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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145576/different-filling-patterns-of-the-choriocapillaris-in-fluorescein-and-indocyanine-green-angiography-in-primate-eyes-under-elevated-intraocular-pressure
#1
Naoto Hanyuda, Hideo Akiyama, Yukitoshi Shimoda, Ryo Mukai, Morihiko Sano, Yoichiro Shinohara, Shoji Kishi
Purpose: To investigate the hemodynamics of the choriocapillaris in primate eyes under elevated intraocular pressure. Methods: Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and fluorescein angiography (FA) were performed in two monkeys after elevation of the intraocular pressure (IOP) to 35 and 60 mm Hg. Results: ICGA and FA showed no perfusion delays in the choriocapillaris at 35 mm Hg. The slow dye filling at 60 mm Hg made it possible to observe the early phase angiography sequence...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145489/expert-cognition-in-the-production-sequence-of-acheulian-cleavers-at-gesher-benot-ya-aqov-israel-a-lithic-and-cognitive-analysis
#2
Gadi Herzlinger, Thomas Wynn, Naama Goren-Inbar
Stone cleavers are one of the most distinctive components of the Acheulian toolkit. These tools were produced as part of a long and complex reduction sequence and they provide indications for planning and remarkable knapping skill. These aspects hold implications regarding the cognitive complexity and abilities of their makers and users. In this study we have analyzed a cleaver assemblage originating from the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel, to provide a reconstruction of the chaîne opératoire which structured their production...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145469/development-of-visual-cortical-function-in-infant-macaques-a-bold-fmri-study
#3
Tom J Van Grootel, Alan Meeson, Matthias H J Munk, Zoe Kourtzi, J Anthony Movshon, Nikos K Logothetis, Lynne Kiorpes
Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual behavior. Seven infant macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were repeatedly scanned, while anesthetized, over an age range of 102 to 1431 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145029/captive-gorillas-manual-laterality-the-impact-of-gestures-manipulators-and-interaction-specificity
#4
Jacques Prieur, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin, Simone Pika
Relationships between humans' manual laterality in non-communicative and communicative functions are still poorly understood. Recently, studies showed that chimpanzees' manual laterality is influenced by functional, interactional and individual factors and their mutual intertwinement. However, what about manual laterality in species living in stable social groups? We tackled this question by studying three groups of captive gorillas (N=35) and analysed their most frequent manual signals: three manipulators and 16 gesture types...
November 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143761/antibody-cross-reactivity-between-porcine-cytomegalovirus-pcmv-and-human-herpesvirus-6-hhv-6
#5
Uwe Fiebig, Angela Holzer, Daniel Ivanusic, Elena Plotzki, Hartmut Hengel, Frank Neipel, Joachim Denner
Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) infection is widely prevalent among pigs, and PCMV is one of the viruses which may be transmitted during xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues, or organs. While human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major risk factor for allotransplantation, it is still unclear whether PCMV is able to infect human cells or pose a risk for xenotransplantation. Previously, it was shown that transmission of PCMV after pig kidney to non-human primate transplantations resulted in a significantly reduced survival time of the transplanted organ...
October 28, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143309/a-comparison-of-paternity-data-and-relative-testes-size-as-measures-of-level-of-sperm-competition-in-the-hominoidea
#6
R Robin Baker, Todd K Shackelford
OBJECTIVES: The phrase "level of sperm competition" is used only vaguely in the primate literature. There is also little distinction between the important elements of frequency and intensity of sperm competition, largely because the two current forms of measurement (socio-sexual system and relative testes size) are both proxies which allow neither precision nor fine distinctions. Both measures have critics, socio-sexual system in particular being branded subjective, misleading, and changeable...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142131/single-dose-trivalent-vesiculovax-vaccine-protects-macaques-from-lethal-ebolavirus-and-marburgvirus-challenge
#7
Demetrius Matassov, Chad E Mire, Theresa Latham, Joan B Geisbert, Rong Xu, Ayuko Ota-Setlik, Krystle N Agans, Dean J Kobs, Morgan Q S Wendling, Amanda Burnaugh, Thomas L Rudge, Carol L Sabourin, Michael A Egan, David K Clarke, Thomas W Geisbert, John H Eldridge
Previous studies demonstrated that a single intramuscular (IM) dose of an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus vector (Vesiculovax™, rVSV-N4CT1) expressing the glycoprotein (GP) from the Mayinga strain of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) protected nonhuman primates (NHP) from lethal challenge with EBOV Kikwit and Makona strains. Here we studied the immunogenicity of an expanded range of attenuated rVSV vectors expressing filovirus GP in mice. Based on data from those studies an optimal attenuated tri-valent rVSV vector formulation was identified which included rVSV vectors expressing EBOV, Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) or Angola strain of Marburg marburgvirus (MARV) GPs...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142114/female-vervet-monkeys-fine-tune-decisions-on-tolerance-versus-conflict-in-a-communication-network
#8
Christèle Borgeaud, Alessandra Schnider, Michael Krützen, Redouan Bshary
