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Severe pancreatitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324164/novel-intraoperative-use-of-the-tensipresser-to-assess-factors-predictive-of-pancreatic-fistula-after-pancreaticoduodenectomy
#1
Manabu Mikamori, Kunihito Gotoh, Hidenori Takahashi, Hirofumi Akita, Akira Tomokuni, Shogo Kobayashi, Masayuki Ohue, Yoshiyuki Fujiwara, Masahiko Yano, Osamu Ishikawa, Masato Sakon
PURPOSES: Pancreatic fistula (PF) is a challenging complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). 'Soft pancreas' is reported as a risk factor for PF; however, palpation by the surgeon is not an objective method of evaluating pancreatic texture. We conducted this study to investigate whether a texture analyzer called a "Tensipresser" can be used to quantify pancreatic tissue hardness and predict the development of postoperative PF. METHODS: We assessed pancreatic texture in 85 patients who underwent PD...
March 21, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323959/insulin-and-glucagon-partners-for-life
#2
Jens Juul Holst, William Holland, Jesper Gromada, Young Lee, Roger H Unger, Hai Yan, Kyle W Sloop, Timothy J Kieffer, Nicolas Damond, Pedro L Herrera
In August 2016, several leaders in glucagon biology gathered for the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Hagedorn Workshop in Oxford, England. A key point of discussion focused around the need for basal insulin to allow for the therapeutic benefit of glucagon blockade in the treatment of diabetes. Among the most enlightening experimental results presented were findings from studies where glucagon receptor-deficient mice were administered streptozotocin to destroy pancreatic beta cells or had undergone diphtheria toxin-induced beta cell ablation...
January 31, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323955/rapid-onset-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-following-sglt2-inhibition-in-a-patient-with-unrecognized-acromegaly
#3
Marino Quarella, Daniel Walser, Michael Brändle, Jean-Yves Fournier, Stefan Bilz
Context: Diabetic ketoacidosis has been described as a rare complication of acromegaly and may be observed in 1% of affected patients. The well described direct lipolytic effect of growth hormone results in increased availability of free fatty acids (FFA) for hepatic ketogenesis and is an important pathogenic event. More recently, ketoacidosis has been identified as an important complication of sodium-glucose-transport-protein 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i). Increased pancreatic glucagon secretion, impaired renal ketone body clearance and an increase in FFA concentrations secondary to decreased insulin concentrations are likely precipitating factors...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323930/%C3%AE-cells-persist-in-t1d-pancreata-without-evidence-for-ongoing-%C3%AE-cell-turnover-or-neogenesis
#4
Carol J Lam, Daniel R Jacobson, Matthew M Rankin, Aaron R Cox, Jake A Kushner
Context: The cellular basis of persistent β-cell function in T1D remains enigmatic. No extensive quantitative β-cell studies of T1D pancreata have been performed to test for ongoing β-cell regeneration or neogenesis. Objective: We sought to determine the mechanism of β-cell persistence in T1D pancreata. Design: We studied T1D (n=47) and non-diabetic control (n=59) pancreata over a wide range of ages from the JDRF Network of Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD) via high throughput microscopy...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323675/30-day-readmission-after-pancreatic-resection-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-meta-analysis
#5
Alexander V Fisher, Sara Fernandes-Taylor, Stephanie A Campbell-Flohr, Sam J Clarkson, Emily R Winslow, Daniel E Abbott, Sharon M Weber
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and compare common reasons and risk factors for 30-day readmission after pancreatic resection. BACKGROUND: Hospital readmission after pancreatic resection is common and costly. Many studies have evaluated this problem and numerous discrepancies exist regarding the primary reasons and risk factors for readmission. METHODS: Multiple electronic databases were searched from 2002 to 2016, and 15 relevant articles identified...
March 20, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319674/assessment-of-circulating-betatrophin-concentrations-in-lean-glucose-tolerant-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#6
Onur Erol, Mustafa Kemal Özel, Hamit Yaşar Ellidağ, Tayfun Toptaş, Aysel Uysal Derbent, Necat Yılmaz
The aims of the current study were to investigate the betatrophin levels in lean glucose-tolerant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to explore the relationships between these levels and antropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters. The study population consisted of 50 lean (body mass index [BMI] < 25 kg/m(2)) women diagnosed with PCOS using the Rotterdam criteria, and 60 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls without any features of clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism. Before recruitment, glucose tolerance was evaluated in all of the subjects using the 2-h 75 g oral glucose-tolerance test, and only those exhibiting normal glucose tolerance were enrolled...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319407/investigation-of-procalcitonin-il-6-oxidative-stress-index-osi-plasma-and-tissue-levels-in-experimental-mild-and-severe-pancreatitis-in-rats
#7
M Soyalp, M Yalcin, V Oter, A Ozgonul
AIM: This study was planned to evaluate blood and tissue levels of procalcitonin, IL-6 and Oxidative Stress Index (OSI), which have a role in the pathophysiology of inflammation, in rats with experimental mild and severe pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty male Wistar Albino rats were included in the study and the rats were equally divided into the three groups. After 1, 5 and 24 hours, blood was obtained from the tail of all rats and samples were taken from pancreas tissue after 24 hours...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318089/a-cacna1d-mutation-in-a-patient-with-persistent-hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-heart-defects-and-severe-hypotonia
#8
S E Flanagan, F Vairo, M B Johnson, R Caswell, T W Laver, H Lango Allen, K Hussain, S Ellard
Congenital hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) can occur in isolation or it may present as part of a wider syndrome. For approximately 40%-50% of individuals with this condition, sequence analysis of the known HH genes identifies a causative mutation. Identifying the underlying genetic aetiology in the remaining cases is important as a genetic diagnosis will inform on recurrence risk, may guide medical management and will provide valuable insights into β-cell physiology. We sequenced the exome of a child with persistent diazoxide-responsive HH, mild aortic insufficiency, severe hypotonia, and developmental delay as well as the unaffected parents...
