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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922870/male-mutation-bias-is-the-main-force-shaping-chromosomal-substitution-rates-in-monotreme-mammals
#1
Vivian Link, Diana Aguilar-Gómez, Ciro Ramírez-Suástegui, Laurence D Hurst, Diego Cortez
In many species, spermatogenesis involves more cell divisions than oogenesis, and the male germline, therefore, accumulates more DNA replication errors, a phenomenon known as male mutation bias. The extent of male mutation bias (α) is estimated by comparing substitution rates of the X, Y, and autosomal chromosomes, as these chromosomes spend different proportions of their time in the germlines of the two sexes. Male mutation bias has been characterized in placental and marsupial mammals as well as birds, but analyses in monotremes failed to detect any such bias...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922421/effects-of-acute-administration-of-donepezil-or-memantine-on-sleep-deprivation-induced-spatial-memory-deficit-in-young-and-aged-non-human-primate-grey-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-murinus
#2
Anisur Rahman, Yves Lamberty, Esther Schenker, Massimo Cella, Solène Languille, Régis Bordet, Jill Richardson, Fabien Pifferi, Fabienne Aujard
The development of novel therapeutics to prevent cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is facing paramount difficulties since the translational efficacy of rodent models did not resulted in better clinical results. Currently approved treatments, including the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (DON) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine (MEM) provide marginal therapeutic benefits to AD patients. There is an urgent need to develop a predictive animal model that is phylogenetically proximal to humans to achieve better translation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922082/combinatorial-peptide-based-epitope-mapping-from-ebola-virus-dna-vaccines-and-infections-reveals-residue-level-determinants-of-antibody-binding
#3
Daniel R Ripoll, Daniel A J Mitchell, Lesley C Dupuy, Anders Wallqvist, Connie Schmaljohn, Sidhartha Chaudhury
Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is highly lethal and results in severe febrile bleeding disorders that affect humans and non-human primates. One of the therapeutic approaches for treating EBOV infection focus largely on cocktails of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to specific regions of the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) and neutralize the virus. Recent structural studies using cryo-electron microscopy have identified key epitopes for several EBOV mAbs. While such information has yielded deep insights into antibody binding, limitations on resolution of these structures often preclude a residue-level analysis of EBOV epitopes...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921934/mirror-trends-of-plasticity-and-stability-indicators-in-primate-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Miguel Á García-Cabezas, Mary Kate P Joyce, Yohan J John, Basilis Zikopoulos, Helen Barbas
Research on plasticity markers in the cerebral cortex has largely focused on their timing of expression and role in shaping circuits during critical and normal periods. By contrast, little attention has been focused on the spatial dimension of plasticity-stability across cortical areas. The rationale for this analysis is based on the systematic variation in cortical structure that parallels functional specialization and raises the possibility of varying levels of plasticity. Here we investigated in adult rhesus monkeys the expression of markers related to synaptic plasticity or stability in prefrontal limbic and eulaminate areas that vary in laminar structure...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921678/ipsilateral-corticotectal-projections-from-the-primary-premotor-and-supplementary-motor-cortical-areas-in-adult-macaque-monkeys-a-quantitative-anterograde-tracing-study
#5
Michela Fregosi, Eric M Rouiller
The corticotectal projection from cortical motor areas is one of several descending pathways involved in the indirect control of spinal motoneurons. In non-human primates, previous studies reported that cortical projections to the superior colliculus originated from the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex, whereas no projection originated from the supplementary motor area. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the properties of corticotectal projections originating from these three cortical motor areas in intact adult macaques (n=9)...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920802/summer-and-winter-vitamin-d3-levels-in-seven-platyrrhine-species-housed-at-a-british-zoo-with-reference-to-natural-uvb-levels
#6
Rowena Killick, Richard Saunders, Sharon P Redrobe
Serum samples were collected from 24 platyrrhines of seven diurnal species housed with outdoor access at Bristol Zoo Gardens (United Kingdom) to test 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) levels as part of the veterinary department's preventative health care program. Samples were collected in August 2008 (summer) and January 2009 (winter) to examine the effect of season on 25OHD3 levels. Dietary levels of vitamin D3 remained the same throughout the study period and fell within the range of 2000-4000 IU/kg dry matter, in accordance with current primate guidelines...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919552/accurate-identification-of-anopheles-gambiae-giles-trophic-preferences-by-maldi-tof-ms
#7
Sirama Niare, Fatalmoudou Tandina, Bernard Davoust, Ogobara Doumbo, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola, Lionel Almeras
The determination of the trophic preferences of the Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) is a decisive parameter for the monitoring and the prevention of malaria risk transmission. Currently, arthropod blood feeding sources are identified using immunological or molecular biology traditional techniques. Despite the effectiveness of these methods, they present several limitations, and notably, they are time-consuming and costly techniques. A recent study demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS could be a useful tool for the identification of blood meal origins in freshly engorged mosquitoes...
