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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329564/phytochemical-analysis-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-potential-of-feretia-apodanthera-root-bark-extracts
#1
Oluwayinka Olufunmilayo Owolabi, Dorcas Bolanle James, Ibrahim Sani, Binda T Andongma, Opeoluwa O Fasanya, Barnabas Kure
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been implicated in many disorders, including cancer and available therapies elicit adverse effects. Plants of the family Rubiaceae have shown potency against inflammation. The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potential of Feretia apodanthera was investigated in this study to evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: The phytochemical, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of root bark (n-Hexane, diethyl ether, ethanol and aqueous) extracts of Feretia apodanthera was investigated in this study...
January 12, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327148/autoantibodies-against-zinc-transporter-8-are-related-to-age-and-metabolic-state-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-autoimmune-diabetes
#2
Elżbieta Niechciał, Anita Rogowicz-Frontczak, Stanisław Piłaciński, Marta Fichna, Bogda Skowrońska, Piotr Fichna, Dorota Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz
AIMS: To assess the prevalence of ZnT8-ab and its correlation to other autoimmune markers and diabetic ketoacidosis occurrence in children and adults with T1DM onset. METHODS: The study included 367 patients (218 children; 149 adults) at the T1DM onset. Selected diabetes-related autoantibodies such as GAD-ab, IA2-ab, ZnT8-ab were tested before the initiation of insulin therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis was defined as glucose concentration > 13.9 mmol/l, pH < 7...
January 11, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325899/do-ketone-bodies-mediate-the-anti-seizure-effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet
#3
REVIEW
Timothy A Simeone, Kristina A Simeone, Carl E Stafstrom, Jong M Rho
Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-seizure effects of the high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) remain unclear, a long-standing question has been whether ketone bodies (i.e., beta-hydroxybutyrate [BHB], acetoacetate [ACA] and acetone), either alone or in combination, contribute mechanistically. The traditional belief has been that while ketone bodies reflect enhanced fatty acid oxidation and a general shift toward intermediary metabolism, they are not likely to be the key mediators of the KD's clinical effects, as blood levels of BHB do not correlate consistently with improved seizure control...
January 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321682/intermittent-metabolic-switching-neuroplasticity-and-brain-health
#4
REVIEW
Mark P Mattson, Keelin Moehl, Nathaniel Ghena, Maggie Schmaedick, Aiwu Cheng
During evolution, individuals whose brains and bodies functioned well in a fasted state were successful in acquiring food, enabling their survival and reproduction. With fasting and extended exercise, liver glycogen stores are depleted and ketones are produced from adipose-cell-derived fatty acids. This metabolic switch in cellular fuel source is accompanied by cellular and molecular adaptations of neural networks in the brain that enhance their functionality and bolster their resistance to stress, injury and disease...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317401/acute-and-chronic-increases-of-circulating-fstl1-normalize-energy-substrate-metabolism-in-pacing-induced-heart-failure
#5
Mitsuru Seki, Jeffery C Powers, Sonomi Maruyama, Maria A Zuriaga, Chia-Ling Wu, Clara Kurishima, Lydia Kim, Jesse Johnson, Anthony Poidomani, Tao Wang, Eric Muñoz, Sudarsan Rajan, Joon Y Park, Kenneth Walsh, Fabio A Recchia
BACKGROUND: FSTL1 (follistatin-like protein 1) is an emerging cardiokine/myokine that is upregulated in heart failure (HF) and is found to be cardioprotective in animal models of cardiac injury. We tested the hypothesis that circulating FSTL1 can affect cardiac function and metabolism under baseline physiological conditions and in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: FSTL1 was acutely (10 minutes) or chronically (2 weeks) infused to attain clinically relevant blood levels in conscious dogs with cardiac tachypacing-induced HF...
