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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922101/social-determinants-of-eyeblinks-in-adult-male-macaques
#1
Sébastien Ballesta, Clayton P Mosher, Jeno Szep, Kate D Fischl, Katalin M Gothard
Videos with rich social and emotional content elicit natural social behaviors in primates. Indeed, while watching videos of conspecifics, monkeys engage in eye contact, gaze follow, and reciprocate facial expressions. We hypothesized that the frequency and timing of eyeblinks also depends on the social signals contained in videos. We monitored the eyeblinks of four male adult macaques while they watched videos of conspecifics displaying facial expressions with direct or averted gaze. The instantaneous blink rate of all four animals decreased during videos...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922009/pet-imaging-guided-chemogenetic-silencing-reveals-a-critical-role-of-primate-rostromedial-caudate-in-reward-evaluation
#2
Yuji Nagai, Erika Kikuchi, Walter Lerchner, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Bin Ji, Mark A G Eldridge, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Yasuyuki Kimura, Arata Oh-Nishi, Yukiko Hori, Yoko Kato, Toshiyuki Hirabayashi, Atsushi Fujimoto, Katsushi Kumata, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi, Masahiko Takada, Barry J Richmond, Takafumi Minamimoto
The rostromedial caudate (rmCD) of primates is thought to contribute to reward value processing, but a causal relationship has not been established. Here we use an inhibitory DREADD (Designer Receptor Exclusively Activated by Designer Drug) to repeatedly and non-invasively inactivate rmCD of macaque monkeys. We inject an adeno-associated viral vector expressing the inhibitory DREADD, hM4Di, into the rmCD bilaterally. To visualize DREADD expression in vivo, we develop a non-invasive imaging method using positron emission tomography (PET)...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921083/integrated-role-of-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-supplementation-in-gut-microbiota-immunity-and-metabolism-of-infant-rhesus-monkeys
#3
Xuan He, Carolyn M Slupsky, James W Dekker, Neill W Haggarty, Bo Lönnerdal
To investigate the impact of probiotic supplementation of infant formula on immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, and metabolism, five individually housed infant rhesus monkeys exclusively fed standard infant formula supplemented with probiotics (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019) from birth until 3 months of age were compared with five standard formula-fed and five breast-fed monkeys. Anthropometric measurements, serum insulin, immune parameters, fecal microbiota, and metabolic profiles of serum, urine, and feces were evaluated...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920095/functional-characterization-of-the-left-ventrolateral-premotor-cortex-in-humans-a-direct-electrophysiological-approach
#4
L Fornia, V Ferpozzi, M Montagna, M Rossi, M Riva, F Pessina, F Martinelli Boneschi, P Borroni, R N Lemon, L Bello, G Cerri
In monkeys, motor outputs from premotor cortex (PM) involve cortico-cortical connections with primary motor cortex (M1). However, in humans, the functional organization of PM and its relationship with the corticospinal tract (CST) is still uncertain. This study was carried out in 21 patients undergoing intraoperative brain mapping prior to tumor resection. The left ventrolateral premotor cortex (vlPM-BA6) was identified preoperatively by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and then investigated intraoperatively using high frequency direct electrical stimulation (HF-DES) of the convexity of M1 and vlPM-BA6, with simultaneous recording of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from oro-facial, hand and arm muscles...
December 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918285/humans-and-monkeys-use-different-strategies-to-solve-the-same-short-term-memory-tasks
#5
John H Wittig, Barak Morgan, Evan Masseau, Barry J Richmond
The neural mechanisms underlying human working memory are often inferred from studies using old-world monkeys. Humans use working memory to selectively memorize important information. We recently reported that monkeys do not seem to use selective memorization under experimental conditions that are common in monkey research, but less common in human research. Here we compare the performance of humans and monkeys under the same experimental conditions. Humans selectively remember important images whereas monkeys largely rely on recency information from nonselective memorization...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917537/reproductive-biology-for-the-assessment-of-hunting-sustainability-of-rainforest-mammal-populations-through-the-participation-of-local-communities
#6
Pedro Mayor, Hani El Bizri, Richard E Bodmer, Mark Bowler
Wildlife subsistence hunting is a major source of protein for tropical rural populations and a prominent conservation issue. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rmax ) of populations is a key reproductive parameter in the most-used assessments of hunting sustainability. However, since researchers face severe difficulties in obtaining reproductive data in the wild, these assessments often use 'classic' reproductive rates calculated mostly from captive studies conducted 30 years ago, resulting in flaws in almost 50% of studies and hampering decision-makings on wildlife management...
