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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785833/species-differences-in-bile-acids-i-plasma-and-urine-bile-acid-composition
#1
Rhishikesh Thakare, Jawaher Abdullah Alamoudi, Nagsen Gautam, A David Rodrigues, Yazen Alnouti
Maintenance of bile acid (BA) homeostasis is essential to achieve their physiologic functions and avoid their toxic effects. The marked differences in BA composition between preclinical safety models and humans may play a major role in the poor prediction of drug-induced liver injury using preclinical models. We compared the composition of plasma and urinary BAs and their metabolites between humans and several animal species. Total BA pools and their composition varied widely among different species. Highest sulfation of BAs was observed in human and chimpanzee...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785638/intermittent-convection-enhanced-delivery-of-gdnf-into-rhesus-monkey-putamen-absence-of-local-or-cerebellar-toxicity
#2
Matthias Luz, Philip C Allen, John Bringas, Chris Boiko, Diane E Stockinger, Kristen J Nikula, Owen Lewis, Max Woolley, H Christian Fibiger, Krystof Bankiewicz, Erich Mohr
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has demonstrated neurorestorative and neuroprotective effects in rodent and nonhuman primate models of Parkinson's disease. However, continuous intraputamenal infusion of GDNF (100 µg/day) resulted in multifocal cerebellar Purkinje cell loss in a 6-month toxicity study in rhesus monkeys. It was hypothesized that continuous leakage of GDNF into the cerebrospinal fluid compartment during the infusions led to down-regulation of GDNF receptors on Purkinje cells, and that subsequent acute withdrawal of GDNF then mediated the observed cerebellar lesions...
May 22, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785226/progressive-assessment-of-ischemic-injury-to-white-matter-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-a-preliminary-study-of-a-macaque-model-of-stroke
#3
Xiaodong Zhang, Yumei Yan, Frank Tong, Chun-Xia Li, Benjamin Jones, Silun Wang, Yuguang Meng, E Chris Muly, Doty Kempf, Leonard Howell
Background: Previous Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies have demonstrated the temporal evolution of stroke injury in grey matter and white matter can be characterized by DTI indices. However, it still remains not fully understood how the DTI indices of white matter are altered progressively during the hyperacute (first 6 hours) and acute stage of stroke (≤ 1 week). In the present study, DTI was employed to characterize the temporal evolution of infarction and white matter injury after stroke insult using a macaque model with permanent ischemic occlusion...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785149/the-pregnant-female-surgical-resident
#4
Vanessa Shifflette, Susannah Hambright, Joseph Darryl Amos, Ernest Dunn, Maria Allo
Background: Surgery continues to be an intense, time-consuming residency. Many medical students decide against surgery as a profession due to the long work hours and family strain. The pregnant female surgical resident has an added stress factor compared to her male counterpart. Methods: We distributed an electronic, online 26-question survey to 32 general surgery programs in the southwestern region of the United States. Each program distributed our survey to the female surgical residents who had been pregnant during residency in the last 5 years...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784672/genetic-screening-and-multipotency-in-rhesus-monkey-haploid-neural-progenitor-cells
#5
Haisong Wang, Wenhao Zhang, Jian Yu, Congyu Wu, Qian Gao, Xu Li, Yanni Li, Jinxin Zhang, Yaru Tian, Tao Tan, Weizhi Ji, Luyuan Li, Yang Yu, Ling Shuai
Haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) have been extensively applied in forward and reverse genetic screening. However, the mammalian haploid somatic cell line is difficult to achieve because of spontaneous diploidization in differentiation. As a non-human primate species, monkeys are widely used in basic and pre-clinical research in which haploid cells are restricted to ESCs. Here, we report that rhesus monkey haESCs in an optimized culture medium showed naïve-state pluripotency and stable haploidy. This model facilitated the derivation of haploid neural progenitor cells (haNPCs), which maintained haploidy and differentiation potential into neurons and glia for a long period in vitro High-throughput trapping mutations can be efficiently introduced into haNPCs via piggyBac transposons...
