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Ketone bodies

Joseph Cadman, Chester Sutterlin, Danè Dabirrahmani, Richard Appleyard
BACKGROUND: Commercial fusion cages typically provide support in the central region of the endplate, failing to utilize the increased compressive strength around the periphery. This study demonstrates the increase in compressive strength that can be achieved if the bony periphery of the endplate is loaded. METHODS: Sixteen cadaveric lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5) were randomly divided into two even groups. A different commercial mass produced implant (MPI) was allocated to each group: (I) a Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) anterior lumber inter-body fusion (ALIF) MPI; and (II) a titanium ALIF MPI...
September 2016: J Spine Surg
Vasilios Tsimihodimos, Theodosios D Filippatos, Sebastian Fillippas-Ntekouan, Moses S Elisaf
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2) inhibitors) represent a new class of antidiabetic drugs that act through the inhibition of glucose and sodium reabsorption at proximal tubules. It has been shown that tThese substances may exhibit renonephroprotective properties, since they expressed clinically as a prevention of the deterioration of the glomerular filtration rate and a reductionreduce in the degree of albuminuria in patients with established diabetes-associated kidney disease. In this review we present in detail the pathophysiologic mechanisms that have been recently implicated in the rennephroprotective properties of SGLT-2 inhibitors...
October 7, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Ricardo J S Costa, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Volker Scheer, Andrew Murray
BACKGROUND: Debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and dermatological injuries (DI) are common during and after endurance events and have been linked to performance decrements, event withdrawal, and issues requiring medical attention. The study aimed to determine whether GIS and DI affect food and fluid intake, and nutritional and hydration status, of ultramarathon runners during multi-stage (MSUM) and 24-h continuous (24 h) ultramarathons. METHODS: Ad libitum food and fluid intakes of ultramarathon runners (MSUM n = 54; 24 h n = 22) were recorded throughout both events and analysed by dietary analysis software...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Bo Sun, Xubin Wang, Ruili Cao, Qi Zhang, Qiao Liu, Meifeng Xu, Ming Zhang, Xiangbo Du, Fangting Dong, Xianzhong Yan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fuzi, the processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for its analgesic, antipyretic, anti-rheumatoid arthritis and anti-inflammation effects; however, it is also well known for its toxicity. Gancao, the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., is often used concurrently with Fuzi to alleviate its toxicity. However, the mechanism of detoxication is still not well clear. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the effect of Gancao on the metabolic changes induced by Fuzi was investigated by NMR-based metabonomic approaches...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Orsolya Balogh, Marie Roch, Stefanie Keller, Erika Michel, Iris M Reichler
In dogs, there is no diagnostic test to identify and differentiate fetal fluids from maternal urine in the event that a clear-yellowish vulvar discharge is observed pre-whelping. The objective of this study was to find a test that could easily and accurately identify rupture of the fetal membranes preceding parturition. Maternal urine, and amniotic fluid (AMF) and allantoic fluid (ALF) from only one fetus per bitch, were collected intraoperatively during cesarean section. Specific gravity (SG) was analyzed with a refractometer, whereas the presence of leukocytes, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, erythrocyte/hemoglobin (Hb), and the pH were assessed using a urine dipstick (Combur-Test)...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
Kristina Hofmann, Christian Lamberz, Kira Piotrowitz, Nina Offermann, Diana But, Anja Scheller, Ashraf Al-Amoudi, Lars Kuerschner
Although the brain controls all main metabolic pathways in the whole organism, its lipid metabolism is partially separated from the rest of the body. Circulating lipids and other metabolites are taken up into brain areas like the hypothalamus and are locally metabolized and sensed involving several hypothalamic cell types. In this study we show that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are differentially processed in the murine hypothalamus. The observed differences involve both lipid distribution and metabolism...
