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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647176/mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-efficiency-is-upregulated-during-fasting-in-two-major-oxidative-tissues-of-ducklings
#1
Pierre-Axel Monternier, Loïc Teulier, Jocelyne Drai, Aurore Bourguignon, Delphine Collin-Chavagnac, Frédéric Hervant, Jean-Louis Rouanet, Damien Roussel
Fasted endothermic vertebrates must develop physiological responses to maximize energy conservation and survival. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 1-wk. fasting in 5-wk. old ducklings (Cairina moschata) from whole-body resting metabolic rate and body temperature to metabolic phenotype of tissues and mitochondrial coupling efficiency. At the level of whole organism, the mass-specific metabolic rate of ducklings was decreased by 40% after 1-wk. of fasting, which was associated with nocturnal Tb declines and shallow diurnal hypothermia during fasting...
June 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646031/metabolism-and-acetylation-contribute-to-leucine-mediated-inhibition-of-cardiac-glucose-uptake
#2
Edith Renguet, Audrey Ginion, Roselle Gélinas, Laurent Bultot, Julien Auquier, Isabelle Robillard Frayne, Caroline Daneault, Jean-Louis Vanoverschelde, Christine Des Rosiers, Louis Hue, Sandrine Horman, Christophe Beauloye, Luc Bertrand
High plasma leucine levels strongly correlate with type 2 diabetes. Studies of muscle cells suggest that leucine alters the insulin response for glucose transport by activating an insulin-negative feedback loop driven by the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (mTOR/p70S6K) pathway. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism involved in leucine's action on cardiac glucose uptake. Leucine was indeed able to curb glucose uptake after insulin stimulation in both cultured cardiomyocytes and perfused hearts...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638409/differential-fasting-plasma-glucose-and-ketone-body-levels-in-ghrko-versus-3xtg-ad-mice-a-potential-contributor-to-aging-related-cognitive-status
#3
Chelsea M Griffith, Lauren N Macklin, Andrzej Bartke, Peter R Patrylo
Cognitive function declines with age and appears to correlate with decreased cerebral metabolic rate (CMR). Caloric restriction, an antiaging manipulation that extends life-span and can preserve cognitive function, is associated with decreased glucose uptake, decreased lactate levels, and increased ketone body (KB) levels in the brain. Since the majority of brain nutrients come from the periphery, this study examined whether the capacity to regulate peripheral glucose levels and KB production differs in animals with successful cognitive aging (growth hormone receptor knockouts, GHRKOs) versus unsuccessful cognitive aging (the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease)...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637015/differential-metabonomic-profiles-of-primary-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tumors-from-alcoholic-liver-disease-hbv-infected-and-hcv-infected-cirrhotic-patients
#4
Ding Cao, Can Cai, Mingxin Ye, Junhua Gong, Menghao Wang, Jinzheng Li, Jianping Gong
Our objective was to comparatively profile the metabolite composition of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors from alcoholic liver disease (ALD), hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected, and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected cirrhotic patients. Primary HCC tumors were collected from ALD, HBV-infected, and HCV-infected cirrhotic patients (n=20 each). High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and metabonomic data analysis were performed to compare HCC tumors from the three groups...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627374/characterization-of-the-concurrent-metabolic-changes-in-brain-and-plasma-during-insulin-induced-moderate-hypoglycemia-using-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy-in-juvenile-rats
#5
Kathleen Ennis, Elizabeth Lusczek, Raghavendra Rao
Treatment of hypoglycemia in children is currently based on plasma glucose measurements. This approach may not ensure neuroprotection since plasma glucose does not reflect the dynamic state of cerebral energy metabolism. To determine whether cerebral metabolic changes during hypoglycemia could be better characterized using plasma metabolomic analysis, insulin-induced acute hypoglycemia was induced in 4-week-old rats. Brain tissue and concurrent plasma samples were collected from hypoglycemic (N=7) and control (N=7) rats after focused microwave fixation to prevent post-mortem metabolic changes...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623167/the-ketogenic-diet-affects-the-social-behavior-of-young-male-rats
#6
Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz D Liśkiewicz, Marta M Nowacka-Chmielewska, Joanna Nowicka, Andrzej Małecki, Jarosław J Barski
The positive effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on social behavior have been recently reported in patients and rodent models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Given the beneficial effects of the KD on epilepsy, mitochondrial function, carbohydrate metabolism, and inflammation, treatment based on the KD has the potential to reduce some of the ASD-associated symptoms, including abnormal social interactions. It is not known whether the KD influences sociability by reducing the pathological processes underlying ASD or through some independent mechanism...
