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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346700/vitamin-d-status-in-wild-toque-macaques-macaca-sinica-in-sri-lanka
#1
Michael L Power, Wolfgang P J Dittus
The vitamin D receptor is found on most cells, including active immune cells, implying that vitamin D has important biological functions beyond calcium metabolism and bone health. Although captive primates should be given a dietary source of vitamin D, under free-living conditions vitamin D is not a required nutrient, but rather is produced in skin when exposed to UV-B light. The circulating level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) considered adequate for humans is a topic of current controversy. Levels of circulating 25-OH-D sufficient for good health for macaques and other Old World anthropoids are assumed to be the same as human values, but data from free-living animals are scant...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346692/embraces-are-lateralized-in-spider-monkeys-ateles-fusciceps-rufiventris
#2
Emily R Boeving, Starlie C Belnap, Eliza L Nelson
Side biases observed in behavior are thought to reflect underlying asymmetric brain function or hemispheric specialization. Previous work in multiple species identified left side biases (associated with the right hemisphere) for processing social behavior. In highly social species such as primates, many behaviors may be categorized as social, yet differences between such behaviors have not been examined as a test of asymmetric brain function. Using Colombian spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris), we observed lateral positioning during two types of behaviors widely categorized as social affiliative: embracing and grooming, and identified a left bias for embracing, but not grooming...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346691/reproductive-status-affects-the-feeding-ecology-and-social-association-patterns-of-female-squirrel-monkeys-saimiri-collinsi-in-an-amazonian-rainforest
#3
Luana V P Ruivo, Anita I Stone, Matthew Fienup
When making foraging decisions, female primates may follow specific behavioral strategies that reflect their reproductive state. Lactation is considered the most energetically costly phase for females, but we argue that gestation is also energetically expensive for squirrel monkeys. In this study, we examined whether female squirrel monkeys (a seasonally breeding primate) in different reproductive phases showed significant differences in their foraging ecology. We sampled two wild groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri collinsi) using the focal animal method, during 12 months (June 2014 to May 2015)...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346688/how-far-do-neotropical-primates-disperse-seeds
#4
Lisieux F Fuzessy, Charles H Janson, Fernando A O Silveira
Seed dispersal distance (SDD) is a vital component of vertebrate-mediated seed dispersal process: the average distance at which seeds are deposited away from the parent plant represents the starting template of plant regeneration. We present a simple model to explain and predict observed measures of average dispersal distance and we hypothesize that it is a consequence of how long seeds are retained in the disperser's gut, how rapidly the disperser moves per unit time and how twisted the animal travel path is relative to the straight-line distance moved away from the seed source...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346661/a-major-shift-in-diversification-rate-helps-explain-macroevolutionary-patterns-in-primate-species-diversity
#5
Jessica H Arbour, Sharlene E Santana
Primates represent one of the most species rich, wide ranging and ecologically diverse clades of mammals. What major macroevolutionary factors have driven their diversification and contributed to the modern distribution of primate species remains widely debated. We employed phylogenetic comparative methods to examine the role of clade age and evolutionary rate heterogeneity in the modern distribution of species diversity of Primates. Primate diversification has accelerated since its origin, with decreased extinction leading to a shift to even higher evolutionary rates in the most species rich family (Cercopithecidae)...
March 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346561/reduced-intestinal-motility-mucosal-barrier-function-and-inflammation-in-aged-monkeys
#6
E L Mitchell, A T Davis, K Brass, M Dendinger, R Barner, R Gharaibeh, A A Fodor, K Kavanagh
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the general health and intestinal physiology of young and old non-human primates with comparable life histories and dietary environments. DESIGN: Vervet monkeys (Chlorcebus aethiops sabaeus) in stable and comparable social and nutritional environments were selected for evaluation. Health phenotype, circulating cytokines and biomarkers of microbial translocation (MT) were measured (n=26-44). Subsets of monkeys additionally had their intestinal motility, intestinal permeability, and fecal microbiomes characterized...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346516/protective-immune-responses-against-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-by-immunization-with-functionally-active-gut-derived-cysteine-peptidases-alone-and-in-combination-with-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase
#7
Hatem Tallima, Jan Dvořák, Sahira Kareem, Marwa Abou El Dahab, Nada Abdel Aziz, John Pius Dalton, Rashika El Ridi
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, a severe disease caused by parasites of the genus Schistosoma, is prevalent in 74 countries, affecting more than 250 million people, particularly children. We have previously shown that the Schistosoma mansoni gut-derived cysteine peptidase, cathepsin B1 (SmCB1), administered without adjuvant, elicits protection (>60%) against challenge infection of S. mansoni or S. haematobium in outbred, CD-1 mice. Here we compare the immunogenicity and protective potential of another gut-derived cysteine peptidase, S...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346435/aav9-mediated-engineering-of-autotransplanted-kidney-of-non-human-primates
#8
S Tomasoni, P Trionfini, N Azzollini, L Zentilin, M Giacca, S Aiello, L Longaretti, E Cozzi, N Baldan, G Remuzzi, A Benigni
Ex vivo gene transfer to the graft before transplantation is an attractive option for circumventing systemic side effects of chronic anti-rejection therapy. Gene delivery of the immunomodulatory protein CTLA4-Ig prevented chronic kidney rejection in a rat model of allotransplantation without the need for systemic immunosuppression. Here, we generated AAV2 and AAV9 vectors encoding for LEA29Y, an optimized version of CTLA4-Ig. Both LEA29Y vectors were equally efficient for reducing T-cell proliferation in vitro...