October 11, 2016: Glia
Tory J Andrews, Robert D Cox, Christina Parker, James Kolb
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor medications are a class of antihyperglycemic agents that increase urinary glucose excretion by interfering with the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubules. In May of 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released a warning concerning a potential increased risk of ketoacidosis and ketosis in patients taking these medications. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 57-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking a combination of canagliflozin and metformin who presented with progressive altered mental status over the previous 2 days...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Laís Rosa Viana, Rafael Canevarolo, Anna Caroline Perina Luiz, Raquel Frias Soares, Camila Lubaczeuski, Ana Carolina de Mattos Zeri, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, particularly leucine, has been used to minimise loss of muscle tissue, although few studies have examined the effect of this type of nutritional supplementation on the metabolism of the tumour-bearing host. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether a leucine-rich diet affects metabolomic derangements in serum and tumour tissues in tumour-bearing Walker-256 rats (providing an experimental model of cachexia)...
October 3, 2016: BMC Cancer
C E Geisler, C Hepler, M R Higgins, B J Renquist
BACKGROUND: The increased incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has driven research focused on genetically or pharmacologically alleviating metabolic dysfunction. These studies employ a range of fasting-refeeding models including 4-24 h fasts, "overnight" fasts, or meal feeding. Still, we lack literature that describes the physiologically relevant adaptations that accompany changes in the duration of fasting and re-feeding. Since the liver is central to whole body metabolic homeostasis, we investigated the timing of the fast-induced shift toward glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis and the meal-induced switch toward glycogenesis and away from ketogenesis...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Lionel Carneiro, Sarah Geller, Audrey Hébert, Cendrine Repond, Xavier Fioramonti, Corinne Leloup, Luc Pellerin
Ketone bodies have been shown to transiently stimulate food intake and modify energy homeostasis regulatory systems following cerebral infusion for a moderate period of time (<6 hours). As ketone bodies are usually enhanced during episodes of fasting, this effect might correspond to a physiological regulation. In contrast, ketone bodies levels remain elevated for prolonged periods during obesity, and thus could play an important role in the development of this pathology. In order to understand this transition, ketone bodies were infused through a catheter inserted in the carotid to directly stimulate the brain for a period of 24 hours...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ryan M Clanton, Guoyao Wu, Gamal Akabani, Rodolfo Aramayo
Epilepsy is too complex to be considered as a disease; it is more of a syndrome, characterized by seizures, which can be caused by a diverse array of afflictions. As such, drug interventions that target a single biological pathway will only help the specific individuals where that drug's mechanism of action is relevant to their disorder. Most likely, this will not alleviate all forms of epilepsy nor the potential biological pathways causing the seizures, such as glucose/amino acid transport, mitochondrial dysfunction, or neuronal myelination...
September 28, 2016: Amino Acids
Zequn Yan, Min Xue, Qian He, Wei Lu, Zihui Meng, Dan Yan, Lili Qiu, Lijun Zhou, Yingjie Yu
A novel polymerized crystalline colloidal array (PCCA) sensing material for the detection of urine glucose was developed by embedding a two-dimensional (2-D) polystyrene crystalline colloidal array (CCA) in 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (3-APBA)-functionalized hydrogel. After adjusting the cross-linker concentration, this material showed significant sensitivity for glucose under lab conditions, the particle spacing of the PCCA changed from 917 to 824 nm (93 nm) within 3 min as the glucose concentration increased from 0 to 10 mM, and the structural color of the PCCA changed from red through orange, to green, and finally, to cyan...