June 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620626/tobacco-smoke-constituents-trigger-cytoplasmic-calcium-release
#7
M Flori Sassano, Arunava Ghosh, Robert Tarran
Cytosolic Ca(2+) is a universal second messenger that is involved in many processes throughout the body, including the regulation of cell growth/cell division, apoptosis, and the secretion of both ions, and macromolecules. Tobacco smoke exerts multiple effects on airway epithelia and we have previously shown that Kentucky reference cigarette smoke exposure elevated the second messenger Ca(2+), leading to dysfunctional ion secretion. In this study, we tested whether little cigar and commercial cigarette smoke exposure exerts similar effects on intracellular Ca(2+) levels...
June 1, 2017: Applied in Vitro Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617510/a-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-study-of-the-intervention-effect-of-mangiferin-on-hyperlipidemia-hamsters-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#8
Fuchuan Guo, Tianqi Zi, Liyan Liu, Rennan Feng, Changhao Sun
It has been demonstrated that mangiferin can ameliorate hypertriglyceridemia by modulating the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism in animal experiments, but its effects on the serum metabolic fingerprinting of hyperlipidemia animal models have not been reported. Thus, a NMR-based metabolomics approach was conducted to explore the effects of mangiferin on hyperlipidemia hamsters and to gain a better understanding of the involved metabolic pathways. Hamsters fed with a high-fat diet were orally administered with mangiferin 150 mg per kg BW once a day for 8 weeks...
June 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614741/iopromide-exposure-in-typha-latifolia-l-evaluation-of-uptake-translocation-and-different-transformation-mechanisms-in-planta
#9
Hao Cui, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Peter Schröder
Iopromide is frequently detected in water bodies due to its widespread use as an X-ray contrast agent in medicine. Due to its rapid clearance from the human body and its incomplete removal by wastewater treatment, an elevation of its concentration in the environment is observed that might lead to a serious impact on human and environmental health. Alternative or additional removal technologies may be more effective to remove iopromide from the effluents of wastewater treatment facilities, like phytoremediation with aquatic macrophytes...
June 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606512/heme-oxygenase-1-mediates-anti-adipogenesis-effect-of-raspberry-ketone-in-3t3-l1-cells
#10
Yung-Chieh Tsai, Bo-Cheng Yang, Wen-Huang Peng, Yen-Mei Lee, Mao-Hsiung Yen, Pao-Yun Cheng
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by excessive accumulation of body fat and is closely related to complex metabolic diseases. Raspberry ketone (RK), a major aromatic compound in red raspberry, was recently reported to possess anti-obesity effects. However, its mechanisms are unclear. AIM: Adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity and, therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanisms of action of RK on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated in medium containing insulin, dexamethasone, and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine...
July 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599043/ketones-and-human-performance
#11
Jonathan M Scott, Patricia A Deuster
Everyone is seeking nutritional strategies that might benefit performance. One approach receiving much attention is ketones, or ketosis. Ketones are very simple compounds made of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, and ketosis is a metabolic state whereby the body uses predominantly ketones. Ketosis can be achieved by fasting for longer than 72 hours or by following a very lowcarbohydrate, high-fat diet (ketogenic diet) for several days to weeks. Alternatively, ketone supplements purportedly induce ketosis rapidly and do not require strict adherence to any specific type of diet; however, much of the touted benefits are anecdotal...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597472/aroma-volatile-profile-of-black-morel-morchella-importuna-grown-in-israel
#12
Zipora Tietel, Segula Masaphy
BACKGROUND: Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method with gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to profile the aroma volatiles of mature fruiting bodies of Morchella importuna grown in Israel. RESULTS: We tentatively identified 40 aroma compounds and seven unknown volatiles. The M. importuna aroma profile consisted of 14 aldehydes, 6 alcohols, 10 methyl esters, 4 heterocyclic/sulfur compounds, 10 carbohydrates and 3 other compounds-one acid, one ketone and one butyl ester...
