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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641214/motor-system-dysfunction-in-the-schizophrenia-diathesis-neural-systems-to-neurotransmitters
#1
R Abboud, C Noronha, V A Diwadkar
Motor control is a ubiquitous aspect of human function, and from its earliest origins, abnormal motor control has been proposed as being central to schizophrenia. The neurobiological architecture of the motor system is well understood in primates and involves cortical and sub-cortical components including the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Notably all of these regions are associated in some manner to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
April 25, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641108/high-speed-and-scalable-whole-brain-imaging-in-rodents-and-primates
#2
Kaoru Seiriki, Atsushi Kasai, Takeshi Hashimoto, Wiebke Schulze, Misaki Niu, Shun Yamaguchi, Takanobu Nakazawa, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Shiori Uezono, Masahiko Takada, Yuichiro Naka, Hisato Igarashi, Masato Tanuma, James A Waschek, Yukio Ago, Kenji F Tanaka, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Kazuki Nagayasu, Norihito Shintani, Ryota Hashimoto, Yasuto Kunii, Mizuki Hino, Junya Matsumoto, Hirooki Yabe, Takeharu Nagai, Katsumasa Fujita, Toshio Matsuda, Kazuhiro Takuma, Akemichi Baba, Hitoshi Hashimoto
Subcellular resolution imaging of the whole brain and subsequent image analysis are prerequisites for understanding anatomical and functional brain networks. Here, we have developed a very high-speed serial-sectioning imaging system named FAST (block-face serial microscopy tomography), which acquires high-resolution images of a whole mouse brain in a speed range comparable to that of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy. FAST enables complete visualization of the brain at a resolution sufficient to resolve all cells and their subcellular structures...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640911/evolution-of-microrna-in-primates
#3
Jennifer C McCreight, Sean E Schneider, Damien B Wilburn, Willie J Swanson
MicroRNA play an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of most transcripts in the human genome, but their evolution across the primate lineage is largely uncharacterized. A particular miRNA can have one to thousands of messenger RNA targets, establishing the potential for a small change in sequence or overall miRNA structure to have profound phenotypic effects. However, the majority of non-human primate miRNA is predicted solely by homology to the human genome and lacks experimental validation. In the present study, we sequenced thirteen species representing a wide range of the primate phylogeny...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640816/topographic-independent-component-analysis-reveals-random-scrambling-of-orientation-in-visual-space
#4
Marina Martinez-Garcia, Luis M Martinez, Jesús Malo
Neurons at primary visual cortex (V1) in humans and other species are edge filters organized in orientation maps. In these maps, neurons with similar orientation preference are clustered together in iso-orientation domains. These maps have two fundamental properties: (1) retinotopy, i.e. correspondence between displacements at the image space and displacements at the cortical surface, and (2) a trade-off between good coverage of the visual field with all orientations and continuity of iso-orientation domains in the cortical space...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637327/effect-of-simvastatin-on-baboon-endometriosis
#5
Hugh S Taylor, Myles Alderman, Thomas M D'Hooghe, Asgerally T Fazleabas, Duleba J Antoni
Endometriosis, a common disorder affecting women of reproductive age is characterized by ectopic growth of the endometrial tissues, altered steroid hormone response and inflammation. Previous studies revealed that statins, selective inhibitors of the key step of mevalonate pathway, inhibit growth of endometrial stromal cells in vitro and reduce endometriotic lesions in murine models of endometriosis. This study evaluated the effects of simvastatin on the development of endometriosis in a baboon model of this disease...
June 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637190/evolution-of-the-sperm-methylome-of-primates-is-associated-with-retrotransposon-insertions-and-genome-instability
#6
Kei Fukuda, Yukihiro Inoguchi, Kenji Ichiyanagi, Tomoko Ichiyanagi, Yasuhiro Go, Masashi Nagano, Yojiro Yanagawa, Noboru Takaesu, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Hiroo Imai, Hiroyuki Sasaki
Changes in gene expression resulting from epigenetic and/or genetic changes play an important role in the evolutionary divergence of phenotypes. To explore how epigenetic and genetic changes are linked during primate evolution, we have compared the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles (methylomes) of humans and chimpanzees, which have a 1.2% DNA sequence divergence, of sperm, the frontal cortices, B cells, and neutrophils. We revealed that species-specific differentially methylated regions (S-DMRs), ranging from several hundred bp to several kb, were frequently associated with sequence changes in transcription factor binding sites and insertions of Alu and SVA retrotransposons...