March 20, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317658/minimally-invasive-pancreatoduodenectomy
#9
Michael L Kendrick, Jony van Hilst, Ugo Boggi, Thijs de Rooij, R Matthew Walsh, Herbert J Zeh, Steven J Hughes, Yoshiharu Nakamura, Charles M Vollmer, David A Kooby, Horacio J Asbun
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive pancreatoduodenectomy (MIPD) is increasingly performed with several institutional series and comparative studies reported. The aim was to conduct an assessment of the best-evidence and expert opinion on the current status and future challenges of MIPD. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed and best-evidence presented at a State-of-the-Art conference on Minimally Invasive Pancreatic Resection. Expert panel discussion and audience response activity was used to assess perceived value and future direction...
March 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317614/snap-tests-for-pancreatitis-in-dogs-and-cats-snap-canine-pancreatic-lipase-and-snap-feline-pancreatic-lipase
#10
REVIEW
Panagiotis G Xenoulis, Jörg M Steiner
A clinical diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs and cats can be challenging. Several diagnostic modalities have been evaluated over the years for the diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis, but most of these modalities have been shown to be of limited clinical use because of poor performance, limited availability, or because they are invasive, or all of these. Assays for the measurement of pancreatic lipase (PL) immunoreactivity [Specific canine PL (Spec cPL) in dogs and Specific feline PL (Spec fPL) in cats] were first developed approximately 15 years ago, and studies have shown that they are currently the serum tests of choice for the evaluation of canine and feline patients, respectively, suspected of having pancreatitis...
December 2016: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317043/il-8-gene-polymorphism-in-acute-biliary-and-non-biliary-pancreatitis-probable-cause-of-high-level-parameters
#11
Ender Anilir, Filiz Ozen, Ibrahim Halil Yildirim, Ibrahim Ali Ozemir, Can Ozlu, Orhan Alimoglu
BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: Inflammatory mediators of the innate immune response play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. The correlation between interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene polymorphism with types of acute pancreatitis and severity of pancreatitis, was evaluated in this study. METHODS: According to the diagnostic criteria, 176 patients with acute pancreatitis were grouped into biliary (n=83) and nonbiliary pancreatitis (n=93). Healthy blood donors (n=100) served as controls...
February 2017: Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315674/dichotomy-between-receptor-interacting-protein-1-and-receptor-interacting-protein-3-mediated-necroptosis-in-experimental-pancreatitis
#12
Jianghong Wu, Tunike Mulatibieke, Jianbo Ni, Xiao Han, Bin Li, Yue Zeng, Rong Wan, Xingpeng Wang, Guoyong Hu
Pancreatic acinar cell necrosis and inflammatory responses are two key pathologic processes in acute pancreatitis (AP), which determines the severity and outcome of the disease. Recent studies suggest that necroptosis, a programed form of necrosis, is involved in the pathogenesis of AP, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the expression of necrosome components, including receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1, RIP3, and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), and the molecular mechanisms in pancreatitis-associated necroptosis...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315323/increased-serotonin-signaling-contributes-to-the-warburg-effect-in-pancreatic-tumor-cells-under-metabolic-stress-and-promotes-growth-of-pancreatic-tumors-in-mice
#13
Shu-Heng Jiang, Jun Li, Fang-Yuan Dong, Jian-Yu Yang, De-Jun Liu, Xiao-Mei Yang, Ya-Hui Wang, Min-Wei Yang, Xue-Liang Fu, Xiao-Xin Zhang, Qing Li, Xiu-Feng Pang, Yan-Miao Huo, Jiao Li, Jun-Feng Zhang, Ho-Young Lee, Su-Jae Lee, Wen-Xin Qin, Jian-Ren Gu, Yong-Wei Sun, Zhi-Gang Zhang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The desmoplasia and poor vascularity cause severe metabolic stress in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator with neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine functions that contributes to tumorigenesis. We investigated the role of 5-HT signaling in the growth of pancreatic tumors. METHODS: We measured the levels of proteins that regulate 5-HT synthesis, packaging, and degradation in pancreata from Kras(G12D/+); Trp53(R172H/+); Pdx1-Cre; (KPC) mice, which develop pancreatic tumors, as well as in PDAC cell lines and a tissue microarray containing 81 human PDAC samples...
