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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931870/inactivation-of-hmgcl-promotes-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-by-suppressing-oxidative-stress
#1
Wenqi Luo, Liting Qin, Bo Li, Zhipeng Liao, Jiezhen Liang, Xiling Xiao, Xue Xiao, Yingxi Mo, Guangwu Huang, Zhe Zhang, Xiaoying Zhou, Ping Li
Altered metabolism is considered as a hallmark of cancer. Here we investigated expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) 2 lyase (HMGCL), an essential enzyme in ketogenesis, which produces ketone bodies by the breakdown of fatty acids to supply energy, in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The expression of HMGCL was silenced in NPC tissue. Downregulation of HMGCL in NPC was associated with low intracellular β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) production, thereby reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927726/recent-trends-in-analytical-methods-for-the-determination-of-amino-acids-in-biological-samples
#2
REVIEW
Yanting Song, Chang Xu, Hiroshi Kuroki, Yiyi Liao, Makoto Tsunoda
Amino acids are widely distributed in biological fluids and involved in many biological processes, such as the synthesis of proteins, fatty acids, and ketone bodies. The altered levels of amino acids in biological fluids have been found to be closely related to several diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, kidney disease, liver disease, and cancer. Therefore, the development of analytical methods to measure amino acid concentrations in biological samples can contribute to research on the physiological actions of amino acids and the prediction, diagnosis and understanding of diseases...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923436/changes-in-hepatic-gene-expression-and-serum-metabolites-after-oral-administration-of-overdosed-vitamin-e-loaded-nanoemulsion-in-rats
#3
Chae Young Park, Chul Ho Jang, Do Yup Lee, Hyung Taek Cho, Young Jun Kim, Yoo Heon Park, Jee-Young Imm
Vitamin-E-loaded nanoemulsion (Vit E-NE) was produced, and the effects of repeated oral administration of Vit E-NE (2 g/kg/day) for five days on hepatic gene expression and serum metabolites were investigated in rats. The mean particle diameter and zeta potential of Vit E-NE was 112 nm and 56 mV, respectively. Vit E-NE administered rats showed significantly higher triglyceride content than of standard diet (control) or Vit E control emulsion (Vit E-CE) group but no toxicity symptoms were found in blood biochemical analysis...
September 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905672/the-influence-of-ketogenic-therapy-on-the-5-r-s-of-radiobiology
#4
Rainer J Klement
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy (RT) is a mainstay in the treatment of solid tumors and works by inducing free radical stress in tumor cells, leading to loss of reproductive integrity. The optimal treatment strategy has to consider damage to both tumor and normal cells and is determined by five factors known as the 5 R's of radiobiology: Reoxygenation, DNA Repair, Radiosensitivity, Redistribution in the cell cycle and Repopulation. The aim of this review is (i) to present evidence that these 5 R's are strongly influenced by cellular and whole body metabolism that in turn can be modified through ketogenic therapy in form of ketogenic diets and short term fasting, and (ii) to stimulate new research into this field including some research questions deserving further study...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903979/calcium-dependent-o-glcnac-signaling-drives-liver-autophagy-in-adaptation-to-starvation
#5
Hai-Bin Ruan, Yina Ma, Sara Torres, Bichen Zhang, Colleen Feriod, Ryan M Heck, Kevin Qian, Minnie Fu, Xiuqi Li, Michael H Nathanson, Anton M Bennett, Yongzhan Nie, Barbara E Ehrlich, Xiaoyong Yang
Starvation induces liver autophagy, which is thought to provide nutrients for use by other organs and thereby maintain whole-body homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) is required for glucagon-stimulated liver autophagy and metabolic adaptation to starvation. Genetic ablation of OGT in mouse livers reduces autophagic flux and the production of glucose and ketone bodies. Upon glucagon-induced calcium signaling, calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylates OGT, which in turn promotes O-GlcNAc modification and activation of Ulk proteins by potentiating AMPK-dependent phosphorylation...
