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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777687/physiological-stress-responses-in-wild-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-a-human-dominated-landscape-in-the-western-ghats-southern-india
#1
Sreedhar Vijayakrishnan, Mavatur Ananda Kumar, G Umapathy, Vinod Kumar, Anindya Sinha
Increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, especially in the tropical regions of the world, have restricted several large mammalian species such as the Asian elephant to fragmented habitats within human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we assessed the effects of an anthropogenic landscape and its associated conflict with humans on the physiological stress responses displayed by Asian elephants in the Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats mountains in south India. We have quantified faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations in focal individual elephants within and across herds, inhabiting both anthropogenic and natural habitats, and evaluated their physiological responses to different socio-ecological situations between November 2013 and April 2014...
May 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775843/transfer-of-radionuclides-and-dose-assessment-to-ants-and-anthills-in-a-swedish-forest-ecosystem
#2
K Rosén, L Lenoir, K Stark, M Vinichuk, S Sundell-Bergman
In forest ecosystems soil organisms are important for immobilization, translocation and recycling of radionuclides. Still, there is a lack of studies on the role of insects such as ants in the turnover of radionuclides and how radioactivity affects an ant community. In this study seven anthills were sampled in an area that was heavily contaminated after the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Samples of ant and anthill materials were taken from different depths of the anthills as well as from the surrounding soil and the activity concentrations of 137 Cs were determined...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775176/chitinophaga-varians-sp-nov-isolated-from-forest-soil
#3
Ying-Ying Lv, Xian-Jiao Zhang, An-Zhang Li, Wei-Ling Zou, Guang-da Feng, Hong-Hui Zhu
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile bacterium, designated strain 10-7W-9003T , was isolated from the forest soil of Limushan National Forest Park, south-east China (19° 10' 42″ N, 109° 44' 45″ E). Strain 10-7W-9003T showed a shape change during the course of culture from long filamentous cells (5-10×0.4-0.5 µm) at 5-36 h, to rod shaped (1.0-1.5×0.5-0.7 µm) with inoculation after 2 days. It grew optimally at 28-30 °C and pH 6.5-7.5. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it belongs to the genus Chitinophaga and is most closely related to Chitinophaga eiseniae KACC 13774T and Chitinophaga qingshengii JCM 30026T , with 16S rRNA gene sequences similarities of 98...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774957/progress-and-challenges-in-consolidating-the-management-of-amazonian-protected-areas-and-indigenous-territories
#4
Raymond E Gullison, Jared Hardner
Achieving the effective management of all existing protected areas and indigenous territories in the Amazon Biome may be needed to avoid a deforestation "tipping point" beyond which regional climatic feedbacks and global climate change interact to catalyze irreversible drying and savannization of large portions of the biome. However, the time and money required to consolidate the effective management of all types of protected sites in the Amazon is still poorly understood. At present, protected areas and indigenous territories cover 45...
May 18, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774944/can-traits-predict-individual-growth-performance-a-test-in-a-hyperdiverse-tropical-forest
#5
Lourens Poorter, Carolina V Castilho, Juliana Schietti, Rafael S Oliveira, Flávia R C Costa
The functional trait approach has, as a central tenet, that plant traits are functional and shape individual performance, but this has rarely been tested in the field. Here, we tested the individual-based trait approach in a hyperdiverse Amazonian tropical rainforest and evaluated intraspecific variation in trait values, plant strategies at the individual level, and whether traits are functional and predict individual performance. We evaluated > 1300 tree saplings belonging to > 383 species, measured 25 traits related to growth and defense, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions, plant size, and traits on stem growth...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774443/science-based-approach-for-credible-accounting-of-mitigation-in-managed-forests
#6
Giacomo Grassi, Roberto Pilli, Jo House, Sandro Federici, Werner A Kurz
BACKGROUND: The credibility and effectiveness of country climate targets under the Paris Agreement requires that, in all greenhouse gas (GHG) sectors, the accounted mitigation outcomes reflect genuine deviations from the type and magnitude of activities generating emissions in the base year or baseline. This is challenging for the forestry sector, as the future net emissions can change irrespective of actual management activities, because of age-related stand dynamics resulting from past management and natural disturbances...
May 17, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774296/integrated-risk-mapping-and-landscape-characterisation-of-lymphatic-filariasis-and-loiasis-in-south-west-nigeria
#7
Tara A Brant, Patricia N Okorie, Olushola Ogunmola, Nureni Bolaji Ojeyode, S B Fatunade, Emmanuel Davies, Yisa Saka, Michelle C Stanton, David H Molyneux, J Russell Stothard, Louise A Kelly-Hope
Nigeria has the heaviest burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa, which is caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. LF is targeted for elimination and the national programme is scaling up mass drug administration (MDA) across the country to interrupt transmission. However, in some regions the co-endemicity of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis) is an impediment due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) associated with the drug ivermectin...
