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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813264/the-neurobiology-of-fatherhood
#1
REVIEW
James K Rilling, Jennifer S Mascaro
Only about 5% of mammalian species exhibit paternal caregiving in nature, and paternal behavior has evolved multiple times independently among mammals. The most parsimonious way to evolve paternal behavior may be to utilize pre-existing neural systems that are in place for maternal behavior. Despite evidence for similarity in the neurobiology of maternal and paternal behavior in rodents, paternal behavior also has its own dedicated neural circuitry in some species. Human fathers engage conserved subcortical systems that motivate caregiving in rodent parents and human mothers, as well as cortical systems involved with empathy that they share with human mothers...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812736/the-evolution-and-population-diversity-of-human-specific-segmental-duplications
#2
Megan Y Dennis, Lana Harshman, Bradley J Nelson, Osnat Penn, Stuart Cantsilieris, John Huddleston, Francesca Antonacci, Kelsi Penewit, Laura Denman, Archana Raja, Carl Baker, Kenneth Mark, Maika Malig, Nicolette Janke, Claudia Espinoza, Holly A F Stessman, Xander Nuttle, Kendra Hoekzema, Tina A Lindsay-Graves, Richard K Wilson, Evan E Eichler
Segmental duplications contribute to human evolution, adaptation and genomic instability but are often poorly characterized. We investigate the evolution, genetic variation and coding potential of human-specific segmental duplications (HSDs). We identify 218 HSDs based on analysis of 322 deeply sequenced archaic and contemporary hominid genomes. We sequence 550 human and nonhuman primate genomic clones to reconstruct the evolution of the largest, most complex regions with protein-coding potential (N = 80 genes from 33 gene families)...
February 17, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812699/primate-brain-size-is-predicted-by-diet-but-not-sociality
#3
Alex R DeCasien, Scott A Williams, James P Higham
The social brain hypothesis posits that social complexity is the primary driver of primate cognitive complexity, and that social pressures ultimately led to the evolution of the large human brain. Although this idea has been supported by studies indicating positive relationships between relative brain and/or neocortex size and group size, reported effects of different social and mating systems are highly conflicting. Here, we use a much larger sample of primates, more recent phylogenies, and updated statistical techniques, to show that brain size is predicted by diet, rather than multiple measures of sociality, after controlling for body size and phylogeny...
March 27, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812119/attention-holding-elicited-by-direct-gaze-faces-is-reflected-in-saccadic-peak-velocity
#4
Mario Dalmaso, Luigi Castelli, Giovanni Galfano
Manual response times to peripherally presented targets have been reported to be greater in the presence of task-irrelevant pictorial faces at fixation which establish an eye contact with the observer. This effect is interpreted as evidence that direct-gaze faces hold attention. In three experiments, we investigated whether this attention-holding effect is also reflected in saccadic response times. Participants were asked to make a saccade towards a symbolic target that could appear rightwards or leftwards, in the presence of a task-irrelevant centrally placed face with either direct gaze or closed eyes...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812048/sensorimotor-rhythm-neurofeedback-as-adjunct-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Ingrid H C H M Philippens, Jacqueline A Wubben, Raymond A P Vanwersch, Dave L Estevao, Peter A Tass
Neurofeedback may enhance compensatory brain mechanisms. EEG-based sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback training was suggested to be beneficial in Parkinson's disease. In a placebo-controlled study in parkinsonian nonhuman primates we here show that sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback training reduces MPTP-induced parkinsonian symptoms and both ON and OFF scores during classical L-DOPA treatment. Our findings encourage further development of sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback training as adjunct therapy for Parkinson's disease which might help reduce L-DOPA-induced side effects...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811882/seasonal-changes-in-leaf-chemistry-and-leaf-selection-of-the-japanese-giant-flying-squirrel-upon-two-tree-species
#6
Mutsumi Ito, Noriko Tamura, Fumio Hayashi
Tree leaves are important food sources for arboreal herbivores, such as primates, rodents, and marsupials. These animals do not eat leaves randomly in habitats with many tree species but rather choose based on the chemical components of leaves, such as sugars, fibers, proteins, and toxins. However, the effects of the microscale distribution of these chemicals within each leaf have not been examined for these animals. The giant flying squirrels Petaurista leucogenys are entirely arboreal, nocturnal herbivores, usually feeding on leaves and dropping leaf debris on the ground after partially consuming them...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811538/fine-structure-of-posterior-alpha-rhythm-in-human-eeg-frequency-components-their-cortical-sources-and-temporal-behavior
#7
Elham Barzegaran, Vladimir Y Vildavski, Maria G Knyazeva
Heterogeneity of the posterior alpha rhythm (AR) is a widely assumed but rarely tested phenomenon. We decomposed the posterior AR in the cortical source space with a 3-way PARAFAC technique, taking into account the spatial, frequency, and temporal aspects of mid-density EEG. We found a multicomponent AR structure in 90% of a group of 29 healthy adults. The typical resting-state structure consisted of a high-frequency occipito-parietal component of the AR (ARC1) and a low-frequency occipito-temporal component (ARC2), characterized by individual dynamics in time...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811069/prevalence-of-primate-and-interdental-spaces-for-primary-dentition-in-3-to-6-year-old-children-in-taiwan
#8
Kuo-Ting Sun, Yu-Fen Li, Jui-Ting Hsu, Ming-Gene Tu, Chung-Jui Hung, Ya-Hsin Hsueh, Hung-Huey Tsai
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Spaced primary dentition plays a critical role in the eruption of permanent teeth and the establishment of ideal occlusion. A lack of these spaces in deciduous dentition may result in disproportionate jaw and tooth sizes. Additionally, spaced primary dentition is significantly affected by ethnic factors. However, few of these studies have been conducted in Asia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of spaced primary dentition in Taiwan. METHODS: One hundred and forty-seven 3- to 6-year-old Taiwanese children (58 girls and 89 boys) were recruited for a cross-sectional study...
