and-future-directions
#15
Dominic O'Connor, Brian Caulfield
The plethora of treatment complications associated with cancer can be offset by regular exercise participation; however, adherence to current guidelines is poor, in particular in those unable or not allowed to participate in voluntary exercise due to their underlying disease. Alternative therapies such as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) are promising although previous results in cancer survivors have been equivocal. This is likely in response to methodological issues such as inappropriate NMES prescription...
May 22, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789920/iatrogenic-dural-tear-in-endoscopic-lumbar-spinal-surgery-full-endoscopic-dural-suture-repair-youn-s-technique
#16
REVIEW
Jong Ki Shin, Myung Soo Youn, Yoon Jae Seong, Tae Sik Goh, Jung Sub Lee
BACKGROUND: With the advancement of minimally invasive spinal surgery, endoscopic lumbar decompression has been widely used for the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal diseases. Iatrogenic dural tear is a relatively common complication in endoscopic lumbar spinal surgery. The golden standard of treatment for iatrogenic dural tear is immediate open conversion and direct repair under microscopic visualization. Recently, most of endoscopic spinal surgery is performed under local anesthesia...
May 22, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789583/trim50-suppressed-hepatocarcinoma-progression-through-directly-targeting-snail-for-ubiquitous-degradation
#17
Xiaoxiao Ma, Xiaomin Ma, Yumin Qiu, Lihui Zhu, Yueke Lin, Yajing You, Dapeng Ma, Zhenzhi Qin, Caiyu Sun, Yunxue Zhao, Yanlin Sun, Lihui Han
Tripartite motif-containing 50 (TRIM50) belongs to the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple cancers. However, the role of TRIM50 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be clarified. Here we showed that TRIM50 expression was significantly decreased in liver cancer tissues compared with corresponding non-cancerous liver tissues, and its decreased expression was significantly correlated with advanced disease progression. Gain-of-function assay by exogenous overexpression of TRIM50 in HCC cells showed that proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of HCC cells were significantly inhibited, whereas loss-of-function assay by TRIM50 knockdown showed that these malignant behaviors of HCC cells were significantly increased...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789188/fractures-after-multimodality-treatment-of-soft-tissue-sarcomas-with-isolated-limb-perfusion-and-radiation-likely-to-occur-and-hard-to-heal
#18
J M Seinen, P C Jutte, L B Been, E Pras, H J Hoekstra
OBJECTIVES: Treatment associated fractures (TAFs) are known severe side effects after surgery and radiotherapy for soft tissue sarcoma (STS). There is no literature about TAF after multimodality treatment with isolated limb perfusion (ILP) for locally advanced STS. This study aimed to analyze predictive factors, treatment and outcome for TAF after multimodality treatment with ILP. METHOD: Out of 126 consecutive patients undergoing ILP after 1991 till now, 25 patients were excluded due to no surgery or direct amputation at initial surgery...
April 24, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788885/application-of-traditional-chinese-herbal-medicine-by-products-as-dietary-feed-supplements-and-antibiotic-replacements-in-animal-production
#19
Abedin Abdallah, Pei Zhang, Qingzhen Zhong, Zewei Sun
Misuse of synthetic antibiotics in livestock leads to the transfer of antibiotic resistant pathogens into humans and deposits toxic residues in meat and milk. There is therefore an urgent need for safe and viable alternative approaches to improve the nutrition and wellbeing of farm animals. An alternative source that has been widely exploited is traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). These herbal medicines are an important part of the healthcare system in many Asian countries. Such herbs contain several but less toxic bioactive compounds which are generally regarded biodegradable...
May 22, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788021/predictors-of-cardioembolic-stroke-in-japanese-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-in-the-fushimi-af-registry
#20
Ken Yasuda, Shunichi Fukuda, Michikazu Nakamura, Ryo Ohtani, Yasuhiro Kuwata, Masaki Takata, Makoto Sainouchi, Masahiro Gotou, Yuichi Masuda, Satoru Kawarazaki, Yasuhiro Kawabata, Nagako Murase, Tomokazu Aoki, Naohiro Yonemoto, Masaharu Akao, Tetsuya Tsukahara
BACKGROUND: Large-scale clinical trials have analyzed risk factors for any ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the risk factors for cardioembolic stroke (CES), specifically, have not been reported. To clarify the risk factors for CES and clinically significant cardioembolic infarction, we examined the incidence of CES and larger infarct volume (IV) (> 30 mL) CES, employing the Fushimi AF Registry, a community-based prospective cohort of AF patients in the Fushimi ward, Kyoto, Japan...
May 22, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
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