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Reza Rasti, Alireza Mehridehnavi, Hossein Rabbani, Fedra Hajizadeh
The present research intends to propose a fully automatic algorithm for the classification of three-dimensional (3-D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of patients suffering from abnormal macula from normal candidates. The method proposed does not require any denoising, segmentation, retinal alignment processes to assess the intraretinal layers, as well as abnormalities or lesion structures. To classify abnormal cases from the control group, a two-stage scheme was utilized, which consists of automatic subsystems for adaptive feature learning and diagnostic scoring...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Cedrigue Boris Djiongo Kenfack, Olivier Monga, Serge Moto Mpong, René Ndoundam
Within the last decade, several approaches using quaternion numbers to handle and model multiband images in a holistic manner were introduced. The quaternion Fourier transform can be efficiently used to model texture in multidimensional data such as color images. For practical application, multispectral satellite data appear as a primary source for measuring past trends and monitoring changes in forest carbon stocks. In this work, we propose a texture-color descriptor based on the quaternion Fourier transform to extract relevant information from multiband satellite images...
March 21, 2018: Acta Biotheoretica
Inmaculada Arostegui, Nerea Gonzalez, Nerea Fernández-de-Larrea, Santiago Lázaro-Aramburu, Marisa Baré, Maximino Redondo, Cristina Sarasqueta, Susana Garcia-Gutierrez, José M Quintana
Introduction: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies and a common cause of cancer-related mortality. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a clinical predictive model for 1-year mortality among patients with colon cancer who survive for at least 30 days after surgery. Methods: Patients diagnosed with colon cancer who had surgery for the first time and who survived 30 days after the surgery were selected prospectively. The outcome was mortality within 1 year...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Chaojie Liang, Yingchen Xu, Hua Ge, Guangming Li, Jixiang Wu
Background: In the recent past, there is increasing evidence demonstrating that HSP27 plays a key role in tumor progression. However, the relationship between HSP27 expression and the clinicopathological features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as well as its prognostic value in HCC patients remain controversial. Accordingly, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the correlation between HSP27 expression and HCC, and determine the prognostic value of HSP27 in HCC. Methods: The data included clinicopathological features and survival information extracted from the published literature in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI, and Wan Fang...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
L R Brewster, J J Dale, T L Guttridge, S H Gruber, A C Hansell, M Elliott, I G Cowx, N M Whitney, A C Gleiss
Discerning behaviours of free-ranging animals allows for quantification of their activity budget, providing important insight into ecology. Over recent years, accelerometers have been used to unveil the cryptic lives of animals. The increased ability of accelerometers to store large quantities of high resolution data has prompted a need for automated behavioural classification. We assessed the performance of several machine learning (ML) classifiers to discern five behaviours performed by accelerometer-equipped juvenile lemon sharks ( Negaprion brevirostris ) at Bimini, Bahamas (25°44'N, 79°16'W)...
2018: Marine Biology
Theodore A Endreny
Growth in urban populations creates opportunities for urban forests to deliver ecosystem services critical to human wellbeing and biodiversity. Our challenge is to strategically expand urban forests and provide our international communities, particularly the vulnerable, with healthier, happier, and enriched lives.
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Juan Diego Ibáñez-Álamo, Javier Pineda-Pampliega, Robert L Thomson, José I Aguirre, Alazne Díez-Fernández, Bruno Faivre, Jordi Figuerola, Simon Verhulst
Urbanization, one of the most extreme human-induced environmental changes, represents a major challenge for many organisms. Anthropogenic habitats can have opposing effects on different fitness components, for example, by decreasing starvation risk but also health status. Assessment of the net fitness effect of anthropogenic habitats is therefore difficult. Telomere length is associated with phenotypic quality and mortality rate in many species, and the rate of telomere shortening is considered an integrative measure of the 'life stress' experienced by an individual...
March 2018: Biology Letters
Judith H Myers
Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Kathy Steppe, Maurits W Vandegehuchte, Bart A E Van de Wal, Pieter Hoste, Adrien Guyot, Catherine E Lovelock, David A Lockington
Mangrove forests depend on a dense structure of sufficiently large trees to fulfil their essential functions as providers of food and wood for animals and people, CO2 sinks and protection from storms. Growth of these forests is known to be dependent on the salinity of soil water, but the influence of foliar uptake of rainwater as a freshwater source, additional to soil water, has hardly been investigated. Under field conditions in Australia, stem diameter variation, sap flow and stem water potential of the grey mangrove (Avicennia marina (Forssk...
March 17, 2018: Tree Physiology
Tao Zhang, Ülo Niinemets, Justin Sheffield, Jeremy W Lichstein
Forests have a key role in global ecosystems, hosting much of the world's terrestrial biodiversity and acting as a net sink for atmospheric carbon. These and other ecosystem services that are provided by forests may be sensitive to climate change as well as climate variability on shorter time scales (for example, annual to decadal). Previous studies have documented responses of forest ecosystems to climate change and climate variability, including drought-induced increases in tree mortality rates. However, relationships between forest biomass, tree species composition and climate variability have not been quantified across a large region using systematically sampled data...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Óscar M Chaves, Júlio César Bicca-Marques, Colin A Chapman
Seed dispersal is a key process driving the structure, composition, and regeneration of tropical forests. Larger frugivores play a crucial role in community structuring by dispersing large seeds not dispersed by smaller frugivores. We assessed the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) provide seed dispersal services for a wide assemblage of plant species in both small and large Atlantic forest fragments. Although fruit availability often decreases in small fragments compared with large ones, we predicted that brown howlers are efficient seed dispersers in quantitative and qualitative terms in both forest types given their high dietary flexibility...