August 12, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810713/co-opted-megasatellite-dna-drives-evolution-of-secondary-night-vision-in-azara-s-owl-monkey
#9
Akihiko Koga, Hideyuki Tanabe, Yuriko Hirai, Hiroo Imai, Masanori Imamura, Takao Oishi, Roscoe Stanyon, Hirohisa Hirai
Owl monkeys (genus Aotus) are the only taxon in simian primates that consists of nocturnal or otherwise cathemeral species. Their night vision is superior to that of other monkeys, apes, and humans but not as good as that of typical nocturnal mammals. This incomplete night vision has been used to conclude that these monkeys only secondarily adapted to a nocturnal lifestyle, or to their cathemeral lifestyle that involves high night-time activity. It is known that the rod cells of many nocturnal mammals possess a unique nuclear architecture in which heterochromatin is centrally located...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810710/testing-convergent-evolution-in-auditory-processing-genes-between-echolocating-mammals-and-the-aye-aye-a-percussive-foraging-primate
#10
Richard J Bankoff, Michael Jerjos, Baily Hohman, M Elise Lauterbur, Logan Kistler, George H Perry
Several taxonomically distinct mammalian groups-certain microbats and cetaceans (e.g., dolphins)-share both morphological adaptations related to echolocation behavior and strong signatures of convergent evolution at the amino acid level across seven genes related to auditory processing. Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) are nocturnal lemurs with a specialized auditory processing system. Aye-ayes tap rapidly along the surfaces of trees, listening to reverberations to identify the mines of wood-boring insect larvae; this behavior has been hypothesized to functionally mimic echolocation...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810709/parallel-evolution-of-sperm-hyper-activation-ca2-channels
#11
Jacob C Cooper, Nitin Phadnis
Sperm hyper-activation is a dramatic change in sperm behavior where mature sperm burst into a final sprint in the race to the egg. The mechanism of sperm hyper-activation in many metazoans, including humans, consists of a jolt of Ca2+ into the sperm flagellum via CatSper ion channels. Surprisingly, all nine CatSper genes have been independently lost in several animal lineages. In Drosophila, sperm hyper-activation is performed through the cooption of the polycystic kidney disease 2 (pkd2) Ca2+ channel. The parallels between CatSpers in primates and pkd2 in Drosophila provide a unique opportunity to examine the molecular evolution of the sperm hyper-activation machinery in two independent, nonhomologous calcium channels separated by > 500 million years of divergence...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810237/tooth-wear-inclination-in-great-ape-molars
#12
Jordan Knight-Sadler, Luca Fiorenza
Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets...