December 5, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917473/maternal-deprivation-alters-expression-of-neural-maturation-gene-tbr1-in-the-amygdala-paralaminar-nucleus-in-infant-female-macaques
#7
Danielle M de Campo, Judy L Cameron, Joseph M Miano, David A Lewis, Karoly Mirnics, Julie L Fudge
Early parental loss is associated with social-emotional dysregulation and amygdala physiologic changes. Previously, we examined whole amygdala gene expression in infant monkeys exposed to early maternal deprivation. Here, we focus on an amygdala region with immature neurons at birth: the paralaminar nucleus (PL). We hypothesized that 1) the normal infant PL is enriched in a subset of neural maturation (NM) genes compared to a nearby amygdala subregion; and 2) maternal deprivation would downregulate expression of NM transcripts (mRNA)...
December 4, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916968/ion-channel-activity-of-vpu-proteins-is-conserved-throughout-evolution-of-hiv-1-and-siv
#8
Timo Greiner, Sebastian Bolduan, Brigitte Hertel, Christine Groß, Kay Hamacher, Ulrich Schubert, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein Vpu is encoded exclusively by HIV-1 and related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). The transmembrane domain of the protein has dual functions: it counteracts the human restriction factor tetherin and forms a cation channel. Since these two functions are causally unrelated it remains unclear whether the channel activity has any relevance for viral release and replication. Here we examine structure and function correlates of different Vpu homologs from HIV-1 and SIV to understand if ion channel activity is an evolutionary conserved property of Vpu proteins...
December 1, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916826/bramlett-parker-j-washburn-d-a-can-rhesus-monkey-learn-executive-attention-behav-sci-2016-6-11
#9
Jessica Bramlett-Parker, David A Washburn
n/a.
November 29, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916562/cryobiological-parameters-of-multipotent-stromal-cells-obtained-from-different-sources
#10
L Lauterboeck, W F Wolkers, B Glasmacher
Stem cells are important for regenerative medicine mainly due to their multilineage differentiation capacity. However, the cells rapidly loose this capability during culturing. Cryopreservation preserves the differentiation potential of the cells, until they are needed. In this study, specific cell properties of multipotent stromal cells (MSCs), from the common marmoset monkey Callithrix jacchus MSCs derived from amnion (Am) and bone marrow (Bm) were studied in order to predict optimal cooling rates for cryopreservation...
December 1, 2016: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915055/identification-of-human-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-isoforms-involved-in-the-isofraxidin-glucuronidation-and-assessment-of-the-species-differences-of-the-reaction
#11
Fanxing Meng, Yan Li, Guiyuan He, Guangbo Ge, Shumin Liu
Isofraxidin, 7-Hydroxy-6.8-dimethoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, is a major active component of Acanthopanax senticosus, which has been used as Acanthopanax (Ciwujia) injection to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China for more than thirty years. The purpose of this study was to identify the roles of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in isofraxidin glucuronidation in the liver and intestinal microsomes and to reveal the potential species differences by comparing the liver microsomal glucuronidation from different experimental animals...
November 30, 2016: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911768/selective-lesion-of-the-hippocampus-increases-the-differentiation-of-immature-neurons-in-the-monkey-amygdala
#12
Loïc J Chareyron, David G Amaral, Pierre Lavenex
A large population of immature neurons is present in the ventromedial portion of the adult primate amygdala, a region that receives substantial direct projections from the hippocampal formation. Here, we show the effects of neonatal (n = 8) and adult (n = 6) hippocampal lesions on the populations of mature and immature neurons in the paralaminar, lateral, and basal nuclei of the adult monkey amygdala. Compared with unoperated controls (n = 7), the number of mature neurons was about 70% higher in the paralaminar nucleus of neonate- and adult-lesioned monkeys, and 40% higher in the lateral and basal nuclei of neonate-lesioned monkeys...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909099/neural-tuning-to-numerosity-relates-to-perceptual-tuning-in-3-to-6-year-old-children
#13
Alyssa J Kersey, Jessica F Cantlon
: Neural representations of approximate numerical value, or numerosity, have been observed in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in monkeys and humans, including children. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we show that children as young as 3 to 4 years old exhibit neural tuning to cardinal numerosities in the IPS and that their neural responses are accounted for by a model of numerosity coding that has been used to explain neural responses in the adult IPS. We also found that the sensitivity of children's neural tuning to number in the right IPS was comparable to their numerical discrimination sensitivity observed behaviorally, outside of the scanner...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909007/statistical-learning-signals-in-macaque-inferior-temporal-cortex
#14
Peter Kaposvari, Susheel Kumar, Rufin Vogels
Humans are sensitive to statistical regularities in their visual environment, but the nature of the underlying neural statistical learning signals still remains to be clarified. As in human behavioral and neuroimaging studies of statistical learning, we exposed rhesus monkeys to a continuous stream of images, presented without interstimulus interval or reward association. The stimulus set consisted of 3 groups of 5 images each (quintets). The stimulus order within each quintet was fixed, but the quintets were presented repeatedly in a random order without interruption...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908880/an-anti-cd3-anti-cll-1-bispecific-antibody-for-the-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#15
Steven R Leong, Siddharth Sukumaran, Maria Hristopoulos, Klara Totpal, Shannon Stainton, Elizabeth Lu, Alfred Wong, Lucinda Tam, Robert Newman, Brian R Vuillemenot, Diego Ellerman, Chen Gu, Mary Mathieu, Mark S Dennis, Allen Nguyen, Bing Zheng, Crystal Zhang, Genee Lee, Yu-Waye Chu, Rodney A Prell, Kedan Lin, Steven T Laing, Andrew G Polson
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is major unmet medical need. Most patients have poor long-term survival and treatment has not significantly changed in 40 years. Recently, bispecific antibodies that redirect the cytotoxic activity of effector T-cells by binding to CD3, the signaling component of the T-cell receptor, and a tumor target have shown clinical activity. Notably, blinatumomab is approved to treat relapsed/refractory acute lymphoid leukemia. Here we describe the design, discovery, pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, and safety of a CD3 T-cell-dependent bispecific (TDB) full-length human IgG1 therapeutic antibody targeting CLL-1 that could potentially be used in humans to treat AML...