January 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316143/basal-insulin-peglispro-increases-lipid-oxidation-metabolic-flexibility-thermogenesis-and-ketone-bodies-compared-to-insulin-glargine-in-subjects-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Niels K Porksen, Helle Linnebjerg, Eric Chen Quin Lam, Parag Garhyan, Alok Pachori, Richard E Pratley, Steven R Smith
AIMS: When treated with basal insulin peglispro (BIL), patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) exhibit weight loss and lower prandial insulin requirements versus insulin glargine (GL), while total insulin requirements remain similar. One possible explanation is enhanced lipid oxidation and improved ability to switch between glucose and lipid metabolism with BIL. This study compared the effects of BIL and GL on glucose and lipid metabolism in subjects with T1DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen subjects with T1DM were enrolled into this open-label, randomised, crossover study, and received once-daily stable, individualised, subcutaneous doses of BIL and GL for 4 weeks each...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314217/direct-assessment-of-renal-mitochondrial-redox-state-using-hyperpolarized-13-c-acetoacetate
#7
Cornelius von Morze, Michael A Ohliger, Irene Marco-Rius, David M Wilson, Robert R Flavell, David Pearce, Daniel B Vigneron, John Kurhanewicz, Zhen J Wang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the hyperpolarized ketone body 13 C-acetoacetate (AcAc) and its conversion to 13 C-β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) in vivo, catalyzed by β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH), as a novel direct marker of mitochondrial redox state. METHODS: [1,3-13 C2 ]AcAc was synthesized by hydrolysis of the ethyl ester, and hyperpolarized via dissolution DNP. Cold storage under basic conditions resulted in sufficient chemical stability for use in hyperpolarized (HP) MRI studies...
January 3, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311302/fenofibrate-prevents-skeletal-muscle-loss-in-mice-with-lung-cancer
#8
Marcus D Goncalves, Seo-Kyoung Hwang, Chantal Pauli, Charles J Murphy, Zhe Cheng, Benjamin D Hopkins, David Wu, Ryan M Loughran, Brooke M Emerling, Guoan Zhang, Douglas T Fearon, Lewis C Cantley
The cancer anorexia cachexia syndrome is a systemic metabolic disorder characterized by the catabolism of stored nutrients in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that is particularly prevalent in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Loss of skeletal muscle results in functional impairments and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to characterize the changes in systemic metabolism in a genetically engineered mouse model of NSCLC. We show that a portion of these animals develop loss of skeletal muscle, loss of adipose tissue, and increased inflammatory markers mirroring the human cachexia syndrome...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301703/in-ovol-leucine-administration-stimulates-lipid-metabolisms-in-heat-exposed-male-but-not-female-chicks-to-afford-thermotolerance
#9
Guofeng Han, Hui Yang, Takashi Bungo, Hiromi Ikeda, Yunhao Wang, Linh T N Nguyen, Hatem M Eltahan, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Vishwajit S Chowdhury
Thermal manipulation declined embryonic brain and liver concentrations of leucine (Leu). L-Leu in ovo injection afforded thermotolerance in male broiler chicks. This study aimed to examine the role of in ovo injection of L-Leu in metabolic functions, and differences between male and female broiler chicks in thermotolerance. L-Leu injection was performed in ovo on embryonic day (ED) 7 to reveal its role in metabolic activity in embryos and in post-hatch male and female broiler chicks under heat stress. To examine the metabolic activity of embryos, oxygen (O2) consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) production, heat production and plasma metabolites were analyzed...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298881/multiple-intracellular-signaling-pathways-orchestrate-adipocytic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-stromal-stem-cells
#10
Dalia Ali, Sarah Abuelreich, Nora Alkeraishan, Najla Bin Shwish, Rimi Hamam, Moustapha Kassem, Musaad Alfayez, Abdullah Aldahmash, Nehad M Alajez
Bone marrow adipocyte formation plays a role in bone homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. However, the transcriptional landscape and signaling pathways associated with adipocyte lineage commitment and maturation are not fully delineated. Thus, we performed global gene expression profiling during adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) and identified 2,589 upregulated and 2,583 down regulated mRNA transcripts. Pathway analysis on the upregulated gene list untraveled enrichment in multiple signaling pathways including insulin receptor signaling, focal Adhesion, metapathway  biotransformation, a number of metabolic pathways e...
