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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161622/on-denny-brown-s-spastic-dystonia-what-is-it-and-what-causes-it
#1
REVIEW
Jakob Lorentzen, Maud Pradines, Jean-Michel Gracies, Jens Bo Nielsen
In this review, we will work around two simple definitions of two different entities, which most often co-exist in patients with lesions to central motor pathways: Spasticity is "Enhanced excitability of velocity-dependent responses to phasic stretch at rest", which will not be the subject of this review, while Spastic dystonia is tonic, chronic, involuntary muscle contraction in the absence of any stretch or any voluntary command (Gracies, 2005). Spastic dystonia is a much less well understood entity that will be the subject this review...
November 4, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161320/in-vivo-effects-of-intraocular-and-intracranial-pressures-on-the-lamina-cribrosa-microstructure
#2
Bo Wang, Huong Tran, Matthew A Smith, Tigran Kostanyan, Samantha E Schmitt, Richard A Bilonick, Ning-Jiun Jan, Larry Kagemann, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Joel S Schuman, Ian A Sigal, Gadi Wollstein
There is increasing clinical evidence that the eye is not only affected by intraocular pressure (IOP), but also by intracranial pressure (ICP). Both pressures meet at the optic nerve head of the eye, specifically the lamina cribrosa (LC). The LC is a collagenous meshwork through which all retinal ganglion cell axons pass on their way to the brain. Distortion of the LC causes a biological cascade leading to neuropathy and impaired vision in situations such as glaucoma and idiopathic intracranial hypertension...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158109/outcome-modulation-across-tasks-in-the-primate-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Encarni Marcos, Simon Nougaret, Satoshi Tsujimoto, Aldo Genovesio
Animals need to learn and to adapt to new and changing environments so that appropriate actions that lead to desirable outcomes are acquired within each context. The prefrontal cortex (PF) is known to underlie such function that directly implies that the outcome of each response must be represented in the brain for behavioral policies update. However, whether such PF signal is context dependent or it is a general representation beyond the specificity of a context is still unclear. Here, we analyzed the activity of neurons in the dorsolateral PF (PFdl) recorded while two monkeys performed two perceptual magnitude discrimination tasks...
November 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157998/the-developmental-time-course-and-topographic-distribution-of-individual-level-monkey-face-discrimination-in-the-infant-brain
#4
Ryan Barry-Anwar, Hillary Hadley, Stefania Conte, Andreas Keil, Lisa S Scott
The ability to discriminate between faces from unfamiliar face groups has previously been found to decrease across the first year of life. Here, individual-level discrimination of faces within a previously unfamiliar group was investigated by measuring neural responses to monkey faces. Six- and 9-month-old infants (n = 42) completed a Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation (FPVS) task while steady state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were recorded. Using an oddball task design (e.g., infrequent changes in face identity) faces were presented at a 6Hz (1 face approximately every 167 ms) stimulation rate and every 1...
November 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157936/short-parietal-lobe-connections-of-the-human-and-monkey-brain
#5
Marco Catani, Naianna Robertsson, Ahmad Beyh, Vincent Huynh, Francisco de Santiago Requejo, Henrietta Howells, Rachel L C Barrett, Marco Aiello, Carlo Cavaliere, Tim B Dyrby, Kristine Krug, Maurice Ptito, Helen D'Arceuil, Stephanie J Forkel, Flavio Dell'Acqua
The parietal lobe has a unique place in the human brain. Anatomically, it is at the crossroad between the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes, thus providing a middle ground for multimodal sensory integration. Functionally, it supports higher cognitive functions that are characteristic of the human species, such as mathematical cognition, semantic and pragmatic aspects of language, and abstract thinking. Despite its importance, a comprehensive comparison of human and simian intraparietal networks is missing...
November 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156766/isobaric-tags-for-relative-and-absolute-quantification-based-proteomic-analysis-of-testis-biopsies-in-rhesus-monkeys-treated-with-transient-scrotal-hyperthermia
#6
Meng Rao, Sha Ma, Shifu Hu, Hui Lei, Yanqing Wu, Yanfei Zhou, Wei Xia, Changhong Zhu
This study aimed to examine the cellular and molecular events that occur in rhesus monkey testes after scrotal hyperthermia. Eight male adult rhesus monkeys were subjected to scrotal hyperthermia at 43°C for 30 min daily for 6 consecutive days. Sperm concentration, reproductive hormones, and testis histology were examined before hyperthermia (day 0), and at 8, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days after the initiation of hyperthermia. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted on testicular tissues collected on days 0, 8, and 60 to identify differentially expressed proteins at the early and recovery stages of testicular damage...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155788/use-of-synaptic-zinc-histochemistry-to-reveal-different-regions-and-laminae-in-the-developing-and-adult-brain
#7
Reem Khalil, Jonathan B Levitt
Characterization of anatomical and functional brain organization and development requires accurate identification of distinct neural circuits and regions in the immature and adult brain. Here we describe a zinc histochemical staining procedure that reveals differences in staining patterns among different layers and brain regions. Others have utilized this procedure not only to reveal the distribution of zinc-containing neurons and circuits in the brain, but also to successfully delineate areal and laminar boundaries in the developing and adult brain in several species...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155331/evolution-of-vomeronasal-receptor-1-v1r-genes-in-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#8
Keiko Moriya-Ito, Takashi Hayakawa, Hikoyu Suzuki, Kimiko Hagino-Yamagishi, Masato Nikaido
Pheromones are crucial for eliciting innate responses and inducing social and sexual behaviors in mammals. The vomeronasal receptor 1 genes, V1Rs, encode members of a pheromone receptor family that are mainly expressed in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). The V1R family shows extraordinary variety in gene number among vertebrates owing to successive gene gains and losses during evolution. Such diversity is believed to reflect a degree of dependence on the VNO. We investigated V1R evolution in primate lineages closely related to humans because these VNOs show a trend toward degeneration...