June 20, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637171/representation-of-rapid-image-sequences-in-v4-networks
#7
Jose A Fernandez-Leon, Bryan J Hansen, Valentin Dragoi
Natural viewing often consists of sequences of brief fixations to image patches of different structure. Whether and how briefly presented sequential stimuli are encoded in a temporal-position manner is poorly understood. Here, we performed multiple-electrode recordings in the visual cortex (area V4) of nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta) viewing a sequence of 7 briefly flashed natural images, and measured correlations between the cue-triggered population response in the presence and absence of the stimulus. Surprisingly, we found significant correlations for images occurring at the beginning and the end of a sequence, but not for those in the middle...
June 20, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636956/elicitation-of-robust-tier-2-neutralizing-antibody-responses-in-nonhuman-primates-by-hiv-envelope-trimer-immunization-using-optimized-approaches
#8
Matthias Pauthner, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Devin Sok, Joseph P Nkolola, Raiza Bastidas, Archana V Boopathy, Diane G Carnathan, Abishek Chandrashekar, Kimberly M Cirelli, Christopher A Cottrell, Alexey M Eroshkin, Javier Guenaga, Kirti Kaushik, Daniel W Kulp, Jinyan Liu, Laura E McCoy, Aaron L Oom, Gabriel Ozorowski, Kai W Post, Shailendra K Sharma, Jon M Steichen, Steven W de Taeye, Talar Tokatlian, Alba Torrents de la Peña, Salvatore T Butera, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Guido Silvestri, Ian A Wilson, Darrell J Irvine, Rogier W Sanders, William R Schief, Andrew B Ward, Richard T Wyatt, Dan H Barouch, Shane Crotty, Dennis R Burton
The development of stabilized recombinant HIV envelope trimers that mimic the virion surface molecule has increased enthusiasm for a neutralizing antibody (nAb)-based HIV vaccine. However, there is limited experience with recombinant trimers as immunogens in nonhuman primates, which are typically used as a model for humans. Here, we tested multiple immunogens and immunization strategies head-to-head to determine their impact on the quantity, quality, and kinetics of autologous tier 2 nAb development. A bilateral, adjuvanted, subcutaneous immunization protocol induced reproducible tier 2 nAb responses after only two immunizations 8 weeks apart, and these were further enhanced by a third immunization with BG505 SOSIP trimer...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636646/variation-in-hunting-behaviour-in-neighbouring-chimpanzee-communities-in-the-budongo-forest-uganda
#9
Catherine Hobaiter, Liran Samuni, Caroline Mullins, Walter John Akankwasa, Klaus Zuberbühler
Hunting and sharing of meat is seen across all chimpanzee sites, with variation in prey preferences, hunting techniques, frequencies, and success rates. Here, we compared hunting and meat-eating behaviour in two adjacent chimpanzee communities (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of Budongo Forest, Uganda: the Waibira and Sonso communities. We observed consistent between-group differences in prey-species preferences and in post-hunting behaviour. Sonso chimpanzees show a strong prey preference for Guereza colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza occidentalis; 74...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636360/proneurogenic-effects-of-trazodone-in-murine-and-human-neural-progenitors
#10
Valeria Bortolotto, Francesca Mancini, Giorgina Mangano, Rita Salem, Er Xia, Erika Del Grosso, Michele Bianchi, Pier Luigi Canonico, Lorenzo Polenzani, Mariagrazia Grilli
Several antidepressants increase adult hippocampal Neurogenesis (ahNG) in rodents, primates and, potentially, in humans. This effect may at least partially account for their therapeutic activity. The availability of antidepressants whose mechanism of action involves different neurotransmitter receptors represents an opportunity for increasing our knowledge on their distinctive peculiarities and for dissecting the contribution of receptor subtypes in ahNG modulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effects of the antidepressant trazodone (TZD) on ahNG by using primary cultures of adult hippocampal Neural Progenitor Cells (ahNPC) and human iPSC-derived NPC...