March 27, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345948/the-impact-of-cross-modal-correspondences-on-working-memory-performance
#9
Riccardo Brunetti, Allegra Indraccolo, Serena Mastroberardino, Charles Spence, Valerio Santangelo
Cross-modal correspondences influence perceptual performance in adults, infants, and even nonhuman primates across a variety of different sensory modalities, including tasks involving speeded detection and categorization. However, to date, it is still unclear whether and how correspondences could modulate post-perceptual processes, such as working memory (WM). We investigated this issue using an audiovisual two-back task. In Experiment 1, 3 kinds of correspondences were used: audio/visual numerosity, pitch/shape, and pitch/elevation, each presented congruently (e...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345775/quantification-of-the-position-and-depth-of-the-flexor-hallucis-longus-groove-in-euarchontans-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-primate-positional-behavior
#10
Gabriel S Yapuncich, Erik R Seiffert, Doug M Boyer
OBJECTIVE: On the talus, the position and depth of the groove for the flexor hallucis longus tendon have been used to infer phylogenetic affinities and positional behaviors of fossil primates. This study quantifies aspects of the flexor hallucis longus groove (FHLG) to test if: (1) a lateral FHLG is a derived strepsirrhine feature, (2) a lateral FHLG reflects inverted and abducted foot postures, and (3) a deeper FHLG indicates a larger muscle. METHODS: We used linear measurements of microCT-generated models from a sample of euarchontans (n = 378 specimens, 125 species) to quantify FHLG position and depth...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345759/stable-carbon-oxygen-and-nitrogen-isotope-analysis-of-plants-from-a-south-asian-tropical-forest-implications-for-primatology
#11
Patrick Roberts, Scott A Blumenthal, Wolfgang Dittus, Oshan Wedage, Julia A Lee-Thorp
Stable isotope analysis of primate tissues in tropical forest contexts is an increasingly popular means of obtaining information about niche distinctions among sympatric species, including preferences in feeding height, forest canopy density, plant parts, and trophism. However, issues of equifinality mean that feeding height, canopy density, as well as the plant parts and plant species consumed, may produce similar or confounding effects. With a few exceptions, researchers have so far relied largely on general principles and/or limited plant data from the study area as references for deducing the predominant drivers of primate isotope variation...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345757/parasites-of-orangutans-primates-ponginae-an-overview
#12
REVIEW
Wisnu Nurcahyo, Veronika Konstanzová, Ivona Foitová
Wild orangutan populations exist in an increasingly fragile state. As numbers continue to decline and populations became fragmented, the overall health of remaining individuals becomes increasingly at risk. Parasitic infections can have a serious impact on the health of wild orangutans, and can be fatal. It has been reported that rehabilitated individuals demonstrate a higher prevalence of parasitic diseases, and it is possible that they may spread these infections to wild orangutans upon reintroduction. In order to ensure the success of reintroduction and conservation efforts, it is crucial to understand the potential risks by fully understanding what parasites they have been reported to be infected with...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345293/detection-of-zaire-ebolavirus-in-swine-assay-development-and-optimization
#13
B S Pickering, B Collignon, G Smith, P Marszal, G Kobinger, H M Weingartl
Ebolaviruses (family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales) cause often fatal, haemorrhagic fever in primates including humans. Pigs have been identified as a species susceptible to Reston ebolavirus (RESTV) infection, with indicated transmission to humans in the Philippines; however, their role during Ebola outbreaks in Africa needs to be clarified. To perform surveillance studies, detection of ebolavirus requires a prerequisite validation of viral RNA and antibody detection methods in swine samples. These diagnostic tests also need to be suitable for deployment to low-level containment laboratories...