May 21, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784663/involvement-of-nicotinic-receptor-subtypes-in-behavioral-effects-of-nicotinic-drugs-in-squirrel-monkeys
#6
Sarah Louise Withey, Michelle R Doyle, Jack Bergman, Rajeev I Desai
Evidence suggests that the α4β2, but not the α7, subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) plays a key role in mediating the behavioral effects of nicotine and related drugs. However, the importance of other nAChR subtypes remains unclear. The present studies were conducted to examine the involvement of nAChR subtypes by determining the effects of selected nicotinic agonists and antagonists in squirrel monkeys: a) responding for food-reinforcement; or b) discriminating the nicotinic agonist (+)-epibatidine (0...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784161/surgeon-perspectives-on-learning-ab-interno-gelatin-microstent-implantation
#7
Andrei-Alexandru Szigiato, Simrenjeet Sandhu, Gokulan Ratnarajan, Michael W Dorey, Iqbal Ike K Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the surgeon's learning experience with an ab-interno gelatin microstent (XEN-45, Allergan) to other glaucoma surgeries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey study. METHODS: All surgeons in Canada who used the gelatin microstent were identified and given an anonymous online survey (FluidSurveys, Survey Monkey) designed to evaluate key factors associated with the device, including prior surgical experience, patient selection criteria, analysis of each surgical step, and postoperative care...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780739/knowledge-and-attitude-of-dental-health-professionals-about-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-in-saudi-arabia
#8
Sameer Abdullah Althomairy, Mohammad Abdul Baseer, Mansour Assery, Abdulrahman Dahham Alsaffan
Aim and Objective: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of practicing dental health professionals (DHPs) (dentist and dental auxiliaries) toward Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken among practicing DHPs in Saudi Arabia. A total of 202 DHPs participated in this study. Knowledge and attitude were assessed using self-administered and pretested questionnaire...
March 2018: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779686/a-2ma-old-baboon-like-monkey-from-northern-greece-and-new-evidence-to-support-the-paradolichopithecus-procynocephalus-synonymy-primates-cercopithecidae
#9
Dimitris S Kostopoulos, Franck Guy, Zoi Kynigopoulou, George D Koufos, Xavier Valentin, Gildas Merceron
A new fossil cranium of a large papionin monkey from the Lower Pleistocene site of Dafnero-3 in Western Macedonia, Greece, is described by means of outer and inner morphological and metric traits using high-resolution micro-computed tomography. Comparisons with modern cercopithecids and contemporaneous Eurasian fossil taxa suggest that the new cranium could equally be ascribed to either the Eurasian Paradolichopithecus or to the East Asian Procynocephalus. The combination of the available direct and indirect fossil evidence, including the new cranium from Dafnero, revives an earlier hypothesis that considers these two sparsely documented genera as synonyms...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777959/extracellular-matrix-expression-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-retinal-organoids-recapitulates-retinogenesis-in-vivo-and-reveals-an-important-role-for-impg1-and-cd44-in-the-development-of-photoreceptors-and-interphotoreceptor-matrix
#10
Majed Felemban, Birthe Dorgau, Nicola Claire Hunt, Dean Hallam, Darin Zerti, Roman Bauer, Yuchun Ding, Joseph Collin, David Steel, Natalio Krasnogor, Jumana Al-Aama, Susan Lindsay, Carla Mellough, Majlinda Lako
The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in numerous processes including cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, maturation, adhesion guidance and axonal growth. To date, there has been no detailed analysis of the ECM distribution during retinal ontogenesis in humans and the functional importance of many ECM components is poorly understood. In this study, the expression of key ECM components in adult mouse and monkey retina, developing and adult human retina and retinal organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells was studied...
