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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089569/prevention-of-dietary-fat-fueled-ketogenesis-attenuates-braf-v600e-tumor-growth
#1
Siyuan Xia, Ruiting Lin, Lingtao Jin, Liang Zhao, Hee-Bum Kang, Yaozhu Pan, Shuangping Liu, Guoqing Qian, Zhiyu Qian, Evmorfia Konstantakou, Baotong Zhang, Jin-Tang Dong, Young Rock Chung, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Taha Merghoub, Lu Zhou, Ragini R Kudchadkar, David H Lawson, Hanna J Khoury, Fadlo R Khuri, Lawrence H Boise, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin H Lee, Brian P Pollack, Jack L Arbiser, Jun Fan, Qun-Ying Lei, Jing Chen
Lifestyle factors, including diet, play an important role in the survival of cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenic links between diet and particular oncogenic mutations in human cancers remain unclear. We recently reported that the ketone body acetoacetate selectively enhances BRAF V600E mutant-dependent MEK1 activation in human cancers. Here we show that a high-fat ketogenic diet increased serum levels of acetoacetate, leading to enhanced tumor growth potential of BRAF V600E-expressing human melanoma cells in xenograft mice...
January 9, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089299/the-non-sense-of-routinely-analysing-beta-hydroxybutyric-acid-in-forensic-toxicology-casework
#2
Nele Sadones, Willy E Lambert, Christophe P Stove
Beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) is a ketone body which is generated from fatty acids as an alternative energy source when glucose is not available. Determination of this compound may be relevant in the forensic laboratory as ketoacidosis - an elevated level of ketone bodies - may contribute to the cause of death. In this study, we aimed at determining the relevance of routinely implementing BHB analysis in the forensic toxicological laboratory, as BHB analysis typically requires an additional workload. We therefore performed an unbiased retrospective analysis of BHB in 599 cases, comprising 553 blood, 232 urine and 62 vitreous humour samples...
January 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087125/hydroxy-carboxylic-acid-receptor-actions-in-metabolism
#3
REVIEW
Stefan Offermanns
Lactic acid, the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, also known as β-hydroxybutyrate, and the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid are hydroxy-carboxylic acids (HCAs) that serve as intermediates of energy metabolism. However, they also regulate cellular functions, in part by directly activating the G protein-coupled receptors HCA1/GPR81, HCA2/GPR109A, and HCA3/GPR109B. During the past decade, it has become clear that HCA receptors help to maintain homeostasis under changing metabolic and dietary conditions, by controlling metabolic, immune, and other body functions...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074323/changes-in-cerebral-metabolism-during-ketogenic-diet-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-1-h-mrs-study
#4
Moran Artzi, Gilad Liberman, Nachum Vaisman, Felix Bokstein, Faina Vitinshtein, Orna Aizenstein, Dafna Ben Bashat
Normal brain cells depend on glucose metabolism, yet they have the flexibility to switch to the usage of ketone bodies during caloric restriction. In contrast, tumor cells lack genomic and metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose. Ketogenic-diet (KD) was suggested as a therapeutic option for malignant brain cancer. This study aimed to detect metabolic brain changes in patients with malignant brain gliomas on KD using proton magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Fifty MR scans were performed longitudinally in nine patients: four patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GB) treated with KD in addition to bevacizumab; one patient with gliomatosis-cerebri treated with KD only; and four patients with recurrent GB who did not receive KD...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065757/fats-for-thoughts-an-update-on-brain-fatty-acid-metabolism
#5
Adele Romano, Justyna Barbara Koczwara, Cristina Anna Gallelli, Daniele Vergara, Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Silvana Gaetani, Anna Maria Giudetti
Brain fatty acid (FA) metabolism deserves a close attention not only for its energetic aspects but also because FAs and their metabolites/derivatives are able to influence many neural functions, contributing to brain pathologies or representing potential targets for pharmacological and/or nutritional interventions. Glucose is the preferred energy substrate for the brain, whereas the role of FAs is more marginal. In conditions of decreased glucose supply ketone bodies, mainly formed by FA oxidation, are the alternative main energy source...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059455/acetoacetate-induces-hepatocytes-apoptosis-by-the-ros-mediated-mapks-pathway-in-ketotic-cows
#6
Xiliang Du, Zhen Shi, Zhicheng Peng, Chenxu Zhao, Yuming Zhang, Zhe Wang, Xiaobing Li, Guowen Liu, Xinwei Li
Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress, hepatic damage and hyperketonemia. Acetoacetate (AA) is the main component of ketone bodies in ketotic cows, and is associated with the above pathological process. However, the potential mechanism was not illuminated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of AA-induced hepatic oxidative damage in ketotic cows. Compared with healthy cows, ketotic cows exhibited severe oxidative stress and hepatic damage. Moreover, the extent of hepatic damage and oxidative stress had a positive relationship with the AA levels...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043175/the-promising-potential-role-of-ketones-in-inflammatory-dermatologic-disease-a-new-frontier-in-treatment-research
#7
Daren A Fomin, Brianna McDaniel, Jonathan Crane