December 1, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908639/animal-models-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#16
Geraldine Taylor
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalisation of infants, worldwide, and is also responsible for significant morbidity in adults and excess deaths in the elderly. There is no licensed hRSV vaccine or effective therapeutic agent. However, there are a growing number of hRSV vaccine candidates that have been developed targeting different populations at risk of hRSV infection. Animal models of hRSV play an important role in the preclinical testing of hRSV vaccine candidates and although many have shown efficacy in preclinical studies, few have progressed to clinical trials or they have had only limited success...
November 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904950/age-dependent-alpha-synuclein-accumulation-is-correlated-with-elevation-of-mitochondrial-trpc3-in-the-brains-of-monkeys-and-mice
#17
Min Chen, Jia Liu, Yongquan Lu, Chunli Duan, Lingling Lu, Ge Gao, Piu Chan, Shun Yu, Hui Yang
Aberrant α-synuclein (α-syn) accumulation has been shown to impair mitochondrial function by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are a diverse group of non-selective Ca(2+) channels, among which TRPC3 is the only one that is localized in mitochondria and plays a role in maintaining the normal MMP. This raises a possibility that altered TRPC3 expression may play a role in the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by α-syn accumulation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903877/assessing-the-manipulative-potentials-of-monkeys-apes-and-humans-from-hand-proportions-implications-for-hand-evolution
#18
Ming-Jin Liu, Cai-Hua Xiong, Di Hu
The hand structure possesses a greater potential for performing manipulative skills than is typically observed, whether in humans or non-human anthropoids. However, a precise assessment of the potential manipulative skills of hands has been challenging, which hampers our understanding of the evolution of manipulative abilities in anthropoid hands. Here, we establish a functional model to quantitatively infer the manipulative potentials of anthropoid hands based on hand proportions. Our results reveal a large disparity of manipulative potentials among anthropoid hands...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903799/cxcr6-mediated-sivagmsab-entry-into-sabaeus-african-green-monkey-lymphocytes-implicates-widespread-use-of-non-ccr5-pathways-in-natural-host-infections
#19
Katherine S Wetzel, Yanjie Yi, Sarah T C Elliott, Dino Romero, Beatrice Jacquelin, Beatrice H Hahn, Michaela Muller-Trutwin, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea, Ronald G Collman
: African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM) are well-studied natural hosts of SIV, which do not progress to AIDS when infected with their species-specific viruses. SIV natural hosts express very low levels of the canonical entry coreceptor CCR5, and recent studies have shown that CCR5 is dispensable for SIV infection of SM in vivo, and blocking CCR5 does not prevent ex vivo infection of PBMC from SM or vervet AGM. In both hosts, CXCR6 is an efficient entry pathway in vitro...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903772/diverse-activities-of-viral-cis-acting-rna-regulatory-elements-revealed-using-multi-color-long-term-single-cell-imaging
#20
Ginger M Pocock, Laraine L Zimdars, Ming Yuan, Kevin W Eliceiri, Paul Ahlquist, Nathan M Sherer
Cis-acting RNA structural elements govern crucial aspects of viral gene expression. How these structures and other post-transcriptional signals affect RNA trafficking and translation in the context of single cells is poorly understood. Herein we describe a multi-color, long-term (>24 h) imaging strategy for measuring integrated aspects of viral RNA regulatory control in individual cells. We apply this strategy to demonstrate differential mRNA trafficking behaviors governed by RNA elements derived from three retroviruses (HIV-1, murine leukemia virus, and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus), two hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus) and an intron-retaining transcript encoded by the cellular NXF1 gene...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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