February 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774239/positive-site-selection-bias-in-meta-analyses-comparing-natural-regeneration-to-active-forest-restoration
#8
REVIEW
J Leighton Reid, Matthew E Fagan, Rakan A Zahawi
Several recent meta-analyses have aimed to determine whether natural regeneration is more effective at recovering tropical forests than active restoration (for example, tree planting). We reviewed this literature and found that comparisons between strategies are biased by positive site selection. Studies of natural forest regeneration are generally conducted at sites where a secondary forest was already present, whereas tree planting studies are done in a broad range of site conditions, including non-forested sites that may not have regenerated in the absence of planting...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774017/identifying-group-specific-sequences-for-microbial-communities-using-long-k-mer-sequence-signatures
#9
Ying Wang, Lei Fu, Jie Ren, Zhaoxia Yu, Ting Chen, Fengzhu Sun
Comparing metagenomic samples is crucial for understanding microbial communities. For different groups of microbial communities, such as human gut metagenomic samples from patients with a certain disease and healthy controls, identifying group-specific sequences offers essential information for potential biomarker discovery. A sequence that is present, or rich, in one group, but absent, or scarce, in another group is considered " group-specific " in our study. Our main purpose is to discover group-specific sequence regions between control and case groups as disease-associated markers...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773991/first-biologic-drug-in-the-treatment-of-ras-wild-type-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-anti-egfr-or-bevacizumab-results-from-a-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Alessandro Ottaiano, Alfonso De Stefano, Monica Capozzi, Anna Nappi, Chiara De Divitiis, Carmela Romano, Lucrezia Silvestro, Antonino Cassata, Rossana Casaretti, Salvatore Tafuto, Michele Caraglia, Massimiliano Berretta, Guglielmo Nasti, Antonio Avallone
Introduction: We performed a meta-analysis in order to analyze and quantify the effect on survival of starting therapy in RAS wild-type (wt) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients with anti-EGFR agents or bevacizumab. Patients and Methods: Randomized, phase II or III, clinical trials reporting overall survival (OS) in RAS wt mCRC patients treated with first-line chemotherapy (CT) associated with bevacizumab or anti-EGFR agents were selected. The primary end-point of this meta-analysis was OS; findings were depicted in classical Forest plots...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773861/uncoupling-human-and-climate-drivers-of-late-holocene-vegetation-change-in-southern-brazil
#11
Mark Robinson, Jonas Gregorio De Souza, S Yoshi Maezumi, Macarena Cárdenas, Luiz Pessenda, Keith Prufer, Rafael Corteletti, Deisi Scunderlick, Francis Edward Mayle, Paulo De Blasis, José Iriarte
In the highlands of southern Brazil an anthropogenitcally driven expansion of forest occurred at the expense of grasslands between 1410 and 900 cal BP, coincident with a period of demographic and cultural change in the region. Previous studies have debated the relative contributions of increasing wetter and warmer climate conditions and human landscape modifications to forest expansion, but generally lacked high resoltiuon proxies to measure these effects, or have relied on single proxies to reconstruct both climate and vegetation...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773336/seasonal-dynamics-geographical-range-size-hosts-genetic-diversity-and-phylogeography-of-amblyomma-sculptum-in-argentina
#12
Evelina L Tarragona, Patrick S Sebastian, María N Saracho Bottero, Emilia I Martinez, Valeria N Debárbora, Atilio J Mangold, Alberto A Guglielmone, Santiago Nava
The aim of this work was to generate knowledge on ecological aspects of Amblyomma sculptum in Argentina, such as seasonal dynamics, geographical range size, hosts, genetic diversity and phylogeography. Adult and immature A. sculptum ticks were collected in different localities of Argentina to know the geographical range size and hosts. The genetic diversity of this tick was studied through analyses of 16S rDNA sequences. To describe the seasonal dynamics, free-living ticks were monthly collected from October 2013 to October 2015...