June 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635509/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-dopaminergic-neurons-from-adult-common-marmoset-fibroblasts
#11
Scott C Vermilyea, Scott Guthrie, Michael Meyer, Kim Smuga-Otto, Katarina Braun, Sara Howden, James A Thomson, Su-Chun Zhang, Marina Emborg, Dr Thaddeus G Golos
The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus; Cj) is an advantageous nonhuman primate species for modeling age-related disorders, including Parkinson's disease, due to their shorter lifespan compared to macaques. Cj-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (Cj-iPSCs) from somatic cells are needed for in vitro disease modeling and testing regenerative medicine approaches. Here we report the development of a novel Cj-iPSC line derived from adult marmoset fibroblasts. The Cj-iPSCs showed potent pluripotency properties including development of mesodermal lineages in tumors after injection to immunocompromised mice, as well as ectoderm and endoderm lineages after in vitro differentiation regimens, demonstrating differentiated derivatives of all three embryonic layers...
June 21, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634675/wild-capuchin-monkeys-anticipate-the-amount-of-ripe-fruit-in-natural-trees
#12
María Paula Tujague, Charles H Janson
Tropical forests have a high diversity of tree species which have very low densities and vary across time in their seasons of peak fruiting and maturation rates. As evidence of the ability of primates to track or anticipate changes in fruit production at individual trees, researchers have used the increased speed of primate groups toward more rewarding food patches. We analyzed the speed of approach to natural trees of wild capuchin monkeys under the effect of scramble competition, after excluding any plausible visual, olfactory and auditory cues...
June 20, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634668/black-and-white-snub-nosed-monkey-rhinopithecus-bieti-feeding-behavior-in-a-degraded-forest-fragment-clues-to-a-stressed-population
#13
Zhi-Pang Huang, Matthew B Scott, Yan-Peng Li, Guo-Peng Ren, Zuo-Fu Xiang, Liang-Wei Cui, Wen Xiao
Rapid global deforestation has forced many of the world's primates to live in fragmented habitats, making the understanding of their behavioral responses to degraded and fragmented habitats a key challenge for their future protection and management. The black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) is an endangered species endemic to southwest China. The forest habitat ranges from near-continuous to fragmented. In this study, we investigated the activity budget and diet of a R. bieti population that live in an isolated and degraded habitat patch at Mt...
June 20, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634624/population-averaged-macaque-brain-atlas-with-high-resolution-ex-vivo-dti-integrated-into-in-vivo-space
#14
Lei Feng, Tina Jeon, Qiaowen Yu, Minhui Ouyang, Qinmu Peng, Virendra Mishra, Mihovil Pletikos, Nenad Sestan, Michael I Miller, Susumu Mori, Steven Hsiao, Shuwei Liu, Hao Huang
Animal models of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), the most widely used nonhuman primate, have been irreplaceable in neurobiological studies. However, a population-averaged macaque brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) atlas, including comprehensive gray and white matter labeling as well as bony and facial landmarks guiding invasive experimental procedures, is not available. The macaque white matter tract pathways and microstructures have been rarely recorded. Here, we established a population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space incorporating bony and facial landmarks, and delineated microstructures and three-dimensional pathways of major white matter tracts in vivo MRI/DTI and ex vivo (postmortem) DTI of ten rhesus macaque brains were acquired...