September 13, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899347/case-report-of-hyperglycemic-nonketotic-chorea-with-rapid-radiological-resolution
#6
H M M T B Herath, S P Pahalagamage, Sunethra Senanayake
BACKGROUND: Hemichorea is a rare manifestation of nonketotic hyperglycemia that usually affects elderly Asian women with poor glycemic control. Non-contrast computerized Tomography and T1- weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging shows characteristic hyperintense basal ganglia lesions. CASE PRESENTATION: A Fifty-seven year old Sri Lankan female presented with a two-day history of right upper limb chorea. She had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus one year ago, but was not on any treatment and did not have any micro vascular or macro vascular complications...
September 12, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895387/chaenomeles-%C3%A2-health-promoting-benefits
#7
Katarzyna Watychowicz, Katarzyna Janda, Karolina Jakubczyk, Jolanta Wolska
Chaenomeles is a genus of deciduous spiny in the family of Rosaceae (Pomoideae subfamily). For centuries, the plant was used for a treatment of anemia, rheumatism, gout and cardiovascular diseases. The chemical composition studies of Chaenomeles showed the presence of many biologically active compounds, such as: phenolic compounds, organic acids, terpenoids, alcohols, ketones or aldehydes. Fruit of Chaenomeles has the largest applying potential due to extensive use of medicinal and high concentration of vitamin C...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881813/differential-metabonomic-profiles-of-primary-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tumors-from-alcoholic-liver-disease-hbv-infected-and-hcv-infected-cirrhotic-patients
#8
Ding Cao, Can Cai, Mingxin Ye, Junhua Gong, Menghao Wang, Jinzheng Li, Jianping Gong
Our objective was to comparatively profile the metabolite composition of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors from alcoholic liver disease (ALD), hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected, and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected cirrhotic patients. Primary HCC tumors were collected from ALD, HBV-infected, and HCV-infected cirrhotic patients (n=20 each). High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and metabonomic data analysis were performed to compare HCC tumors from the three groups...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877458/ketogenic-diet-reduces-midlife-mortality-and-improves-memory-in-aging-mice
#9
John C Newman, Anthony J Covarrubias, Minghao Zhao, Xinxing Yu, Philip Gut, Che-Ping Ng, Yu Huang, Saptarsi Haldar, Eric Verdin
Ketogenic diets recapitulate certain metabolic aspects of dietary restriction such as reliance on fatty acid metabolism and production of ketone bodies. We investigated whether an isoprotein ketogenic diet (KD) might, like dietary restriction, affect longevity and healthspan in C57BL/6 male mice. We find that Cyclic KD, KD alternated weekly with the Control diet to prevent obesity, reduces midlife mortality but does not affect maximum lifespan. A non-ketogenic high-fat diet (HF) fed similarly may have an intermediate effect on mortality...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871893/metabolism-and-whole-body-fat-oxidation-following-post-exercise-carbohydrate-or-protein-intake
#10
Ulrika Andersson Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin, Klavs Madsen
PURPOSE: This study investigated how post-exercise intake of placebo (PLA), protein (PRO) or carbohydrate (CHO) affected fat oxidation (FO) and metabolic parameters during recovery and subsequent exercise. METHODS: In a cross-over design, 12 moderately trained women (VO2max 45 ± 6 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed three days of testing. A 23 min control (CON) incremental FO bike test (30-80% VO2max) was followed by 60 min exercise at 75% VO2max. Immediately post-exercise, subjects ingested PLA, 20 g PRO or 40 g CHO followed by a second FO bike test 2h later...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865848/grain-challenge-affects-systemic-and-hepatic-molecular-biomarkers-of-inflammation-stress-and-metabolic-responses-to-a-greater-extent-in-holstein-than-jersey-cows
