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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334353/suppression-of-v1-feedback-produces-a-shift-in-the-topographic-representation-of-receptive-fields-of-lgn-cells-by-unmasking-latent-retinal-drives
#1
Jordi Aguila, F Javier Cudeiro, Casto Rivadulla
In awake monkeys, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to focally inactivate visual cortex while measuring the responsiveness of parvocellular lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons. Effects were noted in 64/75 neurons, and could be divided into 2 main groups: (1) for 39 neurons, visual responsiveness decreased and visual latency increased without apparent shift in receptive field (RF) position and (2) a second group (n = 25, 33% of the recorded cells) whose excitability was not compromised, but whose RF position shifted an average of 4...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334314/a-template-and-probabilistic-atlas-of-the-human-sensorimotor-tracts-using-diffusion-mri
#2
Derek B Archer, David E Vaillancourt, Stephen A Coombes
The purpose of this study was to develop a high-resolution sensorimotor area tract template (SMATT) which segments corticofugal tracts based on 6 cortical regions in primary motor cortex, dorsal premotor cortex, ventral premotor cortex, supplementary motor area (SMA), pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA), and primary somatosensory cortex using diffusion tensor imaging. Individual probabilistic tractography analyses were conducted in 100 subjects using the highest resolution data currently available. Tractography results were refined using a novel algorithm to objectively determine slice level thresholds that best minimized overlap between tracts while preserving tract volume...
March 14, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334181/uncovering-the-spatial-profile-of-contour-integration-from-fixational-saccades-evidence-for-widespread-processing-in-v1
#3
Ariel Gilad, Roy Oz, Hamutal Slovin
During contour integration, neuronal populations in the primary visual cortex (V1) enhance their responses to the contour while suppressing their responses to the noisy background. However, the spatial extent and profile of these responses are not fully understood. To investigate this question, 2 monkeys were trained on a contour detection task while we measured population responses in V1 using voltage-sensitive dyes. During stimulus presentation the animals made few fixational saccades, and we used their changing gaze position to image and analyze neuronal responses from large part of the stimulus, encoding multiple contour/background elements...
October 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334082/decoding-grasping-movements-from-the-parieto-frontal-reaching-circuit-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#4
Koen Nelissen, Prosper Agbesi Fiave, Wim Vanduffel
Prehension movements typically include a reaching phase, guiding the hand toward the object, and a grip phase, shaping the hand around it. The dominant view posits that these components rely upon largely independent parieto-frontal circuits: a dorso-medial circuit involved in reaching and a dorso-lateral circuit involved in grasping. However, mounting evidence suggests a more complex arrangement, with dorso-medial areas contributing to both reaching and grasping. To investigate the role of the dorso-medial reaching circuit in grasping, we trained monkeys to reach-and-grasp different objects in the dark and determined if hand configurations could be decoded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) responses obtained from the reaching and grasping circuits...
February 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333486/transitive-inference-in-humans-homo-sapiens-and-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-after-massed-training-of-the-last-two-list-items
#5
Greg Jensen, Yelda Alkan, Fabian Muñoz, Vincent P Ferrera, Herbert S Terrace
Transitive inference (TI) is a classic learning paradigm for which the relative contributions of experienced rewards and representation-based inference have been debated vigorously, particularly regarding the notion that animals are capable of logic and reasoning. Rhesus macaque subjects and human participants performed a TI task in which, prior to learning a 7-item list (ABCDEFG), a block of trials presented exclusively the pair FG. Contrary to the expectation of associative models, the high prior rate of reward for F did not disrupt subsequent learning of the entire list...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333483/monkeys-preferentially-process-body-information-while-viewing-affective-displays
#6
Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Gilda Moadab, Christopher J Machado
Despite evolutionary claims about the function of facial behaviors across phylogeny, rarely are those hypotheses tested in a comparative context-that is, by evaluating how nonhuman animals process such behaviors. Further, while increasing evidence indicates that humans make meaning of faces by integrating contextual information, including that from the body, the extent to which nonhuman animals process contextual information during affective displays is unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the extent to which rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) process dynamic affective displays of conspecifics that included both facial and body behaviors...