September 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919222/understanding-active-sampling-strategies-empirical-approaches-and-implications-for-attention-and-decision-research
#8
REVIEW
Jacqueline Gottlieb
In natural behavior we actively gather information using attention and active sensing behaviors (such as shifts of gaze) to sample relevant cues. However, while attention and decision making are naturally coordinated, in the laboratory they have been dissociated. Attention is studied independently of the actions it serves. Conversely, decision theories make the simplifying assumption that the relevant information is given, and do not attempt to describe how the decision maker may learn and implement active sampling policies...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919042/new-tools-for-the-visualization-of-biological-pathways
#9
Tomojit Ghosh, Xiaofeng Ma, Michael Kirby
This paper presents several geometrically motivated techniques for the visualization of high-dimensional biological data sets. The Grassmann manifold provides a robust framework for measuring data similarity in a subspace context. Sparse radial basis function classification as a visualization technique leverages recent advances in radial basis function learning via convex optimization. In the spirit of deep belief networks, supervised centroid-encoding is proposed as a way to exploit class label information...
September 14, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918646/depletion-of-gut-resident-ccr5-cells-for-hiv-cure-strategies
#10
David Patrick Merriam, Connie Chen, Gema Mendez-Lagares, Kenneth Rogers, Anthony Michaels, Jiangli Yan, Paul Casaz, Keith Reimann, Francois Villenger, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor
The HIV reservoir forming at the earliest stages of infection is likely composed of CCR5+ cells, because these cells are the targets of transmissible virus. Restriction of the CCR5+ reservoir, particularly in gut, may be needed for subsequent cure attempts. Strategies for killing or depleting CCR5+ cells have been described, but none have been tested in vivo in non-human primates and the extent of achievable depletion from tissues is not known. Here we investigate the efficacy of two novel cytotoxic treatments for targeting and eliminating CCR5+ cells in young rhesus macaques...
September 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918605/food-or-threat-wild-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-libidinosus-as-both-predators-and-prey-of-snakes
#11
Tiago Falótico, Michele P Verderane, Olívia Mendonça-Furtado, Noemi Spagnoletti, Eduardo B Ottoni, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Patrícia Izar
Snakes present a hazard to primates, both as active predators and by defensive envenomation. This risk might have been a selective pressure on the evolution of primate visual and cognitive systems, leading to several behavioral traits present in human and non-human primates, such as the ability to quickly learn to fear snakes. Primates seldom prey on snakes, and humans are one of the few primate species that do. We report here another case, the wild capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus), which preys on snakes...
September 16, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917660/stereotaxic-18-f-fdg-pet-and-mri-templates-with-three-dimensional-digital-atlas-for-statistical-parametric-mapping-analysis-of-tree-shrew-brain
#12
Qi Huang, Binbin Nie, Chen Ma, Jing Wang, Tianhao Zhang, Shaofeng Duan, Shang Wu, Shengxiang Liang, Panlong Li, Hua Liu, Hua Sun, Jiangning Zhou, Lin Xu, Baoci Shan
BACKGROUND: Tree shrews are proposed as an alternative animal model to nonhuman primates due to their close affinity to primates. Neuroimaging techniques are widely used to study brain functions and structures of humans and animals. However, tree shrews are rarely applied in neuroimaging field partly due to the lack of available species specific analysis methods. NEW METHOD: In this study, 10 PET/CT and 10 MRI images of tree shrew brain were used to construct PET and MRI templates; based on histological atlas we reconstructed a three-dimensional digital atlas with 628 structures delineated; then the digital atlas and templates were aligned into a stereotaxic space...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916921/potential-effect-of-prolonged-sevoflurane-anesthesia-on-the-kinetics-of-11-c-raclopride-in-non-human-primates
#13
Ryosuke Arakawa, Lars Farde, Junya Matsumoto, Naoki Kanegawa, Igor Yakushev, Kai-Chun Yang, Akihiro Takano
PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography (PET) in non-human primates (NHP) is commonly performed under anesthesia, with sevoflurane being a widely used inhaled anesthetic. PET measurement in NHP can be repeated, and a difference in radioligand kinetics has previously been observed between the first and second PET measurement on the same day using sevoflurane anesthesia. In this study, we evaluated the effect of prolonged sevoflurane anesthesia on kinetics and binding potential (BPND) of [(11)C]raclopride in NHP...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916171/neurobehavioral-assessment-of-mice-following-repeated-oral-exposures-to-domoic-acid-during-prenatal-development
#14
Motohiro Shiotani, Toby B Cole, Sungwoo Hong, Julie Ju Young Park, William C Griffith, Thomas M Burbacher, Tomomi Workman, Lucio G Costa, Elaine M Faustman
Domoic acid (DA) is an algal toxin which has been associated with significant neurotoxicity in humans, non-human primates, rodents, and marine mammals. Developmental exposure to DA is believed to result in neurotoxicity that may persist into adulthood. DA is produced by harmful algal blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia, raising concerns about the consumption of contaminated seafood. We evaluated oral exposures to DA during pregnancy in mice. Doses of 0 (vehicle), 1 or 3mg/kg/d of DA were administered by gavage to C57BL/6J mice on gestational days 10 to 17...