September 28, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Etienne Croteau, Jennifer M Renaud, Marie Anne Richard, Terrence D Ruddy, François Bénard, Robert A deKemp
The body's main fuel sources are fats, carbohydrates (glucose), proteins, and ketone bodies. It is well known that an important hallmark of cancer cells is the overconsumption of glucose. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the glucose analog (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) has been a powerful cancer diagnostic tool for many decades. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy represent the two main domains for cancer therapy, targeting tumor proliferation, cell division, and DNA replication-all processes that require a large amount of energy...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
Waseem Raza, Ning Ling, Dongyang Liu, Zhong Wei, Qiwei Huang, Qirong Shen
The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by soil microbes have a significant role in the control of plant diseases and plant growth promotion. In this study, we examined the effect of VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain WR-1 on the growth and virulence traits of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. The VOCs produced by P. fluorescens WR-1 exhibited concentration dependent bacteriostatic effect on the growth of R. solanacearum on agar medium and in infested soil. The VOCs of P. fluorescens WR-1 also significantly inhibited the virulence traits of R...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Anthony P Khawaja, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Jae Hee Kang, R Rand Allingham, Michael A Hauser, Murray Brilliant, Donald L Budenz, William G Christen, John Fingert, Douglas Gaasterland, Terry Gaasterland, Peter Kraft, Richard K Lee, Paul R Lichter, Yutao Liu, Felipe Medeiros, Syoko E Moroi, Julia E Richards, Tony Realini, Robert Ritch, Joel S Schuman, William K Scott, Kuldev Singh, Arthur J Sit, Douglas Vollrath, Gadi Wollstein, Donald J Zack, Kang Zhang, Margaret Pericak-Vance, Robert N Weinreb, Jonathan L Haines, Louis R Pasquale, Janey L Wiggs
Purpose: Recent studies indicate that mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). In this study, we examined the association between POAG and common variations in gene-encoding mitochondrial proteins. Methods: We examined genetic data from 3430 POAG cases and 3108 controls derived from the combination of the GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR studies. We constructed biological-system coherent mitochondrial nuclear-encoded protein gene-sets by intersecting the MitoCarta database with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ha Ram Bae, Dae Hyun Kim, Min Hi Park, Bonggi Lee, Min Jo Kim, Eun Kyeong Lee, Ki Wung Chung, Seong Min Kim, Dong Soon Im, Hae Young Chung
β-Hydroxybutyrate, a ketone body that is used as an energy source in organs such as the brain, muscle, and heart when blood glucose is low, is produced by fatty acid oxidation in the liver under the fasting state. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is linked with the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the accumulation of misfolded protein in the ER. ER stress is known to induce the NOD-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome, which mediates activation of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β, whose maturation is caspase-1-dependent...
September 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Laura M Lashinger, Ciara H O'Flanagan, Sarah M Dunlap, Audrey J Rasmussen, Shannon Sweeney, Jessie Yangxiang Guo, Alessia Lodi, Stefano Tiziani, Eileen White, Stephen D Hursting
BACKGROUND: Calorie restriction (CR) prevents obesity and exerts anticancer effects in many preclinical models. CR is also increasingly being used in cancer patients as a sensitizing strategy prior to chemotherapy regimens. While the beneficial effects of CR are widely accepted, the mechanisms through which CR affects tumor growth are incompletely understood. In many cell types, CR and other nutrient stressors can induce autophagy, which provides energy and metabolic substrates critical for cancer cell survival...
2016: Cancer & Metabolism
Emma O'Shea, Sinéad M Waters, Kate Keogh, Alan K Kelly, David A Kenny
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary restriction and subsequent compensatory growth on the relative expression of genes involved in volatile fatty acid transport, metabolism and cell proliferation in ruminal epithelial tissue of beef cattle. Sixty Holstein Friesian bulls (mean liveweight 370 ± 35 kg; mean age 479 ± 15 d) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) restricted feed allowance (RES; n = 30) for 125 d (Period 1) followed by ad libitum access to feed for 55 d (Period 2) or (ii) ad libitum access to feed throughout (ADLIB; n = 30)...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Lorenzo Galluzzi, Guido Kroemer
At odds with their normal counterparts, hepatocellular carcinoma cells efficiently utilize ketone bodies to proliferate despite serum deprivation. These findings, which have been recently published in Cell Research, identify a novel metabolic circuitry through which tumors successfully cope with adverse microenvironmental conditions.
October 2016: Cell Research
De Huang, Tingting Li, Lin Wang, Long Zhang, Ronghui Yan, Kui Li, Songge Xing, Gongwei Wu, Lan Hu, Weidong Jia, Sheng-Cai Lin, Chi V Dang, Libing Song, Ping Gao, Huafeng Zhang
Cancer cells are known for their capacity to rewire metabolic pathways to support survival and proliferation under various stress conditions. Ketone bodies, though produced in the liver, are not consumed in normal adult liver cells. We find here that ketone catabolism or ketolysis is re-activated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells under nutrition deprivation conditions. Mechanistically, 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase 1 (OXCT1), a rate-limiting ketolytic enzyme whose expression is suppressed in normal adult liver tissues, is re-induced by serum starvation-triggered mTORC2-AKT-SP1 signaling in HCC cells...
October 2016: Cell Research
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