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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106531/preclinical-characterization-of-the-novel-hcv-ns3-protease-inhibitor-gs-9256
#1
Huiling Yang, Chris Yang, Yujin Wang, Gerry Rhodes, Margaret Robinson, Guofeng Cheng, Xiaoping Qi, Hongmei Mo, Yang Tian, Rowchanak Pakdaman, X Christopher Sheng, Choung U Kim, William E Delaney
BACKGROUND: GS-9256 is an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease with a macrocyclic structure and novel phosphinic acid pharmacophore. METHODS: Key preclinical properties of GS-9256 including in vitro antiviral activity, cross-resistance, and pharmacokinetic properties were investigated in non-human species. RESULTS: In genotype (GT) 1b Huh-luc cells with a replicon encoding luciferase, GS-9256 had a mean EC50 value of 20.0 nM, with minimal cytotoxicity...
January 20, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103697/3-4-hydroxyphenyl-propionic-acid-the-forgotten-detection-substrate-for-ligand-binding-assay-based-bioanalysis
#2
Gregor Jordan, Kay-Gunnar Stubenrauch, Julia Heinrich, Roland F Staack
Ligand-binding assays are ideal for routine bioanalysis, but we reason that the straightforward replacement of the conventional chromogenic horseradish peroxidase substrate, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, of a routinely used preclinical immunoassay to detect hIgG, with the fluorogenic 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid would broaden the narrow dynamic range. The replacement leads to a sensitivity of 0.47 (minimum required dilution [MRD] 10) and 1.02 (MRD 50) ng/ml, and dynamic ranges of 3...
January 20, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103408/functional-planning-units-for-the-management-of-an-endangered-brazilian-titi-monkey
#3
Sidney F Gouveia, João Pedro Souza-Alves, Bruno B de Souza, Raone Beltrão-Mendes, Leandro Jerusalinsky, Stephen F Ferrari
Conservation practices in the tropics often rely on the data available for a few, better-known species and the adoption of an appropriate spatial scale. By defining a set of landscape units that account for critical aspects of the focal species, the information available on these conservation targets can support regional conservation policies. Here, we define and classify adjacent landscapes, termed planning units, to orientate management decisions within and among these landscapes, which are occupied by an endangered flagship primate species (Coimbra-Filho's titi monkey, Callicebus coimbrai) from eastern Brazil...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103402/do-same-sex-mounts-function-as-dominance-assertion-in-male-golden-snub-nosed-monkeys-rhinopithecus-roxellana
#4
Pengzhen Huang, Xin He, Endi Zhang, Min Chen
It has been hypothesized that same-sex mounts can reflect the hierarchical relationship in a mounting dyad and it is widely deemed that mounting and being mounted are demonstrations of dominant and subordinate status, respectively. In this research, we aimed to test whether same-sex mounts function as dominance assertion in male golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). We investigated this behavior in eight-individuals, captive all-male unit (AMU) in Shanghai wild animal park, China. Behavioral observations were conducted with a total of 1,855 mounts recorded from November, 2014 to June, 2015, during which the alpha male was replaced in the beginning of April...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103304/correction-the-fatty-acid-synthase-inhibitor-platensimycin-improves-insulin-resistance-without-inducing-liver-steatosis-in-mice-and-monkeys
#5
Sheo B Singh, Ling Kang, Andrea R Nawrocki, Dan Zhou, Margaret Wu, Stephen Previs, Corey Miller, Haiying Liu, Catherine D G Hines, Maria Madeira, Jin Cao, Kithsiri Herath, Larry D Spears, Clay F Semenkovich, Liangsu Wang, David E Kelley, Cai Li, Hong-Ping Guan
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164133.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103269/wildlife-population-dynamics-in-human-dominated-landscapes-under-community-based-conservation-the-example-of-nakuru-wildlife-conservancy-kenya
#6
Joseph O Ogutu, Bernard Kuloba, Hans-Peter Piepho, Erustus Kanga
Wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in Africa, including in Kenya. We analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy (NWC), located in the Nakuru-Naivasha region of Kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from March 1996 to May 2015. Rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component and varying from 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102941/synthesis-of-primaquine-glyco-conjugates-as-potential-tissue-schizontocidal-antimalarial-agents
#7
Chandra S Azad, Mridula Saxena, Arif J Siddiqui, Jyoti Bhardwaj, Sunil K Puri, Guru P Dutta, Nity Anand, Anil K Saxena
Primaquine (PQ) is the only drug used to prevent relapse of malaria due to P. vivax and P. ovale, by eradicating the dormant liver form of the parasite (hypnozoites). The side effects associated with PQ limits is uses in treatment of malaria. To overcome the premature oxidative deamination and to increase the life span of drug in the biological system the novel glyco-conjugates of PQ were synthesized by coupling of primaquine with hexoses in phosphate buffer. The saccharide part of the hybrid molecules thought to be direct the drug to the liver, where hypnozoites resides...