August 16, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809773/a-macaque-model-for-rectal-lymphogranuloma-venereum-and-non-lymphogranuloma-venereum-chlamydia-trachomatis-impact-on-rectal-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquisition
#13
Sundaram Ajay Vishwanathan, Rachael D Aubert, Monica R Morris, Chunxia Zhao, Christi Philips, George M Khalil, Frank Deyounks, Kristen Kelley, Jana M Ritter, C Y Chen, Ellen N Kersh, Janet M McNicholl
BACKGROUND: Sustained genital tract inflammation caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is known to increase risk of vaginal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections but, to our knowledge, there are no nonhuman primate studies that have evaluated its link to rectal HIV acquisition. METHODS: Rhesus macaques inoculated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (serovars LGV-L2 and CT-E; n = 7) or saline (n = 7) received up to 20 rectal challenges twice a week of simian/HIV immunodeficiency virus (SHIVSF162p3)...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809435/first-case-report-of-non-human-primates-alouatta-clamitans-with-the-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae-serotype-k1-strain-st-23-a-possible-emerging-wildlife-pathogen
#14
Eleine Kuroki Anzai, Júlio César de Souza Júnior, Amanda Rezende Peruchi, Juliana Mello Fonseca, Elke Kreuscher Gumpl, Antônio Carlos Campos Pignatari, Zelinda Maria Braga Hirano, Alessandro Conrado de Oliveira Silveira
BACKGROUND: Hypervirulent strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae genotype K1 isolates have recently emerged, causing severe pyogenic liver abscess complicated by devastating metastatic infections in humans. METHODS: We describe a short outbreak of the non-human primate (NHP) research center, associated with a hypervirulent K. pneumoniae. The genetic similarity of the strains was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) techniques, and virulence encoding genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808547/patterns-of-seasonality-and-group-membership-characterize-the-gut-microbiota-in-a-longitudinal-study-of-wild-verreaux-s-sifakas-propithecus-verreauxi
#15
Andrea Springer, Claudia Fichtel, Gabriel A Al-Ghalith, Flávia Koch, Katherine R Amato, Jonathan B Clayton, Dan Knights, Peter M Kappeler
The intestinal microbiota plays a major role in host development, metabolism, and health. To date, few longitudinal studies have investigated the causes and consequences of microbiota variation in wildlife, although such studies provide a comparative context for interpreting the adaptive significance of findings from studies on humans or captive animals. Here, we investigate the impact of seasonality, diet, group membership, sex, age, and reproductive state on gut microbiota composition in a wild population of group-living, frugi-folivorous primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi)...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806626/cryopreservation-of-cynomolgus-macaque-macaca-fascicularis-sperm-with-glycerol-and-ethylene-glycol-and-its-effect-on-sperm-specific-ion-channels-catsper-and-hv1
#16
Bingbing Chen, Shanshan Li, Yaping Yan, Yanchao Duan, Shaohui Chang, Hong Wang, Weizhi Ji, Xin Wu, Wei Si
The cryoprotective agent (CPA) is one of the most important factors that affects the cryosurvival of sperm. The aim of the present study was to compare two different CPAs, glycerol (Gly) and ethylene glycol (EG), on the cryopreservation of cynomolgus macaques sperm and evaluate the effects of cryopreservation on sperm motility, acrosomal integrity, DNA integrity, mitochondrial function and the sperm membrane ion channels CatSper and Hv1. Compared to fresh sperm, cryopreservation with either 0.7 M Gly or EG decreased the sperm motility (79...
August 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804950/non-invasive-assessment-of-adrenocortical-function-as-a-measure-of-stress-in-the-endangered-golden-langur
#17
Jatin Sarmah, Chaya R Hazarika, Elizabeth V Berkeley, Stefanie B Ganswindt, Andre Ganswindt
The golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) is an endangered primate endemic to northern India and Bhutan. The main stressors to the species are habitat degradation and fragmentation. Non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) analysis is a powerful tool for assessing stress associated with environmental disturbances in wildlife. However, interspecific differences in glucocorticoid metabolism require careful selection of the antibody used in their quantification. The goals of this study were to: 1) validate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to determine fecal GC metabolite (fGCM) concentrations in the golden langur and 2) compare fGCM concentrations between golden langurs living under different environmental conditions...
July 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804783/functional-corticostriatal-connection-topographies-predict-goal-directed-behaviour-in-humans
#18
Andre F Marquand, Koen V Haak, Christian F Beckmann
Anatomical tracing studies in non-human primates have suggested that corticostriatal connectivity is topographically organized: nearby locations in striatum are connected with nearby locations in cortex. The topographic organization of corticostriatal connectivity is thought to underpin many goal-directed behaviours, but these topographies have not been completely characterised in humans and their relationship to uniquely human behaviours remains to be fully determined. Instead, the dominant approach employs parcellations that cannot model the continuous nature of the topography, nor accommodate overlapping cortical projections in the striatum...
August 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803877/face-pareidolia-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#19
Jessica Taubert, Susan G Wardle, Molly Flessert, David A Leopold, Leslie G Ungerleider
Face perception in humans and nonhuman primates is rapid and accurate [1-4]. In the human brain, a network of visual-processing regions is specialized for faces [5-7]. Although face processing is a priority of the primate visual system, face detection is not infallible. Face pareidolia is the compelling illusion of perceiving facial features on inanimate objects, such as the illusory face on the surface of the moon. Although face pareidolia is commonly experienced by humans, its presence in other species is unknown...
August 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803798/radiosynthesis-and-preclinical-pet-evaluation-of-89-zr-nivolumab-bms-936558-in-healthy-non-human-primates
#20
Erin L Cole, Joonyoung Kim, David J Donnelly, R Adam Smith, Daniel Cohen, Virginie Lafont, Paul E Morin, Richard Y-C Huang, Patrick L Chow, Wendy Hayes, Samuel Bonacorsi
Cancer immunotherapy, unlike traditional cytotoxic chemotherapeutic treatments, engages the immune system to identify cancer cells and stimulate immune responses. The Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) protein is an immunoinhibitory receptor expressed by activated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) that seek out and destroy cancer cells. Multiple cancer types express and upregulate the Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) and 2 (PD-L2) which bind to PD-1 as an immune escape mechanism. Nivolumab is a fully human IgG4 anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) approved for treatment of multiple cancer types...
August 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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