Group living promotes opportunities for both cooperation and competition. Selection on the ability to cope with such opposing social opportunities has been proposed as a driving force in the evolution of large brains in primates and other social species. However, we still know little about the degree of complexity involved in such social strategies. Here, we report advanced social strategies in wild vervet monkeys. Building on recent experimental evidence that subordinate females trade grooming for tolerance from higher-ranking individuals during foraging activities, we show that the audience composition strongly affects this trade...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142094/standardized-automated-training-of-rhesus-monkeys-for-neuroscience-research-in-their-housing-environment
#9
Michael Berger, Antonino Calapai, Valeska Stephan, Michael Niessing, Leonore Burchardt, Alexander Gail, Stefan Treue
Teaching non-human primates the complex cognitive behavioral tasks that are central to cognitive neuroscience research is an essential and challenging endeavor. It is crucial for the scientific success that the animals learn to interpret the often complex task rules, and reliably and enduringly act accordingly. To achieve consistent behavior and comparable learning histories across animals, it is desirable to standardize training protocols. Automatizing the training can significantly reduce the time invested by the person training the animal...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142092/response-of-supra-oculomotor-area-neurons-during-combined-saccade-vergence-movements
#10
Adam C Pallus, Mark M G Walton, Michael J Mustari
Combined saccade-vergence movements allow humans and other primates to align their eyes with objects of interest in three-dimensions. In the absence of saccades, vergence movements are typically slow, symmetrical movements of the two eyes in opposite directions. However, combined saccade-vergence movements produce vergence velocities that exceed values observed during vergence alone. This phenomenon is often called "vergence enhancement", or "saccade-facilitated vergence," though it is important to consider that rapid vergence changes, known as "vergence transients," are also observed during conjugate saccades...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141529/experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae-model-of-cynomolgus-macaques-induced-by-recombinant-human-mog1-125-rhmog1-125-protein-and-mog34-56-peptide
#11
Yunxiao Sun, Zhen Peng, Libiao Zhang, Huaqian Wang, Xiangyang He, Xingwen Peng, Qin Zhang, Hui Liu, Junhua Rao, Haifeng Wang, Jie Wu
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by self-myelin antigen is a widely used multiple sclerosis (MS) model for preclinical studies of new therapeutics and potential pathogenesis. By comparison with rodent EAE models, EAE models in primates are more similar to MS. Some groups have developed EAE models in primates by using common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). However, this model has some limitations. EAE in cynomolgus monkey (Macaque fasciculrais) could overcome these limitations. In this study, EAE was induced in cynomolgus monkey by immunizing with the recombinant human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein extracellular domain (1-125) (rhMOG1-125) and a synthetic peptide, representing peptide 34-56 of human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG34-56) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and in combination with intravenous injection of pertussis toxin, and subsequent booster immunizations with the same dose of antigen in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) until the animals developed clinically significant EAE (score≥2)...
November 9, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140552/the-influence-of-phylogeny-social-style-and-sociodemographic-factors-on-macaque-social-network-structure
#12
Krishna N Balasubramaniam, Brianne A Beisner, Carol M Berman, Arianna De Marco, Julie Duboscq, Sabina Koirala, Bonaventura Majolo, Andrew J MacIntosh, Richard McFarland, Sandra Molesti, Hideshi Ogawa, Odile Petit, Gabriele Schino, Sebastian Sosa, Cédric Sueur, Bernard Thierry, Frans B M de Waal, Brenda McCowan
Among nonhuman primates, the evolutionary underpinnings of variation in social structure remain debated, with both ancestral relationships and adaptation to current conditions hypothesized to play determining roles. Here we assess whether interspecific variation in higher-order aspects of female macaque (genus: Macaca) dominance and grooming social structure show phylogenetic signals, that is, greater similarity among more closely-related species. We use a social network approach to describe higher-order characteristics of social structure, based on both direct interactions and secondary pathways that connect group members...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138393/dogs-and-humans-respond-to-emotionally-competent-stimuli-by-producing-different-facial-actions
#13
Caeiro Cátia, Guo Kun, Mills Daniel
The commonality of facial expressions of emotion has been studied in different species since Darwin, with most of the research focusing on closely related primate species. However, it is unclear to what extent there exists common facial expression in species more phylogenetically distant, but sharing a need for common interspecific emotional understanding. Here we used the objective, anatomically-based tools, FACS and DogFACS (Facial Action Coding Systems), to quantify and compare human and domestic dog facial expressions in response to emotionally-competent stimuli associated with different categories of emotional arousal...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136133/representations-of-fine-digit-movements-in-posterior-and-anterior-parietal-cortex-revealed-using-long-train-intracortical-microstimulation-in-macaque-monkeys
#14
Mary K L Baldwin, Dylan F Cooke, Adam B Goldring, Leah Krubitzer
