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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922585/climatic-and-anthropogenic-drivers-of-northern-amazon-fires-during-the-2015-2016-el-ni%C3%A3-o-event
#1
Marisa G Fonseca, Liana O Anderson, Egidio Arai, Yosio E Shimabukuro, Haron A M Xaud, Maristela R Xaud, Nima Madani, Fabien H Wagner, Luiz E O C Aragão
The strong El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event that occurred in 2015/2016 caused extreme drought in the northern Brazilian Amazon, especially in the state of Roraima, increasing fire occurrence. Here we map the extent of precipitation and fire anomalies and quantify the effects of climatic and anthropogenic drivers on fire occurrence during the 2015/2016 dry season (from December 2015 to March 2016) in the state of Roraima. To achieve these objectives we first estimated the spatial pattern of precipitation anomalies, based on long-term data from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), and the fire anomaly, based on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) active fire detections during the referred period...
September 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922404/eco-epidemiological-analysis-of-rickettsial-seropositivity-in-rural-areas-of-colombia-a-multilevel-approach
#2
Juan C Quintero V, Luis E Paternina T, Alexander Uribe Y, Carlos Muskus, Marylin Hidalgo, Juliana Gil, Astrid Vanessa Cienfuegos G, Lisardo Osorio Q, Carlos Rojas A
Rickettsiosis is a re-emergent infectious disease without epidemiological surveillance in Colombia. This disease is generally undiagnosed and several deadly outbreaks have been reported in the country in the last decade. The aim of this study is to analyze the eco-epidemiological aspects of rickettsial seropositivity in rural areas of Colombia where outbreaks of the disease were previously reported. A cross-sectional study, which included 597 people living in 246 households from nine hamlets in two municipalities of Colombia, was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922296/trajectories-of-glycemic-change-in-a-national-cohort-of-adults-with-previously-controlled-type-2-diabetes
#3
Rozalina G McCoy, Che Ngufor, Holly K Van Houten, Brian Caffo, Nilay D Shah
BACKGROUND: Individualized diabetes management would benefit from prospectively identifying well-controlled patients at risk of losing glycemic control. OBJECTIVES: To identify patterns of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) change among patients with stable controlled diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cohort study using OptumLabs Data Warehouse, 2001-2013. We develop and apply a machine learning framework that uses a Bayesian estimation of the mixture of generalized linear mixed effect models to discover glycemic trajectories, and a random forest feature contribution method to identify patient characteristics predictive of their future glycemic trajectories...
September 15, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921878/simplifying-sampling-for-african-swine-fever-surveillance-assessment-of-antibody-and-pathogen-detection-from-blood-swabs
#4
J Carlson, L Zani, T Schwaiger, I Nurmoja, A Viltrop, A Vilem, M Beer, S Blome
African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable disease with serious socio-economic consequences that has been present in wild boar in the Baltic States and Poland since 2014. An introduction of ASF is usually accompanied by increased mortality, making fallen wild boar and hunted animals with signs of disease the main target for early warning and passive surveillance. It is difficult, however, to encourage hunters and foresters to report and take samples from these cases. A pragmatic and easy sampling approach with quick-drying swabs could facilitate this...