March 27, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345027/pre-clinical-assessment-of-c134-a-chimeric-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-in-mice-and-non-human-primates
#14
Kevin A Cassady, David F Bauer, Justin Roth, Melissa R Chambers, Trent Shoeb, Jennifer Coleman, Mark Prichard, G Yancey Gillespie, James M Markert
Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) type I constructs are investigational anti-neoplastic agents for a variety of malignancies, including malignant glioma. Clinical trials to date have supported the safety of these agents even when directly administered in the CNS. Traditional pre-clinical US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) toxicity studies for these agents have included the use of two species, generally including murine and primate studies. Recently, the FDA has decreased its requirement of non-human primates as an animal model for ethical reasons, especially for established viral systems where there are good alternative model systems...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344987/safe-and-effective-gene-therapy-for-murine-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-using-an-insulated-lentiviral-vector
#15
Swati Singh, Iram Khan, Socheath Khim, Brenda Seymour, Karen Sommer, Matthew Wielgosz, Zachary Norgaard, Hans-Peter Kiem, Jennifer Adair, Denny Liggitt, Arthur Nienhuis, David J Rawlings
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a life-threatening immunodeficiency caused by mutations within the WAS gene. Viral gene therapy to restore WAS protein (WASp) expression in hematopoietic cells of patients with WAS has the potential to improve outcomes relative to the current standard of care, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. However, the development of viral vectors that are both safe and effective has been problematic. While use of viral transcriptional promoters may increase the risk of insertional mutagenesis, cellular promoters may not achieve WASp expression levels necessary for optimal therapeutic effect...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343248/uncovering-specific-changes-in-network-wiring-underlying-the-primate-cerebrotype
#16
Salah Hamodeh, Ayse Bozkurt, Haian Mao, Fahad Sultan
Regular scaling of brain networks during evolution has been proposed to be the major process leading to enlarged brains. Alternative views, however, suggest that deviations from regular scaling were crucial to the evolution of the primate brain and the emergence of different cerebrotypes. Here, we examined the scaling within the major link between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex by studying the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). We compared the major axonal and dendritic wiring in the DCN of rodents and monkeys in search of regular scaling...
March 25, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343239/improved-full-length-killer-cell-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-transcript-discovery-in-mauritian-cynomolgus-macaques
#17
Trent M Prall, Michael E Graham, Julie A Karl, Roger W Wiseman, Adam J Ericsen, Muthuswamy Raveendran, R Alan Harris, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Jeffrey Rogers, David H O'Connor
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) modulate disease progression of pathogens including HIV, malaria, and hepatitis C. Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are widely used as nonhuman primate models to study human pathogens, and so, considerable effort has been put into characterizing their KIR genetics. However, previous studies have relied on cDNA cloning and Sanger sequencing that lack the throughput of current sequencing platforms. In this study, we present a high throughput, full-length allele discovery method utilizing Pacific Biosciences circular consensus sequencing (CCS)...
March 25, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343228/focal-brain-injury-associated-with-a-model-of-severe-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-nonhuman-primates
#18
Ryan M McAdams, Ronald J McPherson, Raj P Kapur, Sandra E Juul
Worldwide, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. To better understand the mechanisms contributing to brain injury and improve outcomes in neonates with HIE, better preclinical animal models that mimic the clinical situation following birth asphyxia in term newborns are needed. In an effort to achieve this goal, we modified our nonhuman primate model of HIE induced by in utero umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) to include postnatal hypoxic episodes, in order to simulate apneic events in human neonates with HIE...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343047/the-odyssey-of-sagittal-pelvic-morphology-during-human-evolution-a-perspective-on-different-hominoidae
#19
Tom P C Schlösser, Michiel M A Janssen, Tom Hogervorst, Tomaž Vrtovec, John de Vos, F Cumhur Öner, René M Castelein
The importance of sagittal spino-pelvic alignment for posture and upright human spinal biomechanics, and its role in the etio-pathogenesis of different spinal pathologies is well recognized. In human evolution, morphological changes of the pelvis are believed to be a crucial step forward towards pertinent bipedalism. By comparison of sagittal pelvic morphology within the superfamily of Hominoidea, we have the perspective that in the course of human evolution, development of a lordosis between the ischium and ilium, and the consequent increase in pelvic incidence allowed for ambulation in a fully upright position while maintaining the lever arm of the ischial musculature...
March 22, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342735/inhibition-of-effector-antigen-specific-t-cells-by-intradermal-administration-of-heme-oxygenase-1-inducers
#20
Thomas Simon, Julien Pogu, Séverine Rémy, Frédéric Brau, Sylvie Pogu, Maud Maquigneau, Jean-François Fonteneau, Nicolas Poirier, Bernard Vanhove, Gilles Blancho, Eliane Piaggio, Ignacio Anegon, Philippe Blancou
Developing protocols aimed at inhibiting effector T cells would be key for the treatment of T cell-dependent autoimmune diseases including type 1 autoimmune diabetes (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS). While heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducers are clinically approved drugs for non-immune-related diseases, they do have immunosuppressive properties when administered systemically in rodents. Here we show that HO-1 inducers inhibit antigen-specific effector T cells when injected intradermally together with the T cell cognate antigens in mice...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
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