January 3, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290445/predicting-hyperketonemia-by-logistic-and-linear-regression-using-test-day-milk-and-performance-variables-in-early-lactation-holstein-and-jersey-cows
#11
T L Chandler, R S Pralle, J R R Dórea, S E Poock, G R Oetzel, R H Fourdraine, H M White
Although cowside testing strategies for diagnosing hyperketonemia (HYK) are available, many are labor intensive and costly, and some lack sufficient accuracy. Predicting milk ketone bodies by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry during routine milk sampling may offer a more practical monitoring strategy. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop linear and logistic regression models using all available test-day milk and performance variables for predicting HYK and (2) compare prediction methods (Fourier transform infrared milk ketone bodies, linear regression models, and logistic regression models) to determine which is the most predictive of HYK...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280746/congenital-hyperinsulinism-diagnosis-and-treatment-update
#12
Hüseyin Demirbilek, Khalid Hussain
Pancreatic β-cells are finely tuned to secrete insulin so that plasma glucose levels are maintained within a narrow physiological range (3.5-5.5 mmol/L). Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) is the inappropriate seretion of insulin in the presence of low plasma glucose levels and leads to severe and persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates and children. Mutations in 12 different key genes (ABCC8, KCNJ11, GLUD1, GCK, HADH, SLC16A1, UCP2, HNF4A, HNF1A, HK1, PGM1 and PMM2) that are involved in the regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells have been described to be responsible for the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to congenital HH...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279425/-cellular-metabolite-controls-oxidative-stress-resistance
#13
Tadahiro Shimazu
Cellular metabolites such as acetylcoenzyme A and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide control gene transcription via modulating the reader or eraser protein in histone modification. A ketone body, D-β-hydroxybutyrate is an endogenous metabolite which has been reported as a class Ⅰ histone deacetylases(HDACs). In this chapter, a molecular basis of the ketone body in transcriptional control and protection against oxidative stress is reviewed and discussed.
2018: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273412/versatility-of-microglial-bioenergetic-machinery-under-starving-conditions
#14
Adam M Nagy, Rebeka Fekete, Gergo Horvath, Gabor Koncsos, Csilla Kriston, Anna Sebestyen, Zoltan Giricz, Zsuzsanna Kornyei, Emilia Madarasz, Laszlo Tretter
Microglia are highly dynamic cells in the brain. Their functional diversity and phenotypic versatility brought microglial energy metabolism into the focus of research. Although it is known that microenvironmental cues shape microglial phenotype, their bioenergetic response to local nutrient availability remains unclear. In the present study effects of energy substrates on the oxidative and glycolytic metabolism of primary - and BV-2 microglial cells were investigated. Cellular oxygen consumption, glycolytic activity, the levels of intracellular ATP/ADP, autophagy, mTOR phosphorylation, apoptosis and cell viability were measured in the absence of nutrients or in the presence of physiological energy substrates: glutamine, glucose, lactate, pyruvate or ketone bodies...
December 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250447/electronic-northern-analysis-of-genes-and-modeling-of-gene-networks-underlying-bovine-milk-fat-production
#15
Bhaskar Ganguly, Tanuj Kumar Ambwani, Sunil Kumar Rastogi
Milk fat is one of the most important economic traits in dairy animals. Yet, the biological machinery involved in milk fat synthesis remains poorly understood. In the present study, expression profiling of 45 genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and secretion was performed using a computational approach to identify those genes that are differentially expressed in mammary tissue. Transcript abundance was observed for genes associated with nine bioprocesses, namely, fatty acid import into cells, xenobiotic and cholesterol transport, acetate and fatty acid activation and intracellular transport, fatty acid synthesis and desaturation, triacylglycerol synthesis, sphingolipid synthesis, lipid droplet formation, ketone body utilization, and regulation of transcription in mammary, skin, and muscle tissue...