June 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634590/the-immune-epitope-database-how-data-are-entered-and-retrieved
#15
REVIEW
Ward Fleri, Kerrie Vaughan, Nima Salimi, Randi Vita, Bjoern Peters, Alessandro Sette
Easy access to a vast collection of experimental data on immune epitopes can greatly facilitate the development of therapeutics and vaccines. The Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) was developed to provide such a resource as a free service to the biomedical research community. The IEDB contains epitope and assay information related to infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, allergic diseases, and transplant/alloantigens for humans, nonhuman primates, mice, and any other species studied. It contains T cell, B cell, MHC binding, and MHC ligand elution experiments...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630937/high-precision-neural-decoding-of-complex-movement-trajectories-using-recursive-bayesian-estimation-with-dynamic-movement-primitives
#16
Guy Hotson, Ryan J Smith, Adam G Rouse, Marc H Schieber, Nitish V Thakor, Brock A Wester
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a rapidly progressing technology with the potential to restore function to victims of severe paralysis via neural control of robotic systems. Great strides have been made in directly mapping a user's cortical activity to control of the individual degrees of freedom of robotic end-effectors. While BMIs have yet to achieve the level of reliability desired for widespread clinical use, environmental sensors (e.g. RGB-D cameras for object detection) and prior knowledge of common movement trajectories hold great potential for improving system performance...
July 2016: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630326/reconstruction-and-evolutionary-history-of-eutherian-chromosomes
#17
Jaebum Kim, Marta Farré, Loretta Auvil, Boris Capitanu, Denis M Larkin, Jian Ma, Harris A Lewin
Whole-genome assemblies of 19 placental mammals and two outgroup species were used to reconstruct the order and orientation of syntenic fragments in chromosomes of the eutherian ancestor and six other descendant ancestors leading to human. For ancestral chromosome reconstructions, we developed an algorithm (DESCHRAMBLER) that probabilistically determines the adjacencies of syntenic fragments using chromosome-scale and fragmented genome assemblies. The reconstructed chromosomes of the eutherian, boreoeutherian, and euarchontoglires ancestor each included >80% of the entire length of the human genome, whereas reconstructed chromosomes of the most recent common ancestor of simians, catarrhini, great apes, and humans and chimpanzees included >90% of human genome sequence...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630310/group-augmentation-collective-action-and-territorial-boundary-patrols-by-male-chimpanzees
#18
Kevin E Langergraber, David P Watts, Linda Vigilant, John C Mitani
How can collective action evolve when individuals benefit from cooperation regardless of whether they pay its participation costs? According to one influential perspective, collective action problems are common, especially when groups are large, but may be solved when individuals who have more to gain from the collective good or can produce it at low costs provide it to others as a byproduct. Several results from a 20-y study of one of the most striking examples of collective action in nonhuman animals, territorial boundary patrolling by male chimpanzees, are consistent with these ideas...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630255/social-context-dependent-activity-in-marmoset-frontal-cortex-populations-during-natural-conversations
#19
Samuel U Nummela, Vladimir Jovanovic, Lisa de la Mothe, Cory T Miller
Communication is an inherently interactive process that weaves together the fabric of both human and nonhuman primate societies. To investigate the properties of the primate brain during active social signaling, we recorded the responses of frontal cortex neurons as freely-moving marmosets engaged in conversational exchanges with a visually occluded Virtual Marmoset (VM). We found that small changes in firing rate (∼1Hz) occurred across a broadly distributed population of frontal cortex neurons when marmosets heard a conspecific vocalization, and that these changes corresponded to subjects' likelihood of producing or withholding a vocal reply...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629988/4-azidocytidine-r1479-inhibits-henipaviruses-and-other-paramyxoviruses-with-high-potency
#20
Anne L Hotard, Biao He, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou, Michael K Lo
The henipaviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses which have caused fatal outbreaks of encephalitis and respiratory disease in humans. Despite the availability of a licensed equine Hendra virus vaccine and a neutralizing monoclonal antibody shown to be efficacious against henipavirus infections in non-human primates, there remains no approved therapeutics or vaccines for human use. To explore the possibility of developing small-molecule nucleoside inhibitors against henipaviruses, we evaluated the antiviral activity of 4'-azidocytidine (R1479), a drug previously identified to inhibit flaviviruses, against henipaviruses along with other representative members of the family Paramyxoviridae...
June 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
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