2018: PloS One
Kanchan Thapa, Sulochana Manandhar, Manisha Bista, Jivan Shakya, Govind Sah, Maheshwar Dhakal, Netra Sharma, Bronwyn Llewellyn, Claudia Wultsch, Lisette P Waits, Marcella J Kelly, Jean-Marc Hero, Jane Hughes, Dibesh Karmacharya
With fewer than 200 tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) left in Nepal, that are generally confined to five protected areas across the Terai Arc Landscape, genetic studies are needed to provide crucial information on diversity and connectivity for devising an effective country-wide tiger conservation strategy. As part of the Nepal Tiger Genome Project, we studied landscape change, genetic variation, population structure, and gene flow of tigers across the Terai Arc Landscape by conducting Nepal's first comprehensive and systematic scat-based, non-invasive genetic survey...
2018: PloS One
Tan Li, Qingguo Zhang, Ying Zhang
The assessment of forest ecosystem services can quantify the impact of these services on human life and is the main basis for formulating a standard of compensation for these services. Moreover, the calculation of the indirect value of forest ecosystem services should not be ignored, as has been the case in some previous publications. A low compensation standard and the lack of a dynamic coordination mechanism are the main problems existing in compensation implementation. Using comparison and analysis, this paper employed accounting for both the costs and benefits of various alternatives...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Zhao-Fei Zhang, He Huang, Shuai Chen, Dong-Hua Liu, Yong-Hui Feng, Chun-Liang Xie, Feng Jiao
BACKGROUND: High-viscosity cement (HVC) has been gradually applied in percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP). Although HVC has been reported to reduce cement leakage, different opinions exist. To assess the complications of HVC in cement leakage in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures and to evaluate the clinical effect of HVC compared with low-viscosity cement (LVC). METHODS: EMBASE, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library databases were comprehensively searched from their inception to August 2017...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mahdi Afshari, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Saeed Barzegari, Ehsan Abedini, Seyedeh Sakineh Salimi
PURPOSE: Visual impairment is responsible for medical, mental, and socio-economic problems. Several studies have investigated the prevalence of blindness and low vision in different parts of Iran. This study aims to estimate the pooled results of these studies to estimate the total prevalence of this problem in Iran. METHODS: National and international databases were searched using specific keywords. The selected primary studies were quality assessed using STROBE checklist...
March 21, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Giuseppe Cardellini, Tatiana Valada, Claire Cornillier, Estelle Vial, Marian Dragoi, Venceslas Goudiaby, Volker Mues, Bruno Lasserre, Arkadiusz Gruchala, Per Kristian Rørstad, Mathias Neumann, Miroslav Svoboda, Risto Sirgmets, Olli-Pekka Näsärö, Frits Mohren, Wouter M J Achten, Liesbet Vranken, Bart Muys
Life cycle assessment (LCA) has become a common methodology to analyze environmental impacts of forestry systems. Although LCA has been widely applied to forestry since the 90s, the LCAs are still often based on generic Life Cycle Inventory (LCI). With the purpose of improving LCA practices in the forestry sector, we developed a European Life Cycle Inventory of Forestry Operations (EFO-LCI) and analyzed the available information to check if within the European forestry sector national differences really exist...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Management
Robert Bagchi, Leone M Brown, Chris S Elphick, David L Wagner, Michael S Singer
Reduced ecological specialization is an emerging, general pattern of ecological networks in fragmented landscapes. In plant-herbivore interactions, reductions in dietary specialization of herbivore communities are consistently associated with fragmented landscapes, but the causes remain poorly understood. We propose several hypothetical bottom-up and top-down mechanisms that may reduce the specificity of plant-herbivore interactions. These include empirically plausible applications and extensions of theory based on reduced habitat patch size and isolation (considered jointly), and habitat edge effects...
March 21, 2018: Oecologia
Gouri Chaubal, Prasad Sarkale, Pravin Kore, Pragya Yadav
Background: Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD), a tick borne flavivirus, which was earlier endemic to Karnataka state, India, has been confirmed and detected from neighboring states of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Goa and Kerala states in India. Increased human and vector surveillance therefore becomes essential for the identification of KFD affected regions and control of further spread of the disease. Currently, available KFD detection assays include realtime RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR assays...
February 2018: Heliyon
Ana Quintáns-Fondo, Vanesa Santás-Miguel, Juan C Nóvoa-Muñoz, Manuel Arias-Estévez, María J Fernández-Sanjurjo, Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez, Avelino Núñez-Delgado
The purpose of this work was to elucidate the repercussion of changing pH, incubation time and As(V) competition on fluoride (F- ) sorption on forest and vineyard soil samples, pyritic, and granitic materials, as well as on the by-products pine sawdust, oak wood ash, mussel shell ash, fine and coarse mussel shell, and slate processing waste fines. To reach this end, the methodological approach was based on batch-type experiments. The results indicate that, for most materials, F- sorption was very high at the start, but was clearly diminished when the pH value increased...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
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