March 23, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333316/convergent-balancing-selection-on-the-mu-opioid-receptor-in-primates
#7
Carolyn G Sweeney, Juliette M Rando, Helen N Panas, Gregory M Miller, Donna M Platt, Eric J Vallender
The mu opioid receptor is involved in many natural processes including stress response, pleasure, and pain. Mutations in the gene also have been associated with opiate and alcohol addictions as well as with responsivity to medication targeting these disorders. Two common and mutually exclusive polymorphisms have been identified in humans, A118G (N40D), found commonly in non-African populations, and C17T (V6A), found almost exclusively in African populations. While A118G has been studied extensively for associations and in functional assays, C17T is much less well understood...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333263/loss-of-luteotropic-prostaglandin-e-plays-an-important-role-in-the-regulation-of-luteolysis-in-women
#8
Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Masataka Kudo, Noriaki Sakuragi, Toshihiko Iwanaga, W Colin Duncan
STUDY QUESTION: Do intraluteal prostaglandins (PG) contribute to luteal regulation in women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Prostaglandin E (PGE), which is produced in human granulosa-lutein cells stimulated with luteotropic hCG, exerts similar luteotropic effects to hCG, and the expression of PG synthetic and metabolic enzymes in the human CL is driven toward less PGE but more prostaglandin F (PGF) during luteolysis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Uterine PGF is a major luteolysin in many non-primate species but not in women...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333238/clustering-of-pcos-like-traits-in-naturally-hyperandrogenic-female-rhesus-monkeys
#9
D H Abbott, B H Rayome, D A Dumesic, K C Lewis, A K Edwards, K Wallen, M E Wilson, S E Appt, J E Levine
STUDY QUESTION: Do naturally occurring, hyperandrogenic (≥1 SD of population mean testosterone, T) female rhesus monkeys exhibit traits typical of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Hyperandrogenic female monkeys exhibited significantly increased serum levels of androstenedione (A4), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), estradiol (E2), LH, antimullerian hormone (AMH), cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone, as well as increased uterine endometrial thickness and evidence of reduced fertility, all traits associated with PCOS...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332616/long-acting-protein-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-ocular-diseases
#10
Joy G Ghosh, Andrew A Nguyen, Chad E Bigelow, Stephen Poor, Yubin Qiu, Nalini Rangaswamy, Richard Ornberg, Brittany Jackson, Howard Mak, Tucker Ezell, Vania Kenanova, Elisa de la Cruz, Ana Carrion, Bijan Etemad-Gilbertson, Roxana Garcia Caro, Kan Zhu, Vinney George, Jirong Bai, Radhika Sharma-Nahar, Siyuan Shen, Yiqin Wang, Kulandayan K Subramanian, Elizabeth Fassbender, Michael Maker, Shawn Hanks, Joanna Vrouvlianis, Barrett Leehy, Debby Long, Melissa Prentiss, Viral Kansara, Bruce Jaffee, Thaddeus P Dryja, Michael Roguska
Protein drugs that neutralize vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), such as aflibercept or ranibizumab, rescue vision in patients with retinal vascular diseases. Nonetheless, optimal visual outcomes require intraocular injections as frequently as every month. Here we report a method to extend the intravitreal half-life of protein drugs as an alternative to either encapsulation or chemical modifications with polymers. We combine a 97-amino-acid peptide of human origin that binds hyaluronan, a major macromolecular component of the eye's vitreous, with therapeutic antibodies and proteins...
March 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332004/social-setting-social-rank-and-hpa-axis-response-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#11
Vanessa A Jimenez, Daicia C Allen, Megan N McClintick, Kathleen A Grant
RATIONALE: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity under different social settings in non-human primates is understudied. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the response of pituitary-adrenal hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol) to pharmacological challenges of the HPA axis in male cynomolgus macaques under different social settings. METHODS: Male cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, n = 11) were individually (A) and socially housed (B) in alternation, over consecutive months, in an ABA design...
March 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331974/neuronal-degeneration-in-the-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-following-lesions-of-primary-visual-cortex-comparison-of-young-adult-and-geriatric-marmoset-monkeys
#12
Nafiseh Atapour, Katrina H Worthy, Leo L Lui, Hsin-Hao Yu, Marcello G P Rosa
Neuronal loss in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is a consequence of lesions of the primary visual cortex (V1). Despite the importance of this phenomenon in understanding the residual capacities of the primate visual system following V1 damage, few quantitative studies are available, and the effect of age at the time of lesion remains unknown. We compared the volume, neuronal number, and neuronal density in the LGN, 6-21 months after unilateral V1 lesions in marmoset monkeys. Stereological sampling techniques and neuronal nuclei (NeuN) staining were used to assess the effects of similar-sized lesions in adult (2-4 years) and geriatric (10-14 years) animals...