The ketogenic diet has been shown to be beneficial for numerous diseases across different organ systems, but a dearth of information exists regarding these benefits for skin disease. Here, we searched the literature for known mechanisms behind inflammation in dermatologic disease and correlated that with suggested mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity of ketones and a ketogenic state in the human body to observe how ketones and ketosis might aid in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases based on these mechanisms...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018462/a-novel-mutation-of-abcc8-gene-in-a-patient-with-diazoxide-unresponsive-congenital-hyperinsulinism
#8
Ji Sook Park, Hong-Jun Lee, Chan-Hoo Park
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a rare condition that can cause irreversible brain damage during the neonatal period owing to the associated hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia in CHI occurs secondary to the dysregulation of insulin secretion. CHI has been established as a genetic disorder of islet-cell hyperplasia, associated with a mutation of the ABCC8 or KCNJ11 genes, which encode the sulfonylurea receptor 1 and the inward rectifying potassium channel (Kir6.2) subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel, respectively...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009709/the-effect-of-cervical-interbody-cage-morphology-material-composition-and-substrate-density-on-cage-subsidence
#9
Paul B Suh, Christian Puttlitz, Chad Lewis, B Sonny Bal, Kirk McGilvray
BACKGROUND: Interbody cages used in spinal fusion surgery can subside into the adjacent vertebral bodies after implantation, leading to loss of spinal height, malalignment, and possible radicular symptoms. Several factors may contribute to cage subsidence. METHODS: This in vitro investigation examined the possible contribution of substrate density, cage contact area (ie, cage footprint), cage filling, cage end plate surface texture, and cage material composition on the magnitude of subsidence...
December 22, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996272/il-6-linkage-to-exercise-induced-shifts-in-lipid-related-metabolites-a-metabolomics-based-analysis
#10
David C Nieman, Wei Sha, Kirk L Pappan
Metabolomics profiling and bioinformatics technologies were used to determine the relationship between exercise-induced increases in IL-6 and lipid-related metabolites. Twenty-four male runners (age 36.5±1.8 y) ran on treadmills to exhaustion (2.26±0.01 h, 24.9±1.3 km, 69.7±1.9% VO2max). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsy and blood samples were collected before and immediately after running, and showed a 33.7±4.2% decrease in muscle glycogen, 39.0±8.8-, 2.4±0.3-, and 1.4±0.1-fold increases in plasma IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, respectively, and 95...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995574/metabolite-variation-in-lean-and-obese-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-rats-via-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-approach
#11
Azliana Abu Bakar Sajak, Ahmed Mediani, Maulidiani, Amin Ismail, Faridah Abas
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered as a complex metabolic disease because it affects the metabolism of glucose and other metabolites. Although many diabetes studies have been conducted in animal models throughout the years, the pathogenesis of this disease, especially between lean diabetes (ND + STZ) and obese diabetes (OB + STZ), is still not fully understood. In this study, the urine from ND + STZ, OB + STZ, lean/control (ND), and OB + STZ rats were collected and compared by using (1)H NMR metabolomics...
December 19, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994044/both-thyroid-hormone-levels-and-resting-metabolic-rate-decrease-in-african-striped-mice-when-food-availability-decreases
#12
Rebecca Rimbach, Neville Pillay, Carsten Schradin
In response to variation in food availability and ambient temperature (Ta), many animals show seasonal adaptations in their physiology. Laboratory studies showed that thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of metabolism, and their regulatory function is especially important when the energy balance of an individual is compromised. However, little is known about the relationship between thyroid hormones and metabolism in free-living animals and animals inhabiting seasonal environments. Here, we studied seasonal changes in triiodothyronine (T3) levels, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and two physiological markers of energy balance (blood glucose and ketone bodies) in 61 free-living African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) that live in an semi-arid environment with food shortage during the dry season...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990776/sglt2-inhibitor-use-and-dietary-carbohydrate-intake-in-japanese-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-open-label-3-arm-parallel-comparative-exploratory-study
#13
Daisuke Yabe, Masahiro Iwasaki, Hitoshi Kuwata, Takuya Haraguchi, Yoshiyuki Hamamoto, Takeshi Kurose, Kiminobu Sumita, Hitoshi Yamazato, Shigeto Kanada, Yutaka Seino
This study investigated safety and efficacy of the SGLT2 inhibitor luseogliflozin under differing carbohydrate intake in Japanese individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Subjects were randomly assigned to three carbohydrate-adjusted meals for 14 days (Days 1-14) [HC-HGI, 55% total energy carbohydrate (TEC) and high glycemic index (GI); HC-LGI, 55% TEC and low GI; and LC-HGI, 40% TEC and high GI]. All subjects received luseogliflozin for the last 7 days (Days 8-14); continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) before and after luseogliflozin treatment (Days 5-8 and Days 12-15); and blood tests on Days 1, 8, and 15...