#11
T Xu, F C Cardoso, A Pineda, E Trevisi, X Shen, F Rosa, J S Osorio, J J Loor
Long-term feeding of high-grain diets to dairy cows often results in systemic inflammation characterized by alterations in acute-phase proteins and other biomarkers, both in plasma and immune-responsive tissues like the liver. The molecular and systemic changes that characterize an acute grain feeding challenge remain unclear. The current study involved 6 Holstein and 6 Jersey cows in a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square. Periods (10 d) were divided into 4 stages (S): S1, d 1 to 3, served as baseline with total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum; S2, d 4, served as restricted feeding, with cows offered 50% of the average daily intake observed in S1; S3, d 5, a grain challenge was performed, in which cows were fed a TMR ad libitum without (CON) or with an additional pellet wheat-barley (1:1; HIG) at 20% of dry matter intake top-dressed onto the TMR; S4, d 6 to 10, served as recovery during which cows were allowed ad libitum access to the TMR...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843614/an-integrative-appraisal-of-the-hormonal-and-metabolic-changes-induced-by-acute-stress-using-king-penguins-as-a-model
#12
Vincent A Viblanc, Quentin Schull, Tina Cornioley, Antoine Stier, Jean-Jérôme Ménard, René Groscolas, Jean-Patrice Robin
A large number of studies have focused on the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the consequences of glucocorticoids (GC) in mediating life-history trade-offs. Although short-term increases in GCs are viewed as adaptive, mobilizing energy substrates allowing animals to deal with impending threats (e.g. stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulating lipolysis, mobilizing amino acids), few studies have actually measured the exact time-course of substrate mobilisation in response to acute stress in natural conditions...
August 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836226/the-ketone-body-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-does-not-inhibit-synuclein-mediated-inflammasome-activation-in-microglia
#13
Vandana Deora, Eduardo A Albornoz, Kevin Zhu, Trent M Woodruff, Richard Gordon
Parkinson's disease (PD) is recognized as the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and results in debilitating motor deficits. The accumulation and spread of neurotoxic synuclein aggregates in the form of Lewy bodies is a key pathological feature of PD. Chronic activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by protein aggregates is emerging as a major pathogenic mechanism in progressive neurodegenerative disorders and is considered an important therapeutic target. Recently the ketone body, β-hydroxy butyrate (BHB), was shown to efficiently inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages, and in vivo models of inflammatory disease...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835868/anterior-cervical-discectomy-with-fusion-using-a-local-source-for-cancellous-autograft-a-biomechanical-analysis-of-vertebral-body-stability-in-an-osteopenic-bone-model
#14
Zakk Walterscheid, Conor O'Neill, Alex Ochs, Adrian D'Averso, Christopher Dew, Alyssa Huntington, Grace Ma, Caleb Behrend, Rafaella De Vita, Jonathan Carmouche
BACKGROUND: Anterior cervical discectomy with fusion is an effective treatment for patients having cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy. To reduce morbidity associated with autograft taken from the iliac crest without sacrificing high fusion rates, a novel technique that harvests bone from the vertebral body adjacent to the operative disc space has been proposed. The effects of square and round bone graft harvest techniques on the mechanical stability of the osteopenic donor vertebrae are unknown...