January 19, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102825/versatile-modular-three-dimensional-microelectrode-arrays-for-neuronal-ensemble-recordings-from-design-to-fabrication-assembly-and-functional-validation-in-non-human-primates
#8
Falk Barz, Alessandro Livi, Marco Lanzilotto, Monica Maranesi, Luca Bonini, Oliver Paul, Patrick Ruther
<i>Objective. </i>Application-specific designs of electrode arrays offer an improved effectiveness for providing access to targeted brain regions in neuroscientific research and brain machine interfaces. The simultaneous and stable recording of neuronal ensembles is the main goal in the design of advanced neural interfaces. Here, we describe the development and assembly of highly customizable three-dimensional microelectrode arrays and demonstrate their recording performance in chronic applications in non-human primates...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102802/norovirus-gii-17-natural-infections-in-rhesus-monkeys-china
#9
Zhanlong He, Bo Liu, Yufen Tao, Chao Li, Ming Xia, Weiming Zhong, Xi Jiang, Hongqi Liu, Ming Tan
Noroviruses are a leading viral cause of acute gastroenteritis among humans. During the 2014-15 epidemic season, norovirus GII.17 was detected in rhesus monkeys in China. Genetic, structural, and challenge studies revealed virus mutations and verified the infections. Thus, cross-species transmission may occur, and monkeys may be a virus reservoir.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102342/neural-activity-in-the-dorsal-medial-superior-temporal-area-of-monkeys-represents-retinal-error-during-adaptive-motor-learning
#10
Aya Takemura, Tomoyo Ofuji, Kenichiro Miura, Kenji Kawano
To adapt to variable environments, humans regulate their behavior by modulating gains in sensory-to-motor processing. In this study, we measured a simple eye movement, the ocular following response (OFR), in monkeys to study the neuronal basis of adaptive motor learning in the visuomotor processing stream. The medial superior temporal (MST) area of the cerebral cortex is a critical site for contextual gain modulation of the OFR. However, the role of MST neurons in adaptive gain modulation of the OFR remains unknown...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102082/characterization-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-chronic-phase-of-stroke-in-a-cynomolgus-monkey-model-of-induced-cerebral-ischemia
#11
Henry C H Law, Samuel S W Szeto, Quan Quan, Yun Zhao, Zaijun Zhang, Olga Krakovska, Leong Ting Lui, Chengyou Zheng, Simon Ming Yuen Lee, K W Michael Siu, Yuqiang Wang, Ivan K Chu
Stroke is one of the main causes of mortality and long-term disability worldwide. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease are not well understood, particularly in the chronic phase after the initial ischemic episode. In this study, a Macaca fascicularis stroke model consisting of two sample groups, as determined by MRI-quantified infarct volumes as a measure of the stroke severity 28 days after the ischemic episode, was evaluated using qualitative and quantitative proteomics analyses. By using multiple online multidimensional liquid chromatography platforms, 8790 non-redundant proteins that condensed to 5223 protein groups at 1% global false discovery rate (FDR)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100746/end-stopping-predicts-curvature-tuning-along-the-ventral-stream
#12
Carlos R Ponce, Till S Hartmann, Margaret S Livingstone
: Neurons in primate inferotemporal cortex (IT) are clustered into patches of shared image preferences. Functional imaging has shown that these patches are activated by natural categories (e.g., faces, body parts, and places), artificial categories (numerals, words) and geometric features (curvature and real-world size). These domains develop in the same cortical locations across monkeys and humans, which raises the possibility of common innate mechanisms. Although these commonalities could be high-level template-based categories, it is alternatively possible that the domain locations are constrained by low-level properties such as end-stopping, eccentricity, and the shape of the preferred images...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100735/neural-tuning-to-numerosity-relates-to-perceptual-tuning-in-3-6-year-old-children
#13
Alyssa J Kersey, Jessica F Cantlon
: Neural representations of approximate numerical value, or numerosity, have been observed in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in monkeys and humans, including children. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that children as young as 3-4 years old exhibit neural tuning to cardinal numerosities in the IPS and that their neural responses are accounted for by a model of numerosity coding that has been used to explain neural responses in the adult IPS. We also found that the sensitivity of children's neural tuning to number in the right IPS was comparable to their numerical discrimination sensitivity observed behaviorally, outside of the scanner...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100734/does-the-superior-colliculus-control-perceptual-sensitivity-or-choice-bias-during-attention-evidence-from-a-multialternative-decision-framework
#14
Devarajan Sridharan, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Tirin Moore, Eric I Knudsen
: Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)-the central structure in the midbrain network-in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100720/audience-affects-decision-making-in-a-marmoset-communication-network
#15
Camille R Toarmino, Lauren Wong, Cory T Miller
An audience can have a profound effect on the dynamics of communicative interactions. As a result, non-human primates often adjust their social decision-making strategies depending on the audience composition at a given time. Here we sought to test how the unique vocal behaviour of multiple audience members affected decisions to communicate. To address this issue, we developed a novel experimental paradigm in which common marmosets directly interacted with multiple 'virtual monkeys' (VMs), each of whom represented an individual marmoset with distinct vocal behaviour...