May 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777811/electrospun-chitosan-polycaprolactone-hyaluronic-acid-bilayered-scaffold-for-potential-wound-healing-applications
#11
Amit Chanda, Jaideep Adhikari, Aritri Ghosh, Sougata Roy Chowdhury, Sabu Thomas, Pallab Datta, Prosenjit Saha
Fabrication of mechanically stable, biocompatible bilayered polymeric scaffold consisting of chitosan(CS)/polycaprolactone(PCL) and hyaluronic acid(HA) using less toxic solvent system is presented in this study. Electrospinning technique to make the scaffold was used followed by morphological, physiochemical and mechanical characterizations. Average fiber diameter of CS/PCL-HA bilayered scaffold was found 362.2 ± 236 nm which is in the range of collagen fiber found in the extracellular matrices. Enhanced swelling, degradation, hydrophilicity and water vapour transmission rate were found for the bilayered scaffold compared to that of the PCL and CS-PCL scaffolds...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777726/a-novel-approach-to-probabilistic-characterisation-of-neural-firing-patterns
#12
Gorana Mijatović, Tatjana Lončar-Turukalo, Emmanuel Procyk, Dragana Bajić
BACKGROUND: The advances in extracellular neural recording techniques result in big data volumes that necessitate fast, reliable, and automatic identification of statistically similar units. This study proposes a single framework yielding a compact set of probabilistic descriptors that characterise the firing patterns of a single unit. NEW METHOD: Probabilistic features are estimated from an inter-spike-interval time series, without assumptions about the firing distribution or the stationarity...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777172/contrasting-patterns-of-runx2-repeat-variations-are-associated-with-palate-shape-in-phyllostomid-bats-and-new-world-primates
#13
Tiago Ferraz, Daniela M Rossoni, Sérgio L Althoff, Alcides Pissinatti, Vanessa R Paixão-Cortês, Maria Cátira Bortolini, Rolando González-José, Gabriel Marroig, Francisco M Salzano, Gislene L Gonçalves, Tábita Hünemeier
Establishing the genetic basis that underlies craniofacial variability in natural populations is one of the main topics of evolutionary and developmental studies. One of the genes associated with mammal craniofacial variability is RUNX2, and in the present study we investigated the association between craniofacial length and width and RUNX2 across New World bats (Phyllostomidae) and primates (Catarrhini and Platyrrhini). Our results showed contrasting patterns of association between the glutamate/alanine ratios (Q/A ratio) and palate shape in these highly diverse groups...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775163/methylprednisolone-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-in-nonhuman-primates-with-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Jichao Ye, Yi Qin, Yong Tang, Mengjun Ma, Peng Wang, Lin Huang, Rui Yang, Keng Chen, Chaopeng Chai, Yanfeng Wu, Huiyong Shen
OBJECTIVE The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of methylprednisolone on the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (ENSCs) in nonhuman primates with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS A total of 14 healthy cynomolgus monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis) (4-5 years of age) were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group (n = 6), SCI group (n = 6), and methylprednisolone therapy group (n = 2). Only laminectomy was performed in the control animals at T-10. SCI was induced in monkeys using Allen's weight-drop method (50 mm × 50 g) to injure the posterior portion of the spinal cord at T-10...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774962/maternal-regulation-of-the-infant-s-hpa-axis-stress-response-seymour-gig-levine-s-legacy-to-neuroendocrinology
#15
REVIEW
Deborah Suchecki
Thirty years ago, Seymour 'Gig' Levine published a serendipitous, yet, seminal finding on the regulatory role of maternal presence on the corticosterone stress response of neonatal rats, during the developmental period know as stress hyporesponsive period. At the same time, his group of students also studied the stress response of infant monkeys to maternal separation, as a means to understand the stressful nature of disruptions of attachment to the primary caregiver. Gig and his group of students and collaborators, mainly in the USA and the Netherlands, investigated how initial social relationships buffer the stress response of non-human primate and rodent infants...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774840/widespread-treponema-pallidum-infection-in-nonhuman-primates-tanzania
#16