September 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921844/functional-traits-determine-tree-growth-and-ecosystem-productivity-of-a-tropical-montane-forest-insights-from-a-long-term-nutrient-manipulation-experiment
#5
Selene Báez, Jürgen Homeier
Trait response-effects are critical to forecast community structure and biomass production in highly diverse tropical forests. Ecological theory and few observation studies indicate that trees with acquisitive functional traits would respond more strongly to higher resource availability than those with conservative traits. We assessed how long-term tree growth in experimental nutrient addition plots (N, P and N+P) varied as a function of morphological traits, tree size and species identity. We also evaluated how trait-based responses affected stand scale biomass production considering the community structure...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921806/a-large-area-spatially-continuous-assessment-of-land-cover-map-error-and-its-impact-on-downstream-analyses
#6
Lyndon Estes, Peng Chen, Stephanie Debats, Tom Evans, Stefanus Ferreira, Tobias Kuemmerle, Gabrielle Ragazzo, Justin Sheffield, Adam Wolf, Eric Wood, Kelly Caylor
Land cover maps increasingly underlie research into socioeconomic and environmental patterns and processes, including global change. It is known that map errors impact our understanding of these phenomena, but quantifying these impacts is difficult because many areas lack adequate reference data. We used a highly accurate, high-resolution map of South African cropland to assess 1) the magnitude of error in several current generation land cover maps, and 2) how these errors propagate in downstream studies. We first quantified pixel-wise errors in the cropland classes of four widely used land cover maps at resolutions ranging from 1 to 100 km, then calculated errors in several representative "downstream" (map-based) analyses, including assessments of vegetative carbon stocks, evapotranspiration, crop production, and household food security...
September 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921765/assessing-fire-impacts-on-the-carbon-stability-of-fire-tolerant-forests
#7
Lauren T Bennett, Matthew J Bruce, Josephine Machunter, Michele Kohout, Saravanan Jangammanaidu Krishnaraj, Cristina Aponte
The carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests is often assumed but less frequently assessed, limiting potential to anticipate threats to forest carbon posed by predicted increases in forest fire activity. Assessing the carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests requires multi-indicator approaches that recognise the myriad of ways that fires influence the carbon balance including combustion, deposition of pyrogenic material, and tree death, post-fire decomposition, recruitment, and growth. Five years after a large-scale wildfire in south-eastern Australia, we assessed the impacts of low- and high-severity wildfire, with and without prescribed fire (≤ 10 years before), on carbon stocks in multiple pools, and on carbon stability indicators (carbon stock percentages in live trees and in small trees, and carbon stocks in char and fuels) in fire-tolerant eucalypt forests...
September 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921541/automatic-labeling-of-mr-brain-images-through-extensible-learning-and-atlas-forests
#8
Lijun Xu, Hong Liu, Enmin Song, Meng Yan, Renchao Jin, Chih-Cheng Hung
PURPOSE: Multi-atlas-based method is extensively used in MR brain images segmentation because of its simplicity and robustness. This method provides excellent accuracy while time-consuming and limited in terms of obtaining information about new atlases. In this study, an automatic labeling of MR brain images through extensible learning and atlas forest is presented to address these limitations. METHODS: We propose an extensible learning model which allows the multi-atlas-based framework capable of managing the datasets with numerous atlases or dynamic atlas datasets and simultaneously ensure the accuracy of automatic labeling...
September 18, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921530/sympatric-parallel-diversification-of-major-oak-clades-in-the-americas-and-the-origins-of-mexican-species-diversity
#9
Andrew L Hipp, Paul S Manos, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Marlene Hahn, Matthew Kaproth, John D McVay, Susana Valencia Avalos, Jeannine Cavender-Bares
Oaks (Quercus, Fagaceae) are the dominant tree genus of North America in species number and biomass, and Mexico is a global center of oak diversity. Understanding the origins of oak diversity is key to understanding biodiversity of northern temperate forests. A phylogenetic study of biogeography, niche evolution and diversification patterns in Quercus was performed using 300 samples, 146 species. Next-generation sequencing data were generated using the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-seq) method. A time-calibrated maximum likelihood phylogeny was inferred and analyzed with bioclimatic, soils, and leaf habit data to reconstruct the biogeographic and evolutionary history of the American oaks...