March 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331086/nectin-4-interactions-govern-measles-virus-virulence-in-a-new-model-of-pathogenesis-squirrel-monkeys-simia-sciureus
#13
Sébastien Delpeut, Bevan Sawatsky, Xiao-Xiang Wong, Marie Frenzke, Roberto Cattaneo, Veronika von Messling
In addition to humans, only certain non-human primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species-dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys (Simia sciureus), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331006/monkey-prefrontal-neurons-during-sternberg-task-performance-full-contents-of-working-memory-or-most-recent-item
#14
Roma O Konecky, Matthew A Smith, Carl R Olson
To explore the brain mechanisms underlying multi-item working memory, we monitored the activity of neurons in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while macaque monkeys performed spatial and chromatic versions of a Sternberg working-memory task. Each trial required holding three sequentially presented samples in working memory so as to identify a subsequent probe matching one of them. The monkeys were able to recall all three samples at levels well above chance, exhibiting modest load and recency effects. Prefrontal neurons signaled the identity of each sample during the delay period immediately following its presentation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329443/analyzing-the-potential-root-causes-of-variability-of-pharmacokinetics-in-preclinical-species
#15
Pierre Daublain, Kung-I Feng, Michael D Altman, Iain Martin, Suman Mukherjee, Rebecca Nofsinger, Alan B Northrup, Richard Tschirret-Guth, Mark Cartwright, Caroline McGregor
The purpose of this research was to assess variability in pharmacokinetic profiles (PK variability) in preclinical species and identify the risk factors associated with the properties of a drug molecule that contribute to the variability. Exposure data in mouse, rat, dog and monkey for a total of 16,592 research compounds studied between 1999 and 2013 were included in the analysis. Both in vivo study parameters and in silico/experimental physicochemical properties of the molecules were analyzed. Areas under the plasma concentration vs...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328941/cynomolgus-monkeys-are-successfully-and-persistently-infected-with-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3-hev-3-after-long-term-immunosuppressive-therapy
#16
Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Juliana Rodrigues Guimarães, Juliana Gil Melgaço, Yohan Britto Kevorkian, Fernanda de Oliveira Bottino, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Aline Campos de Azevedo da Silva, Douglas Pereira Pinto, Laís Bastos da Fonseca, Leandro Schiavo Vilhena, Edilson Uiechi, Maria Cristina Carlan da Silva, Julio Moran, Renato Sérgio Marchevsky, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano Otonel, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Ana Maria Coimbra Gaspar, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Epidemiological studies found that hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection was associated with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the host immunosuppressive status and the occurrence of HEV-related chronic hepatitis. Here we describe a successful experimental study, using cynomolgus monkeys previously treated with tacrolimus, a potent calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant, and infected with a Brazilian HEV-3 strain isolated from naturally infected pigs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327690/kyasanur-forest-disease-kfd-rare-disease-of-zoonotic-origin
#17
M Muraleedharan
Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a rare tick borne zoonotic disease that causes acute febrile hemorrhagic illness in humans and monkeys especially in southern part of India. The disease is caused by highly pathogenic KFD virus (KFDV) which belongs to member of the genus Flavivirus and family Flaviviridae. The disease is transmitted to monkeys and humans by infective tick Haemaphysalisspinigera. Seasonal outbreaks are expected to occur during the months of January to June. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize the epidemiology, mode of transmission of KFD virus, clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of the disease...
September 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326348/effects-of-odanacatib-on-bone-matrix-mineralization-in-rhesus-monkeys-are-similar-to-those-of-alendronate
#18
Barbara M Misof, Paul Roschger, Charles Chen, Maureen Pickarski, Phaedra Messmer, Klaus Klaushofer, Le T Duong
Odanacatib (ODN) is a selective and reversible inhibitor of cathepsin K which is an important enzyme for the degradation of collagen I. Aim of the present work was the head-to-head comparison between the effects of ODN and alendronate (ALN) on bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD), based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging in relation to changes in histomorphometric mineralizing surface per bone surface (MS/BS) in 12-22 years old ovariectomized rhesus monkeys. Trabecular and cortical BMDD derived parameters from vertebrae and proximal tibiae were compared among vehicle (VEH, n = 8), odanacatib low dose (ODN-L, n = 8), odanacatib high dose (ODN-H, n = 8), and alendronate (ALN, n = 6) treated animals...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326020/pyramidal-neurons-are-not-generalizable-building-blocks-of-cortical-networks
#19
REVIEW
Jennifer I Luebke
A key challenge in cortical neuroscience is to gain a comprehensive understanding of how pyramidal neuron heterogeneity across different areas and species underlies the functional specialization of individual neurons, networks, and areas. Comparative studies have been important in this endeavor, providing data relevant to the question of which of the many inherent properties of individual pyramidal neurons are necessary and sufficient for species-specific network and areal function. In this mini review, the importance of pyramidal neuron structural properties for signaling are outlined, followed by a summary of our recent work comparing the structural features of mouse (C57/BL6 strain) and rhesus monkey layer 3 (L3) pyramidal neurons in primary visual and frontal association cortices and their implications for neuronal and areal function...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324946/characterization-of-motor-cortex-activity-of-the-lower-limb-region
#20
Fadi Mikhail, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Matthew D Best, Kazutaka Takahashi, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
Understanding the functional properties of the motor cortex is a key step to developing effective neuroprosthetic and computer interfaces for amputees and patients with spinal cord injury. Most efforts have been directed towards studying the upper limb region of the motor cortex. Little has been done in the way of addressing lower limb motor cortical physiology. In this study, we implanted multiple microelectrode arrays along the central sulcus in the primary motor cortex of a macaque monkey. Using intracortical microstimulation, we identified neurons that evoked leg movements, either exclusively or mostly, and we studied their firing activity during a center-out arm movement task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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