Idrissa S Chuma, Emmanuel K Batamuzi, D Anthony Collins, Robert D Fyumagwa, Luisa K Hallmaier-Wacker, Rudovick R Kazwala, Julius D Keyyu, Inyasi A Lejora, Iddi F Lipende, Simone Lüert, Filipa M D Paciência, Alexander Piel, Fiona A Stewart, Dietmar Zinner, Christian Roos, Sascha Knauf
We investigated Treponema pallidum infection in 8 nonhuman primate species (289 animals) in Tanzania during 2015-2017. We used a serologic treponemal test to detect antibodies against the bacterium. Infection was further confirmed from tissue samples of skin-ulcerated animals by 3 independent PCRs (polA, tp47, and TP_0619). Our findings indicate that T. pallidum infection is geographically widespread in Tanzania and occurs in several species (olive baboons, yellow baboons, vervet monkeys, and blue monkeys)...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771898/symptoms-of-bowel-dysfunction-and-their-management-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-a-new-zealand-centre
#17
Edwin P Arnold, Giovanni Losco, Sharon English, Frank Frizelle, Angelo Anthony
AIM: To document the symptoms of bowel dysfunction, and how the bowels are managed, in a cohort of patients following a spinal cord injury. To relate these to the level of the spinal injury and to examine the relationship between bowel symptoms and bladder dysfunction. METHOD: Participants were identified from the discharge data from the Burwood Spinal Unit, one of two national Spinal Units in New Zealand, in two two-year sets from 1-3 years post-injury and from 20-21 years post-injury...
May 18, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771629/brain-uptake-of-multivalent-and-multi-specific-dvd-ig-proteins-after-systemic-administration
#18
Denise Karaoglu Hanzatian, Annette Schwartz, Farid Gizatullin, Jamie Erickson, Kangwen Deng, Ruth Villanueva, Christopher Stedman, Cristina Harris, Tariq Ghayur, Andrew Goodearl
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and endogenous IgG antibodies show limited uptake into the central nervous system (CNS) due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which regulates and controls the selective and specific transport of both exogenous and endogenous materials to the brain. The use of natural transport mechanisms, such as receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT), to deliver antibody therapeutics into the brain have been studied in rodents and monkeys. Recent successful examples include monovalent bispecific antibodies and mono- or bivalent fusion proteins; however, these formats do not have the capability to bind to both the CNS target and the BBB transport receptor in a bivalent fashion as a canonical antibody would...
May 17, 2018: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769573/discovery-of-a-novel-il-15-based-protein-with-improved-developability-and-efficacy-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#19
Qiyue Hu, Xin Ye, Xiangdong Qu, Dongbing Cui, Lei Zhang, Zhibin Xu, Hong Wan, Lianshan Zhang, Weikang Tao
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) can promote both innate and adaptive immune reactions by stimulating CD8+ /CD4+ T cells and natural killer cells (NK) while showing no effect in activating T-regulatory (Treg) cells or inducing activation-associated death among effector T cells and NK cells. Thus, IL-15 is considered as one of the most promising molecules for antitumor immune therapy. To improve the drug-like properties of natural IL-15, we create an IL-15-based molecule, named P22339, with the following characteristics: 1) building a complex of IL-15 and the Sushi domain of IL-15 receptor α chain to enhance the agonist activity of IL-15 via transpresentation; 2) through a rational structure-based design, creating a disulfide bond linking the IL-15/Sushi domain complex with an IgG1 Fc to augment its half-life...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769463/the-kinematic-recovery-process-of-rhesus-monkeys-after-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Rui-Han Wei, Can Zhao, Jia-Sheng Rao, Wen Zhao, Xia Zhou, Peng-Yu Tian, Wei Song, Run Ji, Ai-Feng Zhang, Zhao-Yang Yang, Xiao-Guang Li
After incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), neural circuits may be plastically reconstructed to some degree, resulting in extensive functional locomotor recovery. The present study aimed to observe the post-SCI locomotor recovery of rhesus monkey hindlimbs and compare the recovery degrees of different hindlimb parts, thus revealing the recovery process of locomotor function. Four rhesus monkeys were chosen for thoracic hemisection injury. The hindlimb locomotor performance of these animals was recorded before surgery, as well as 6 and 12 weeks post-lesion...
May 16, 2018: Experimental Animals
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