September 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921166/from-the-atlantic-forest-to-the-borders-of-amazonia-species-richness-distribution-and-host-association-of-ectoparasitic-flies-diptera-nycteribiidae-and-streblidae-in-northeastern-brazil
#10
Eder Barbier, Enrico Bernard
Better knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and their hosts can contribute to clarifying aspects of host specificity, as well as on the interactions among hosts, parasites, and the environment in which both exist. Ectoparasitic flies of the Nycteribiidae and Streblidae families are highly specialized hematophagous parasites of bats, whose distributional patterns, species richness, and associations with hosts remain underexplored and poorly known in Brazil. Here, we used information available in the literature and unpublished data to verify if the occurrence of bat hosts in a given environment influences the occurrence and distribution of nycteribiid and streblid flies in different ecoregions in the northeastern Brazil...
September 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921080/erratum-to-distribution-of-viruses-inhabiting-heterobasidion-annosum-in-a-pine-dominated-forest-plot-in-southern-finland
#11
Rafiqul Hyder, Tuula Piri, Jarkko Hantula, Heikki Nuorteva, Eeva J Vainio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921004/using-paleoecology-to-inform-land-management-as-climates-change-an-example-from-an-oak-savanna-ecosystem
#12
Jessica D Spencer, Andrea Brunelle, Tim Hepola
Oak savanna, a transitional ecosystem between open prairie and dense oak forest, was once widespread in Minnesota. Upon European settlement much of the oak savanna was destroyed. Recently, efforts to restore this ecosystem have increased and often include the reintroduction of fire. Though fire is known to serve an important role within oak savannas, there are currently few studies which address fire regimes on timescales longer than the last century. This research presents a paleoecological history of Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in MN, USA, spanning the last ~8000 years...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920837/bacillus-solisilvae-sp-nov-isolated-from-forest-soil
#13
Tong Pan, Hairong He, Xiaochong Wang, Yibo Shen, Junwei Zhao, Kai Yan, Xiangjing Wang, Chongxi Liu, Ji Zhang, Wensheng Xiang
A novel Gram-stain-positive, motile, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, NEAU-cbsb5T, was isolated from forest soil from Changbai Mountain, Heilongjiang Province, China. The isolate grew at 15-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and in the presence of up to 4 % (w/v) NaCl, although NaCl was not required for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain NEAU-cbsb5T formed a distinct lineage within the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus acidiceler DSM 18954T (99...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920827/marmoricola-endophyticus-sp-nov-an-endophytic-actinobacterium-isolated-from-thespesia-populnea
#14
Zhong-Ke Jiang, Zhen Pan, Fei-Na Li, Xiao-Jun Li, Shao-Wei Liu, Li Tuo, Ming-Guo Jiang, Cheng-Hang Sun
A novel endophytic actinobacterium, designated strain 8BXZ-J1T, was isolated from surface-sterilized branches of Thespesia populnea collected from Beilun Estuary Mangrove Forest National Nature Reserve in Guangxi, China, and examined by a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. Cells of the isolate were Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-spore-forming, non-motile and short rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that strain 8BXZ-J1T belonged to the genus Marmoricola, sharing highest similarity with Marmoricola solisilvae DSM 27140T (96...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920824/baseline-health-and-nutrition-evaluation-of-two-sympatric-nocturnal-lemur-species-avahi-laniger-and-lepilemur-mustelinus-residing-near-an-active-mine-site-at-ambatovy-madagascar
#15
Randall E Junge, Cathy V Williams, Hajanirina Rakotondrainibe, Karine L Mahefarisoa, Tsiky Rajaonarivelo, Charles Faulkner, Vanessa Mass
Extractive industries can have significant impacts on ecosystems through loss of habitat, degradation of water quality, and direct impact on floral and faunal biodiversity. When operations are located in sensitive regions with high biodiversity containing endangered or threatened species, it is possible to minimize impact on the environment by developing programs to scientifically monitor the impact on resident flora and fauna species in the early phases of operation so that effects can be mitigated whenever possible...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920684/stilbene-boronic-acids-form-a-covalent-bond-with-human-transthyretin-and-inhibit-its-aggregation
#16
Thomas P Smith, Ian W Windsor, Katrina T Forest, Ronald T Raines
Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric protein. Its dissociation into monomers leads to the formation of fibrils that underlie human amyloidogenic diseases. The binding of small molecules to the thyroxin-binding sites in TTR stabilizes the homotetramer and attenuates TTR amyloidosis. Herein, we report on boronic acid-substituted stilbenes that limit TTR amyloidosis in vitro. Assays of affinity for TTR and inhibition of its tendency to form fibrils were coupled with X-ray crystallographic analysis of nine TTR·ligand complexes...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920445/recovery-of-bioactive-molecules-from-chestnut-castanea-sativa-mill-by-products-through-extraction-by-different-solvents
#17
Filomena Monica Vella, Bruna Laratta, Francesco La Cara, Alessandra Morana
The underutilised forest and industrial biomass of Castanea sativa (Mill.) is generally discarded during post-harvest and food processing, with high impact on environmental quality. The searching on alternative sources of natural antioxidants from low-cost supplies, by methods involving environment-friendly techniques, has become a major goal of numerous researches in recent times. The aim of the present study was the set-up of a biomolecules extraction procedure from chestnut leaves, burs and shells and the assessing of their potential antioxidant activity...