November 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155040/radiolabelled-soman-binding-to-sera-from-rats-guinea-pigs-and-monkeys
#9
David E Lenz, Douglas Cerasoli, Donald M Maxwell
Soman is a highly toxic organophosphorus chemical warfare compound that binds rapidly and irreversibility to a variety of serine active enzymes, i.e., butyryl- and acetyl-cholinesterases and carboxylesterase. The in vivo toxicity of soman has been reported to vary significantly in different animal species, such as rats and guinea pigs or non-human primates. This species variation makes it difficult to identify appropriate animal models for therapeutic drug development under the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Animal Rule...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152731/decision-making-under-risk-of-gain-in-young-children-and-mangabey-monkeys
#10
James Rivière, Mathilde Stomp, Elisa Augustin, Alban Lemasson, Catherine Blois-Heulin
In contrast to human adults, risk proneness in the gain domain is usually observed in both young children and non-human primates. It is currently unclear what mechanism might be underlying such economic preferences. We investigated decision-making under risk of gain in toddlers and monkeys. The choices of 2.5-year-old children and red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) were examined in a gambling task for food reward in which participants have to choose between two options, a secure option and a risky option...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152028/a-fast-and-efficient-size-separation-method-for-haploid-embryonic-stem-cells
#11
Remo Freimann, Anton Wutz
Hemizygous mutations introduced in haploid genomes can directly expose a phenotype, thus facilitating gene function analysis and forward genetic screening. Recently, mammalian haploid cells could be derived from mouse, rat, monkey, and human embryos and have been applied to screens of cellular mechanisms including cell signaling, pathogen host factors, and developmental pathways. Notably, haploid cell cultures have an intrinsic tendency for diploidization and, thus, require periodic cell sorting. Here, we report a method for rapid purification of haploid mouse embryonic stem cells from mixed cell populations with high viability and yield...
September 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151603/tolerant-barbary-macaques-maintain-juvenile-levels-of-social-attention-in-old-age-but-despotic-rhesus-macaques-do-not
#12
Alexandra G Rosati, Laurie R Santos
Complex social life is thought to be a major driver of complex cognition in primates, but few studies have directly tested the relationship between a given primate species' social system and their social cognitive skills. We experimentally compared life span patterns of a foundational social cognitive skill (following another's gaze) in tolerant Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, and despotic rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Semi-free-ranging monkeys (N = 80 individuals from each species) followed gaze more in test trials where an actor looked up compared to control trials...
August 2017: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150986/memory-t-cells-are-significantly-increased-in-rejecting-liver-allografts-of-rhesus-monkeys
#13
Hwajung Kim, Hyeyoung Kim, Sun-Kyung Lee, Xue-Li Jin, Tae Jin Kim, Chanho Park, Jae-Il Lee, Hyo-Sin Kim, Suk Kyun Hong, Kyung Chul Yoon, Sung Woo Ahn, Kyoung-Bun Lee, Nam-Joon Yi, Jaeseok Yang, Kwang-Woong Lee, Wayne J Hawthorne, Kyung-Suk Suh
INTRODUCTION: The Rhesus monkey (RM) is an excellent preclinical model in kidney, heart and islet transplantation that has provided the basis for new immunosuppressive protocols for clinical studies. However, there remain relatively few liver transplantation (LT) models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we analyzed the immune cell populations of PBMCs and secondary lymphoid organs along with livers of normal rhesus monkeys and compared them to those of rejecting liver transplanted recipient's following withdrawal of immunosuppression...