April 27, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773007/cell-proliferation-and-dna-repair-ability-of-ganoderma-neo-japonicum-agaricomycetes-an-indigenous-medicinal-mushroom-from-malaysia
#13
Wee Cheat Tan, Umah Rani Kuppusamy, Chia Wei Phan, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Ganoderma neo-japonicum is an annual polypore that grows on decaying bamboo in the forests of Malaysia. The indigenous Temuan tribe uses this species as a medicinal mushroom to cure fever and epilepsy and to improve body strength. The potential use of G. neo-japonicum in genoprotection and DNA repair was established using a single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. The effects of the ethanol and hot aqueous extracts from wild and cultivated basidiocarps, solid substrate-fermented (SSF) wheat grains, and mycelia via submerged culture on H2O2-damaged murine RAW264...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772901/the-catch-22-of-predicting-herg-blockade-using-publicly-accessible-bioactivity-data
#14
Vishal Babu Siramshetty, Qiaofeng Chen, Prashanth Devarakonda, Robert Preissner
Drug-induced inhibition of the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) encoded potassium ion (K+) channels can lead to fatal cardiotoxicity. Several marketed drugs and promising drug candidates were recalled due to this concern. Diverse modeling methods ranging from molecular similarity assessment to quantitative structure activity relationship analysis employing machine learning techniques have been applied to datasets of varying size and composition (number of blockers and non-blockers). In this study, we highlight the challenges involved in development of a robust classifier for predicting the hERG endpoint using bioactivity data extracted from the public domain...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772563/assessment-of-different-pretreatment-technologies-for-efficient-bioconversion-of-lignocellulose-to-ethanol
#15
Jitendra K Singh, Preeti Vyas, Anamika Dubey, Chandrama Prakash Upadhyaya, Richa Kothari, Vineet Veer Tyagi, Ashwani Kumar
The future supply of energy to meet growing energy demand of rapidly exapanding populations is based on wide energy resources, particularly the renewable ones. Among all resources, lignocellulosic biomasses such as agriculture, forest, and agro-industrial residues are the most abundant and easily available bioresource for biorefineries to provide fuels, chemicals, and materials. However, pretreatment of biomass is required to overcome the physical and chemical barriers that exist in the lignin-carbohydrate composite and pretreatment facilitate the entry of biocatalysts for the conversion of biomass into fermentable sugars and other by-products...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772487/photonuclear-production-of-yttrium-88-a-high-energy-gamma-emitter-for-hydrocarbon-extraction-applications
#16
Daniel S Dale, Valeriia N Starovoitova, Tony A Forest, Emily Oliphant
The use of fracing has risen over the past decade and revolutionized energy production in the US. However, there is still an impetus for further optimization of the extraction of oil and natural gas from vast shale reservoirs. In this work, we discuss photonuclear production of yttrium-88 as a promising radiotracer for fracing operations. Single neutron knock-out from natural monoisotopic yttrium-89 is an inexpensive process resulting in high activity of 88 Y with minimal impurities. MCNPX simulations were performed to estimate the 88 Y yield...
May 5, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772015/the-influence-of-spatial-and-temporal-discontinuities-of-forest-habitats-on-the-current-presence-of-flightless-saproxylic-beetles
#17
Eugénie Cateau, Pierre-Alexis Herrault, David Sheeren, Sylvie Ladet, Hervé Brustel
Flightless saproxylic beetles were selected in order to study the impact of temporal and spatial discontinuity of forests. They were chosen because: (1) they are unable to fly, making them dispersal-limited species, (2) they have a saproxylic diet, which means they are closely linked to the forest, and (3), they have rarely been studied. Forest temporal continuity was expected to be the main factor explaining the presence of these species, modulated by the past and present amount of forest in the surrounding landscape...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771923/invasion-complexity-at-large-spatial-scales-is-an-emergent-property-of-interactions-among-landscape-characteristics-and-invader-traits
#18
Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Adam S Davis, Nicholas R Jordan, James D Forester
Invasion potential should be part of the evaluation of candidate species for any species introduction. However, estimating invasion risks remains a challenging problem, particularly in complex landscapes. Certain plant traits are generally considered to increase invasive potential and there is an understanding that landscapes influence invasions dynamics, but little research has been done to explore how those drivers of invasions interact. We evaluate the relative roles of, and potential interactions between, plant invasiveness traits and landscape characteristics on invasions with a case study using a model parameterized for the potentially invasive biomass crop, Miscanthus × giganteus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770969/homeostatic-levels-of-nonstructural-carbohydrates-after-13-yr-of-drought-and-irrigation-in-pinus-sylvestris
#19
Leonie Schönbeck, Arthur Gessler, Günter Hoch, Nate G McDowell, Andreas Rigling, Marcus Schaub, Mai-He Li
Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) are important for the growth and survival of trees. Drought may lead to a decrease in tree growth and to NSC depletion, whereas increased soil moisture in otherwise dry ecosystems may increase growth and NSC concentrations. A long-term (13 yr) irrigation experiment was conducted in a Pinus sylvestris-dominated forest located at the dry margin of the species in southern Switzerland. We measured the relative leaf area, growth, NSCs, needle δ13 C, [N] and [P] in trees on control and irrigated plots...
May 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770964/below-ground-biotic-interactions-moderated-the-postglacial-range-dynamics-of-trees
#20
Jason Pither, Brian J Pickles, Suzanne W Simard, Alejandro Ordonez, John W Williams
Tree range shifts during geohistorical global change events provide a useful real-world model for how future changes in forest biomes may proceed. In North America, during the last deglaciation, the distributions of tree taxa varied significantly as regards the rate and direction of their responses for reasons that remain unclear. Local-scale processes such as establishment, growth, and resilience to environmental stress ultimately influence range dynamics. Despite the fact that interactions between trees and soil biota are known to influence local-scale processes profoundly, evidence linking below-ground interactions to distribution dynamics remains scarce...
May 17, 2018: New Phytologist
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