2017: Genetics Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249221/sex-hormones-regulate-rat-hepatic-monocarboxylate-transporter-expression-and-membrane-trafficking
#16
Jieyun Cao, Michael Ng, Melanie A Felmlee
PURPOSE: Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are involved in the transport of monocarboxylates such as ketone bodies, lactate, and pharmaceutical agents. CD147 functions as an ancillary protein for MCT1 and MCT4 for plasma membrane trafficking. Sex differences in MCT1 and MCT4 have been observed in muscle and reproductive tissues; however, there is a paucity of information on MCT sex differences in tissues involved in drug disposition. The objective of the present study was to quantify hepatic MCT1, MCT4 and CD147 mRNA, total cellular and membrane protein expression in males, over the estrous cycle in females and in ovariectomized (OVX) females...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248131/metabolic-coupling-and-the-reverse-warburg-effect-in-cancer-implications-for-novel-biomarker-and-anticancer-agent-development
#17
REVIEW
Lindsay Wilde, Megan Roche, Marina Domingo-Vidal, Katherina Tanson, Nancy Philp, Joseph Curry, Ubaldo Martinez-Outschoorn
Glucose is a key metabolite used by cancer cells to generate ATP, maintain redox state and create biomass. Glucose can be catabolized to lactate in the cytoplasm, which is termed glycolysis, or alternatively can be catabolized to carbon dioxide and water in the mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation. Metabolic heterogeneity exists in a subset of human tumors, with some cells maintaining a glycolytic phenotype while others predominantly utilize oxidative phosphorylation. Cells within tumors interact metabolically with transfer of catabolites from supporting stromal cells to adjacent cancer cells...
June 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247992/metabolic-regulation-of-nlrp3
#18
REVIEW
Mark M Hughes, Luke A J O'Neill
A shift in our understanding of macrophage biology has come about as a result of recent discoveries in the area of metabolic reprogramming of macrophages. The NLRP3 inflammasome drives the activation of caspase-1, leading to the production of IL-1β, IL-18, and a type of cell death termed pyroptosis. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been shown to sense metabolites such as palmitate, uric acid, and cholesterol crystals and is inhibited by ketone bodies produced during metabolic flux. The NLRP3 inflammasome has also been shown to be regulated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and components of glycolysis, such as Hexokinase...
January 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242353/cardiac-specific-bdh1-overexpression-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-and-cardiac-remodeling-in-pressure-overload-induced-heart-failure
#19
Motoki Uchihashi, Atsushi Hoshino, Yoshifumi Okawa, Makoto Ariyoshi, Satoshi Kaimoto, Shuhei Tateishi, Kazunori Ono, Ryoetsu Yamanaka, Daichi Hato, Yohei Fushimura, Sakiko Honda, Kuniyoshi Fukai, Yusuke Higuchi, Takehiro Ogata, Eri Iwai-Kanai, Satoaki Matoba
BACKGROUND: Energy starvation and the shift of energy substrate from fatty acids to glucose is the hallmark of metabolic remodeling during heart failure progression. However, ketone body metabolism in the failing heart has not been fully investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microarray data analysis and mitochondrial isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification proteomics revealed that the expression of D-β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase I (Bdh1), an enzyme that catalyzes the NAD+/NADH coupled interconversion of acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate, was increased 2...
December 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234415/1h-nmr-based-serum-metabolomics-study-to-investigate-hepatoprotective-effect-of-qin-jiao-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-acute-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#20
Zeyun Li, Ying Li, Lingpan Lu, Zhiheng Yang, Wenhua Xue, Xin Tian, Xiaojian Zhang
Gentiana macrophylla Radix, commonly known as Qin-Jiao (QJ), was recorded alone to treat jaundice in Compendium of Materia Medica and has been frequently prescribed for treatment of liver disease in China. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In the present work, QJ of 1,2 g/kg or silybin of 40 mg/kg (positive control) was orally given to rats for 7 days to verify the protective effect on acute liver damage induced by tetrachloride (CCl4). Together with serum biochemistry and histopathological examination, 1H-NMR based metabolomics work was carried out to investigate the efficacy...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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