November 18, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150977/the-cellular-composition-and-glia-neuron-ratio-in-the-spinal-cord-of-a-human-and-a-non-human-primate-comparison-with-other-species-and-brain-regions
#14
Jami Bahney, Christopher S von Bartheld
The cellular composition of brains shows largely conserved, gradual evolutionary trends between species. In the primate spinal cord, however, the glia-neuron ratio was reported to be greatly increased over that in the rodent spinal cord. Here, we re-examined the cellular composition of the spinal cord of one human and one non-human primate species by employing two different counting methods, the isotropic fractionator and stereology. We also determined whether segmental differences in cellular composition, possibly reflecting increased fine motor control of the upper extremities, may explain a sharply increased glia-neuron ratio in primates...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150543/toxicokinetics-and-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-the-shellfish-toxin-domoic-acid-in-nonhuman-primates
#15
Jing Jing, Rebekah Petroff, Sara Shum, Brenda Crouthamel, Ariel R Topletz, Kimberly S Grant, Thomas M Burbacher, Nina Isoherranen
Domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxin, is produced by marine algae and has caused toxications worldwide in animals and humans. However, the toxicokinetics of DA has not been fully evaluated, and information is missing on the disposition of DA following oral exposures at doses that are considered safe for human consumption. In this study, toxicokinetics of DA were investigated in cynomolgus monkeys, following single doses of 5 µg/kg DA iv, 0.075 mg/kg DA po and 0.15 mg/kg DA po. Following iv dosing, DA had a systemic clearance of 124 ± 71 ml/hr/kg, volume of distribution at steady state of 131±71 ml/kg and elimination half-life of 1...
November 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149984/corneal-xenotransplantation-from-pig-to-rhesus-monkey-no-signs-of-transmission-of-endogenous-porcine-retroviruses
#16
A Li, Y Zhang, Y Liu, Z Pan
BACKGROUND: Xenotransplantations of pig corneas have become an attractive alternative to human corneas. Such xenotransplantations carry the danger, however, of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs). Here, we investigated whether porcine corneas harbor viral DNA and RNA and whether transplantation to a nonhuman primate would lead to host PERV infection. METHODS: Monkey vein endothelial cells (MVECs) were inoculated with porcine aortic endothelial cell (PAEC) supernatants, and DNA and total RNA of MVECs were tested for PERV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149329/polymyxin-derivatives-nab739-and-nab815-are-more-effective-than-polymyxin-b-in-murine-escherichia-coli-pyelonephritis
#17
Martti Vaara, Timo Vaara, Carina Vingsbo Lundberg
Objectives: Extremely multiresistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae, such as those of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are emerging and spreading at a worrisome speed. Polymyxins (polymyxin B, colistin) are used as last-line therapy against such strains, in spite of their notable nephrotoxicity that may even require discontinuation of the therapy. We have previously developed polymyxin derivatives NAB739 and NAB815 that are better tolerated in cynomolgus monkeys than polymyxin B and are, in contrast to polymyxin B, excreted in the cynomolgus urine to a very significant degree...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149056/characterization-of-ovine-a3z1-restriction-properties-against-small-ruminant-lentiviruses-srlvs
#18
Lorena de Pablo-Maiso, Idoia Glaria, Helena Crespo, Estanislao Nistal-Villán, Valgerdur Andrésdóttir, Damián de Andrés, Beatriz Amorena, Ramsés Reina
Intrinsic factors of the innate immune system include the apolipoprotein B editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) protein family. APOBEC3 inhibits replication of different virus families by cytosine deamination of viral DNA and a not fully characterized cytosine deamination-independent mechanism. Sheep are susceptible to small ruminant lentivirus (SRLVs) infection and contain three APOBEC3 genes encoding four proteins (A3Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z2-Z3) with yet not deeply described antiviral properties...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148965/nonclinical-safety-assessment-of-anti-factor-d-key-strategies-and-challenges-for-the-nonclinical-development-of-intravitreal-biologics
#19
Vladimir Bantseev, Rebecca Erickson, Douglas Leipold, Caroline Amaya, Paul E Miller, Helen Booler, Evan A Thackaberry
PURPOSE: The nonclinical toxicology program described here was designed to characterize the safety profile of anti-factor D (AFD; FCFD4514S, lampalizumab) to support intravitreal (ITV) administration in patients with geographic atrophy (GA). METHODS: The toxicity of AFD was assessed in a single-dose and 6-month repeat-dose study in monkeys at doses up to 10 mg/eye. Toxicity was assessed by clinical ophthalmic examinations, intraocular pressure measurements, ocular photography, electroretinography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and anatomic pathology...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146475/electrical-activity-of-sensory-pathways-in-female-and-male-geriatric-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta-and-its-relation-to-oxidative-stress
#20
A Ibáñez-Contreras, U Hernández-Arciga, A Poblano, M Arteaga-Silva, B Hernández-Godínez, G I Mendoza-Cuevas, R Toledo-Pérez, A Alarcón-Aguilar, V Y González-Puertos, M Konigsberg
Synapses loss during aging has been related to decreased neuronal excitability and reduced electrophysiological activity in the nervous system, as well as to increased brain damage. Those physiological and biochemical alterations have been related to the oxidative stress increase associated with old age. The main substrate of lipid peroxidation (LPX) in the central and peripheral nervous systems are the myelin sheaths, and their damage generates a delayed nerve conduction velocity. However, studies in which the neural conduction velocity is related to changes in the redox state are still lacking...
November 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
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