September 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916155/ancestral-resurrection-of-anthropoid-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-demonstrates-functional-consequences-of-positive-selection
#15
Amy Weckle, Michael R McGowen, Jun Xing, Caoyi Chen, Kirstin N Sterner, Zhuo-Cheng Hou, Roberto Romero, Derek E Wildman
Anthropoid primates arose during the Eocene approximately 55 million years ago (mya), and extant anthropoids share a most recent common ancestor ∼40 mya. Paleontology has been very successful at describing the morphological phenotypes of extinct anthropoids. Less well understood is the molecular biology of these extinct species as well as the phenotypic consequences of evolutionary variation in their genomes. Here we resurrect the most recent common ancestral anthropoid estrogen receptor β gene (ESR2) and demonstrate that the function of this ancestral estrogen receptor has been maintained during human descent but was altered during early New World monkey (NWM) evolution by becoming a more potent transcriptional activator...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916140/an-integrative-interdisciplinary-perspective-on-social-dominance-hierarchies
#16
REVIEW
Chen Qu, Romain Ligneul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Jean-Claude Dreher
In the course of evolution, social dominance has been a strong force shaping the organization of social systems in many species. Individuals with a better ability to represent social dominance relationships and to adapt their behavior accordingly usually achieve better access to resources, hence providing benefits in terms of reproduction, health, and wellbeing. Understanding how and to what extent our brains are affected by social dominance requires interdisciplinary efforts. Here, we integrate findings from social neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology to highlight how social hierarchies are learned and represented in primates...
September 12, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916000/development-phenotype-and-function-of-non-conventional-b-cells
#17
REVIEW
J M B Prieto, M J B Felippe
Three populations of B cells develop in fetal life: B1, B2 and marginal zone B cells. B1 cells play important roles in innate immunity in contrast to B2 cells that perform the conventional roles in adaptive immunity. B1 cells were first identified in mice based on their expression of CD5 and spontaneous secretion of IgM. B1 cells were subsequently found to have unique developmental, phenotype, tissue distribution, and functional characteristics that differ from B2 cells. These phenotypic and functional differences allow B1 cells to play important roles in immunity and homeostasis, but be implicated in autoimmune disease...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915635/dysregulation-of-an-x-linked-primate-specific-epididymal-microrna-cluster-in-unexplained-asthenozoospermia
#18
Xingrong Qing, Jian Shi, Tingting Dong, Chunlin Wu, Lian Hu, Honggang Li
Asthenoszoopermia, characterized by reduced sperm motility, is one of the primary forms of male infertility. Whereas most cases were diagnosed into unexplained asthenozoospermia (UA) because the etiology cannot be identified. In animal models, epigenetic dysregulation in epididymis can impair sperm maturation and result in asthenozoospermia. However, researches of epididymal epigenetic regulation on humans are impeded by the difficulty in obtaining epididymal tissues. We previously identified cell-free seminal microRNAs predominately derived from epididymis in human ejaculate...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915064/the-immunopathologic-effects-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-and-cards-toxin-a-primate-model
#19
Diego J Maselli, Jorge L Medina, Edward G Brooks, Jacqueline J Coalson, Thirumalai R Kannan, Vicki T Winter, Molly Principe, Marianna P Cagle, Joel B Baseman, Peter H Dube, Jay I Peters
Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection has been linked to poor asthma outcomes. M. pneumoniae produces an ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating toxin called Community Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome (CARDS) toxin that has a major role in inflammation and airway dysfunction. The objective was to evaluate the immunopathological effects in primates exposed to M. pneumoniae or CARDS toxin. Thirteen baboons were exposed to M. pneumoniae or CARDS toxin. At day 7 and 14, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected and analyzed for cell count, percent of each type of cell, CARDS toxin by PCR, CARDS toxin by antigen capture, eosinophilic cationic protein, and cytokine profiles...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913907/primate-diversification-inferred-from-phylogenies-and-fossils
#20
James P Herrera
Biodiversity arises from the balance between speciation and extinction. Fossils record the origins and disappearance of organisms, and the branching patterns of molecular phylogenies allow estimation of speciation and extinction rates, but the patterns of diversification are frequently incongruent between these two data sources. I tested two hypotheses about the diversification of primates based on ∼600 fossil species and 90% complete phylogenies of living species: 1) diversification rates increased through time; 2) a significant extinction event occurred in the Oligocene...
September 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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