December 19, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989835/a-broadly-tuned-odorant-receptor-in-neurons-of-trichoid-sensilla-in-locust-locusta-migratoria
#14
Yinwei You, Dean P Smith, Mingyue Lv, Long Zhang
Insects have evolved sophisticated olfactory reception systems to sense exogenous chemical signals. Odorant receptors (ORs) on the membrane of chemosensory neurons are believed to be key molecules in sensing exogenous chemical cues. ORs in different species of insects are diverse and should tune a species to its own specific semiochemicals relevant to their survival. The orthopteran insect, locust (Locusta migratoria), is a model hemimetabolous insect. There is very limited knowledge on the functions of locust ORs although many locust OR genes have been identified in genomic sequencing experiments...
October 27, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988118/effects-of-feeding-betaine-containing-liquid-supplement-to-transition-dairy-cows
#15
A P A Monteiro, J K Bernard, J-R Guo, X-S Weng, S Emanuele, R Davis, G E Dahl, S Tao
Betaine is a natural compound found in sugar beets that serves as a methyl donor and organic osmolyte when fed to animals. The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding betaine-containing molasses on performance of transition dairy cows during late summer in 2 trials. In early September, cows were randomly assigned to betaine (BET) or control (CON) groups either shortly after dry off (trial 1; n = 10 per treatment) or 24 d before calving (trial 2; n = 8 per treatment) based on parity and previous mature equivalent milk yield...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983603/regulation-of-ketone-body-metabolism-and-the-role-of-ppar%C3%AE
#16
REVIEW
Maja Grabacka, Malgorzata Pierzchalska, Matthew Dean, Krzysztof Reiss
Ketogenesis and ketolysis are central metabolic processes activated during the response to fasting. Ketogenesis is regulated in multiple stages, and a nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) is one of the key transcription factors taking part in this regulation. PPARα is an important element in the metabolic network, where it participates in signaling driven by the main nutrient sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) and induces hormonal mediators, such as fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)...
December 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965407/effect-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-dextrin-iodinated-casein-in-broilers-ii-hatch-window-and-growth-performance
#17
S Abousaad, K Lassiter, A Piekarski, P Chary, K Striplin, K Christensen, L R Bielke, B M Hargis, S Dridi, W G Bottje
Studies were conducted using a commercial Inovoject(TM) system to determine effects of in ovo feeding of dextrin and iodinated casein (IC) on hatch and posthatch growth in broilers. At ∼18.5 d embryonic development, eggs were treated with 0, 240, or 480 μg IC/mL in saline (Cont, IC240, and IC480) or dextrin (Dext, DextIC240 and DextIC480). The Dext solution consisted of 18% maltodextrin and 10% potato starch dextrin; saline was the vehicle used by the company for in ovo vaccination. The volume for all in ovo treatments was 50 μL/injection...
December 13, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956776/prevalence-of-ketosis-in-dairy-cows-in-milk-shed-areas-of-odisha-state-india
#18
Sangram Biswal, Dhruba Charan Nayak, Kautuk Kumar Sardar
AIM: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in dairy herds, milksheds, and mixed population of milk cows selected randomly in milkshed areas of Odisha state, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigation was conducted in 280 private dairy herds with variable herd size of 10-15 cows comprising crossbred Jersey cows (CBJ), crossbred Holstein Friesian (CHF) cows, and indigenous local breeds. The analysis of urine (Rothera's test), milk (Ross test), and blood samples of 2760 test cows were conducted through qualitative assessment by Rothera's test and Ross test, respectively, for the presence of ketone bodies to screen the ketotic animals...
November 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935584/ketogenesis-contributes-to-intestinal-cell-differentiation
#19
Qingding Wang, Yuning Zhou, Piotr Rychahou, Teresa W-M Fan, Andrew N Lane, Heidi L Weiss, B Mark Evers
The intestinal epithelium undergoes a continual process of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Previously, we have shown that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has a critical role in intestinal homeostasis. However, the downstream targets mediating the effects of mTOR in intestinal cells are not known. Here, we show that the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) induces intestinal cell differentiation as noted by the increased expression of differentiation markers (Mucin2 (MUC2), lysozyme, IAP, sucrase-isomaltase, KRT20, villin, Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and p21(Waf1))...
December 9, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935189/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-glucose-transporter-gene-slc2a1-by-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-underlies-preferential-glucose-supply-to-the-brain-of-fasted-mice
#20
Kosuke Tanegashima, Yukiko Sato-Miyata, Masabumi Funakoshi, Yasumasa Nishito, Toshiro Aigaki, Takahiko Hara
We carried out liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of metabolites in mice. Those metabolome data showed that hepatic glucose content is reduced, but that brain glucose content is unaffected, during fasting, consistent with the priority given to brain glucose consumption during fasting. The molecular mechanisms for this preferential glucose supply to the brain are not fully understood. We also showed that the fasting-induced production of the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) enhances expression of the glucose transporter gene Slc2a1 (Glut1) via histone modification...
December 9, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
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