March 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315036/diagnosing-chronic-pancreatitis
#14
REVIEW
Ahmad Anaizi, Phil A Hart, Darwin L Conwell
Diagnosing CP can range from routine in those with severe disease and obvious calcifications on CT imaging to elusive in those patients with early changes in CP. The workup of suspected CP should follow a progressively noninvasive to more invasive STEP-wise approach in a patient with a suspicious clinical presentation and risk factors that raise their pretest probability of disease. After a thorough history and physical examination, basic laboratories should be obtained such as lipase, amylase, metabolic panel, and indirect PFTs (fecal elastase-1, serum trypsin)...
March 17, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304379/development-of-bioluminescent-chick-chorioallantoic-membrane-cam-models-for-primary-pancreatic-cancer-cells-a-platform-for-drug-testing
#15
Maria Rovithi, Amir Avan, Niccola Funel, Leticia G Leon, Valentina E Gomez, Thomas Wurdinger, Arjan W Griffioen, Henk M W Verheul, Elisa Giovannetti
The aim of the present study was to develop chick-embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) bioluminescent tumor models employing low passage cell cultures obtained from primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Primary PDAC cells transduced with lentivirus expressing Firefly-luciferase (Fluc) were established and inoculated onto the CAM membrane, with >80% engraftment. Fluc signal reliably correlated with tumor growth. Tumor features were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and genetic analyses, including analysis of mutations and mRNA expression of PDAC pivotal genes, as well as microRNA (miRNA) profiling...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302042/natural-anti-cancer-agents-implications-in-gemcitabine-resistant-pancreatic-cancer-treatment
#16
Bishal Marasini, Ravi P Sahu
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancy accounting for the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Among several explored anti-cancer agents, Gemcitabine, a nucleoside analogue remained a front line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, gemcitabine exerts a low response rate with limited progression free survival in cancer patients due to cellular resistance of pancreatic tumors to this therapy. Several chemotherapeutic agents have been explored in combination with gemcitabine against pancreatic cancer with overall mixed responses and survival rates...
March 15, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301241/pathology-and-tissue-distribution-of-an-lpai-h5n8-of-north-american-lineage-isolated-from-an-outbreak-in-commercial-japanese-quail-coturnix-c-japonica-in-the-central-valley-of-california
#17
S Carnaccini, S T Stoute, A A Bickford, H L Shivaprasad
This report describes the pathology and tissue distribution of avian influenza (AI) antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the tissues of commercial layer quail from a natural outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N8. LPAI virus H5N8 of North American lineage was diagnosed in commercial Japanese quail hens ( Coturnix coturnix japonica) in California based on serology, reverse-transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and sequencing. The sudden increase in mortality in a flock of laying quail hens had prompted the submission of 15 live and 5 dead, 10- to 15-wk-old quail to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Turlock branch in the beginning of April 2014...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300832/deletion-of-xiap-reduces-the-severity-of-acute-pancreatitis-via-regulation-of-cell-death-and-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity
#18
Yong Liu, Xiao-Dong Chen, Jiang Yu, Jun-Lin Chi, Fei-Wu Long, Hong-Wei Yang, Ke-Ling Chen, Zhao-Ying Lv, Bin Zhou, Zhi-Hai Peng, Xiao-Feng Sun, Yuan Li, Zong-Guang Zhou
Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) still remains a clinical challenge, not only for its high mortality but the uncontrolled inflammatory progression from acute pancreatitis (AP) to SAP. Cell death, including apoptosis and necrosis are critical pathology of AP, since the severity of pancreatitis correlates directly with necrosis and inversely with apoptosis Therefore, regulation of cell death from necrosis to apoptosis may have practicably therapeutic value. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is the best characterized member of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) family, but its function in AP remains unclear...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300567/9-cis-retinoic-acid-modulates-myotrophin-expression-and-its-mir-in-physiological-and-pathophysiological-cell-models
#19
Mariarita Perri, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Nannan Liu, Luca Gallelli, Giovambattista De Sarro, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Erika Cione
Functional studies indicate that essential cellular processes are controlled by Vitamin A derivatives. Among these the retinoic acid isoforms, all-trans- and 9-cis (9cRA), regulate the expression of various genes in both physiological and pathological conditions. Using several in vitro experimental models such as pancreatic β-cells, pre-adipocytes and breast cancer cells with different phenotypes, we demonstrated the capability of 9cRA to modulate myotrophin (Mtpn) and miR-375 expressions. The 9cRA effect in pancreatic β-cells line INS-1 832/13 point out a decreased expression of Mptn at both mRNA and protein levels associated to a concomitant increase of miR-375...
March 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299752/therapeutic-implications-of-molecular-subtyping-for-pancreatic-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Michael J Pishvaian, Jonathan R Brody
The prognosis of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma has recently begun to improve. In the last several years, first-line therapy with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel or a regimen of fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) has boosted the median overall survival (OS) duration to 8.5 months and 11 months, respectively, in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, compared with a historic OS of only 6 months prior to 2011. Moreover, sequencing these two regimens improved median OS to an unprecedented 18 months...
March 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
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