September 18, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920141/effects-of-moso-bamboo-phyllostachys-edulis-invasions-on-soil-nitrogen-cycles-depend-on-invasion-stage-and-warming
#18
Zhenzhen Li, Ling Zhang, Bangliang Deng, Yuanqiu Liu, Fanqian Kong, Guoxian Huang, Qin Zou, Qian Liu, Xiaomin Guo, Yanqiu Fu, Dekui Niu, Evan Siemann
Plant invasions may alter soil nutrient cycling due to differences in physiological traits between the invader and species they displace as well as differences in responses to anthropogenic factors such as nitrogen deposition and warming. Moso bamboo is expanding its range rapidly around the world, displacing diverse forests. In addition, near expansion fronts where invasions are patchy, moso bamboo and other species each contribute soil inputs. Nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are important processes associated with nutrient availability and climate change that may be impacted by bamboo invasions...
September 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919959/chromosome-mapping-in-abracris-flavolineata-de-geer-1773-orthoptera-from-the-igua%C3%A3-u-national-park-foz-do-igua%C3%A3-u-paran%C3%A3-brazil
#19
Mariana Bozina Pine, Raquel Bozini Gallo, Carlos Roberto Maximiano da Silva, Larissa Forim Pezenti, Fernando Campos De Domenico, Vilma Loreto, Renata da Rosa
In this paper, we present the cytomolecular analysis of a population of Abracris flavolineata collected in the largest fragment of the Brazilian Atlantic forest, the Iguaçu National Park. The diploid number in males was 23 (22+X0), with two large pairs (1-2), 7 medium (3-9), 2 small (10-11) and the X chromosome of medium size. Heterochromatic blocks were evident in the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes. Heterogeneity in the distribution of heterochromatin was observed, with a predominance of DAPI(+) blocks...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919956/first-karyotype-description-and-nuclear-2c-value-for-myrsine-primulaceae-comparing-three-species
#20
Renata Flávia de Carvalho, Paulo Marcos Amaral-Silva, Micheli Sossai Spadeto, Andrei Caíque Pires Nunes, Tatiana Tavares Carrijo, Carlos Roberto Carvalho, Wellington Ronildo Clarindo
Cytogenetic studies in Primulaceae are mostly available for herbaceous species, and are focused on the chromosome number determination. An accurate karyotype characterization represents a starting point to know the morphometry and class of the chromosomes. Comparison among species within Myrsine, associating these data with the nuclear 2C value, can show changes that led the karyotype evolution. Here, we studied three Myrsine species [Myrsine coriacea (Swartz, 1788) Brown ex Roemer et Schultes, 1819, Myrsine umbellata Martius, 1841 and Myrsine parvifolia Candolle, 1841] that show different abilities to occupy the varied types of vegetation within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
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