September 2017: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831970/characterisation-of-gene-expression-related-to-milk-fat-synthesis-in-the-mammary-tissue-of-lactating-yaks
#15
Jung Nam Lee, Yong Wang, Ya Ou Xu, Yu Can Li, Fang Tian, Ming Feng Jiang
This research communication describes the profile of gene expression related to the synthesis of yak milk as determined via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Significant up-regulation during lactation were observed in genes related to fatty acid (FA) uptake from blood (LPL, CD36), intracellular FA transport (FABP3), intracellular FA activation of long- and short-chain FAs (ACSS1, ACSS2, ACSL1), de novo synthesis (ACACA), desaturation (SCD), triacyglycerol (TAG) synthesis (AGPAT6, GPAM, LPIN1), lipid droplet formation (PLIN2, BTN1A1, XDH), ketone body utilisation (BDH1, OXCT1), and transcription regulation (THRSP, PPARGC1A)...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826372/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-a-signaling-metabolite
#16
John C Newman, Eric Verdin
Various mechanisms in the mammalian body provide resilience against food deprivation and dietary stress. The ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is synthesized in the liver from fatty acids and represents an essential carrier of energy from the liver to peripheral tissues when the supply of glucose is too low for the body's energetic needs, such as during periods of prolonged exercise, starvation, or absence of dietary carbohydrates. In addition to its activity as an energetic metabolite, BHB is increasingly understood to have cellular signaling functions...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821850/comparative-metabonomics-of-wenxin-keli-and-verapamil-reveals-differential-roles-of-gluconeogenesis-and-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-myocardial-injury-protection
#17
Miaomiao Jiang, Qiuying Wang, Jingrui Chen, Yanan Wang, Guanwei Fan, Yan Zhu
Metabonomics/metabolomics is a rapid technology for comprehensive profiling of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues, or whole organisms, the application of which has led to understanding pathophysiologic mechanisms of cardiometabolic diseases, defining predictive biomarkers for those diseases, and also assessing the efficacious effects of incident drugs. In this study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was employed to identify the metabolic changes in rat plasma caused by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI), and to compare the metabolic regulatory differences between traditional Chinese medicine Wenxin Keli (WXKL) and Western medicine verapamil...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820963/ketone-body-acetoacetate-buffers-methylglyoxal-via-a-non-enzymatic-conversion-during-diabetic-and-dietary-ketosis
#18
Trine Salomón, Christian Sibbersen, Jakob Hansen, Dieter Britz, Mads Vandsted Svart, Thomas Schmidt Voss, Niels Møller, Niels Gregersen, Karl Anker Jørgensen, Johan Palmfeldt, Thomas Bjørnskov Poulsen, Mogens Johannsen
The α-oxoaldehyde methylglyoxal is a ubiquitous and highly reactive metabolite known to be involved in aging- and diabetes-related diseases. If not detoxified by the endogenous glyoxalase system, it exerts its detrimental effects primarily by reacting with biopolymers such as DNA and proteins. We now demonstrate that during ketosis, another metabolic route is operative via direct non-enzymatic aldol reaction between methylglyoxal and the ketone body acetoacetate, leading to 3-hydroxyhexane-2,5-dione. This novel metabolite is present at a concentration of 10%-20% of the methylglyoxal level in the blood of insulin-starved patients...
August 17, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820737/when-one-disease-is-not-enough-succinyl-coa-3-oxoacid-coenzyme-a-transferase-scot-deficiency-due-to-a-novel-mutation-in-oxct1-in-an-infant-with-known-phenylketonuria
#19
Jan-Niclas Schwade, Matthias Endmann, Thomas Hofmann, Stephan Rust, Jörn Oliver Sass, Frank Rutsch
A 9-month-old Turkish girl was admitted several times within 3 months to the hospital in reduced general condition and with extreme tachypnea. The patient had been diagnosed with phenylketonuria (PKU) in newborn screening and has been treated with a low phenylalanine diet and amino acid supplements. Each time an unexplained pronounced metabolic acidosis was noted, and the child was treated with sodium-bicarbonate and glucose-electrolyte infusions. The acidosis with only slightly abnormal glucose, normal lactate levels and pronounced ketonuria suggested a defect in ketone body utilization...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814987/green-tea-polyphenols-ameliorate-the-early-renal-damage-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-via-ketogenesis-sirt3-pathway
#20
Weijie Yi, Xiao Xie, Miying Du, Yongjun Bu, Nannan Wu, Hui Yang, Chong Tian, Fangyi Xu, Siyun Xiang, Piwei Zhang, Zhuo Chen, Xuezhi Zuo, Chenjiang Ying
SCOPE: Several reports in the literature have suggested the renoprotective effects of ketone bodies and green tea polyphenols (GTPs). Our previous study found that GTP consumption could elevate the renal expression of the ketogenic rate-limiting enzyme, which was decreased by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. Here, we investigated whether ketogenesis can mediate renoprotection by GTPs against an HFD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wistar rats were fed a standard or HFD with or without GTPs for 18 weeks...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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