January 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100659/a-neural-locus-for-spatial-frequency-specific-saccadic-suppression-in-visual-motor-neurons-of-the-primate-superior-colliculus
#16
Chih-Yang Chen, Ziad M Hafed
Saccades cause rapid retinal-image shifts that go perceptually unnoticed several times per second. The mechanisms for saccadic suppression have been controversial, in part due to sparse understanding of neural substrates. Here we uncovered an unexpectedly specific neural locus for spatial-frequency specific saccadic suppression in the superior colliculus (SC). We first developed a sensitive behavioral measure of suppression in two macaque monkeys, demonstrating selectivity to low spatial frequencies similar to that observed in earlier behavioral studies...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100016/validation-of-an-enzyme-immunoassay-and-comparison-of-fecal-cortisol-metabolite-levels-in-black-and-gold-howler-monkeys-alouatta-caraya-inhabiting-fragmented-and-continuous-areas-of-the-humid-chaco-region-argentina
#17
Verónica Inés Cantarelli, Maria Amparo Perez-Rueda, Martin M Kowalewski, Gabriela F Mastromonaco, Marina Flavia Ponzio
In the last years, the study of how environmental stimuli influence the physiology and specifically the endocrinology of an organism became increasingly important, relying mainly on the quantification of glucocorticoids to monitor animal welfare. Most studies investigating cortisol levels in primates were focused on the impact of social stressors; however, a major concern for the conservation of howler monkeys is the increased habitat fragmentation led by the advancement of the agricultural frontier. We compared fecal cortisol metabolite levels (FGCM) in howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) living in fragmented and continuous forests of the Argentine humid Chaco region, throughout the warm season (spring-summer)...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100010/fine-scale-genetic-structure-analyses-reveal-dispersal-patterns-in-a-critically-endangered-primate-trachypithecus-leucocephalus
#18
Weiran Wang, Meng Yao
Dispersal is a critically important life history trait of social organisms that has a major impact on the population genetic structure and social relationships within groups. Primates exhibit highly diversified dispersal and philopatry patterns, but knowledge of these patterns is difficult to obtain and usually limited to observations of a small number of focal social groups or individuals. Here, we investigated the dispersal pattern of a critically endangered colobine monkey, the white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus), using molecular approaches, and sex-specific population genetic structure analyses at fine geographical scales...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099874/igm-lgg-and-il-6-profiles-in-the-trypanosoma-brucei-brucei-monkey-model-of-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#19
Maxwell W Waema, Naomi W Maina, Maina Ngotho, Simon M Karanja, Beatrice M Gachie, Dawn N Maranga, John M Kagira
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) patients manifest immunological profiles, whose variations over time can be used to indicate disease progression. However, monitoring of these biomarkers in human patients is beset by several limitations which can be offset by using chronic animal models. A recent improved monkey model of HAT using a Trypanosoma brucei brucei isolate has been developed but the immunological profile has not been elucidated. The objectives of the current study was to determine the IgM, IgG and IL-6 profiles in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in vervet monkeys infected with T...
January 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098561/decoding-of-intended-saccade-direction-in-an-oculomotor-brain-computer-interface
#20
Nan Jia, Scott Brincat, Andrés Salazar-Gómez, Mikhail Panko, Frank Guenther, Earl Miller
OBJECTIVE: To date, invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) research has largely focused on replacing lost limb functions using signals from of hand/arm areas of motor cortex. However, the oculomotor system may be better suited to BCI applications involving rapid serial selection from spatial targets, such as choosing from a set of possible words displayed on a computer screen in an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) application. Here we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of a BCI utilizing the oculomotor system...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
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