The current investigation in macaque monkeys utilized long-train intracortical microstimulation to determine the extent of cortex from which movements could be evoked. Not only were movements evoked from motor areas (PMC and M1), but they were also evoked from posterior parietal (5, 7a, 7b) and anterior parietal areas (3b, 1, 2). Large representations of digit movements involving only the index finger (D2) and thumb (D1), were elicited from areas 1, 2, 7b, and M1. Other movements evoked from these regions were similar to ethologically relevant movements that have been described in other primates...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136037/safety-pharmacokinetics-and-immunological-activities-of-multiple-intravenous-or-subcutaneous-doses-of-an-anti-hiv-monoclonal-antibody-vrc01-administered-to-hiv-uninfected-adults-results-of-a-phase-1-randomized-trial
#15
Kenneth H Mayer, Kelly E Seaton, Yunda Huang, Nicole Grunenberg, Abby Isaacs, Mary Allen, Julie E Ledgerwood, Ian Frank, Magdalena E Sobieszczyk, Lindsey R Baden, Benigno Rodriguez, Hong Van Tieu, Georgia D Tomaras, Aaron Deal, Derrick Goodman, Robert T Bailer, Guido Ferrari, Ryan Jensen, John Hural, Barney S Graham, John R Mascola, Lawrence Corey, David C Montefiori
BACKGROUND: VRC01 is an HIV-1 CD4 binding site broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) that is active against a broad range of HIV-1 primary isolates in vitro and protects against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) when delivered parenterally to nonhuman primates. It has been shown to be safe and well tolerated after short-term administration in humans; however, its clinical and functional activity after longer-term administration has not been previously assessed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) 104 was designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of multiple doses of VRC01 administered either subcutaneously or by intravenous (IV) infusion and to assess the pharmacokinetics and in vitro immunologic activity of the different dosing regimens...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136024/severe-oxidative-stress-in-an-acute-inflammatory-demyelinating-model-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#16
Jordon Dunham, Reinofke van de Vis, Jan Bauer, Jacqueline Wubben, Nikki van Driel, Jon D Laman, Bert A 't Hart, Yolanda S Kap
Oxidative stress is increasingly implicated as a co-factor of tissue injury in inflammatory/demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), such as multiple sclerosis (MS). While rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models diverge from human demyelinating disorders with respect to limited oxidative injury, we observed that in a non-human primate (NHP) model for MS, namely EAE in the common marmoset, key pathological features of the disease were recapitulated, including oxidative tissue injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135580/wake-me-up-before-you-go-a-strategy-to-reduce-the-latent-hiv-reservoir
#17
Nicolas Chomont, Afam A Okoye, David Favre, Lydie Trautmann
: In the quest to eliminate or reduce the HIV reservoir, shock and kill strategies require the combined administration of a latency reversing agent (LRA) to reactivate the latent reservoir and an intervention to boost effector functions to clear this reservoir. Both parts of this strategy are quite inefficient when LRAs are administered to HIV-infected individuals on suppressive ART for several years, possibly due to low levels of induced antigen expression, negative impact of LRAs on clearance mechanisms, and very low number of effective cytotoxic T cells (CTLs)...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135337/dna-vaccines-elicit-durable-protective-immunity-against-individual-or-simultaneous-infections-with-lassa-and-ebola-viruses-in-guinea-pigs
#18
Kathleen A Cashman, Eric R Wilkinson, Suzanne E Wollen, Joshua D Shamblin, Justine M Zelko, Jeremy J Bearss, Xiankun Zeng, Kate E Broderick, Connie S Schmaljohn
We previously developed optimized DNA vaccines against both Lassa fever and Ebola hemorrhagic fever viruses and demonstrated that they were protective individually in guinea pig and nonhuman primate models. In this study, we vaccinated groups of strain 13 guinea pigs two times, four weeks apart with 50 µg of each DNA vaccine or a mock vaccine at discrete sites by intradermal electroporation. Five weeks following the second vaccinations, guinea pigs were exposed to lethal doses of Lassa virus, Ebola virus, or a combination of both viruses simultaneously...
November 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134446/cleaner-fish-labroides-dimidiatus-discriminate-numbers-but-fail-a-mental-number-line-test
#19
Zegni Triki, Redouan Bshary
Several species of primates, including humans, possess a spontaneous spatial mental arrangement (i.e. mental number line MNL) of increasing numbers or continuous quantities from left to right. This cognitive process has recently been documented in domestic chicken in a spatial-numerical task, opening the possibility that MNL is a cognitive capacity that has been conserved across vertebrate taxa. In this scenario, fish might possess the MNL as well. Here we investigated whether cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus show evidence for MNL in two experiments...
November 13, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134410/extractive-foraging-of-toxic-caterpillars-in-wild-northern-pig-tailed-macaques-macaca-leonina
#20
Florian Trébouet, Ulrich H Reichard, Nantasak Pinkaew, Suchinda Malaivijitnond
Extractive foraging in nonhuman primates may involve different levels of technical complexity in terms of the number of actions that must be performed and the manual dexterity involved. We describe the extractive foraging of caterpillars in wild northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. The study group, observed from May to December 2016 (n = 146 days), comprised 60-70 habituated individuals, including 3-4 adult males, 20-23 adult females, and 36-47 immatures. Four adult males and five adult females, observed from September to November 2016 for a total of 24 days, were selected for focal animal sampling...
November 13, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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