June 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588816/diabetic-ketoacidosis-inducing-myocardial-infarction-secondary-to-treatment-with-dapagliflozin-a-case-report
#13
José M Gil-Perdomo, Tomás F Fariña González, Benjamín Jordán-Arias, Sara Domingo-Marín, Juan J González Armengol, Fernando Martínez-Sagasti
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are able to provoke diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with absence or low levels of ketone bodies in urine and slightly elevated blood glucose levels, which could delay the diagnosis; however, the presence of high urine output, due to the excretion of glucose, can help to identify the true cause.
June 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588499/intake-of-a-ketone-ester-drink-during-recovery-from-exercise-promotes-mtorc1-signaling-but-not-glycogen-resynthesis-in-human-muscle
#14
Tijs Vandoorne, Stefan De Smet, Monique Ramaekers, Ruud Van Thienen, Katrien De Bock, Kieran Clarke, Peter Hespel
Purpose: Ketone bodies are energy substrates produced by the liver during prolonged fasting or low-carbohydrate diet. The ingestion of a ketone ester (KE) rapidly increases blood ketone levels independent of nutritional status. KE has recently been shown to improve exercise performance, but whether it can also promote post-exercise muscle protein or glycogen synthesis is unknown. Methods: Eight healthy trained males participated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. In each session, subjects undertook a bout of intense one-leg glycogen-depleting exercise followed by a 5-h recovery period during which they ingested a protein/carbohydrate mixture...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584617/tumor-cells-growth-and-survival-time-with-the-ketogenic-diet-in-animal-models-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Soheila Khodadadi, Nafiseh Sobhani, Somaye Mirshekar, Reza Ghiasvand, Makan Pourmasoumi, Maryam Miraghajani, Somayeh Shahraki Dehsoukhteh
Recently, interest in targeted cancer therapies via metabolic pathways has been renewed with the discovery that many tumors become dependent on glucose uptake during anaerobic glycolysis. Also the inability of ketone bodies metabolization due to various deficiencies in mitochondrial enzymes is the major metabolic changes discovered in malignant cells. Therefore, administration of a ketogenic diet (KD) which is based on high in fat and low in carbohydrates might inhibit tumor growth and provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583327/3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-a-lyase-deficiency-clinical-presentation-and-outcome-in-a-series-of-37-patients
#16
Sarah Catharina Grünert, Sonja Marina Schlatter, Robert Niklas Schmitt, Corinne Gemperle-Britschgi, Lenka Mrázová, Mehmet Cihan Balcı, Felix Bischof, Mahmut Çoker, Anibh M Das, Mübeccel Demirkol, Maaike de Vries, Gülden Gökçay, Johannes Häberle, Sema Kalkan Uçar, Amelie Sophia Lotz-Havla, Thomas Lücke, Dominique Roland, Frank Rutsch, René Santer, Andrea Schlune, Christian Staufner, Karl Otfried Schwab, Grant A Mitchell, Jörn Oliver Sass
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase deficiency (HMGCLD) is a rare inborn error of ketone body synthesis and leucine degradation, caused by mutations in the HMGCL gene. In order to obtain a comprehensive view on this disease, we have collected clinical and biochemical data as well as information on HMGCL mutations of 37 patients (35 families) from metabolic centers in Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Turkey. All patients were symptomatic at some stage with 94% presenting with an acute metabolic decompensation...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579160/complex-energy-metabolic-changes-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-and-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#17
REVIEW
Kirstie A De Jong, Gary D Lopaschuk
Alterations in cardiac energy metabolism contribute to the severity of heart failure. However, the energy metabolic changes that occur in heart failure are complex, and are dependent not only on the severity and type of heart failure present, but also on the coexistence of common comorbidities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this article we review the cardiac energy metabolic changes that occur in heart failure. An emphasis is made on distinguishing the differences in cardiac energy metabolism between heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and in clarifying the common misconceptions surrounding the fate of fatty acids and glucose in the failing heart...
March 19, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579059/neuroketotherapeutics-a-modern-review-of-a-century-old-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Scott J Koppel, Russell H Swerdlow
Neuroketotherapeutics represent a class of bioenergetic medicine therapies that feature the induction of ketosis. These therapies include medium-chain triglyceride supplements, ketone esters, fasting, strenuous exercise, the modified Atkins diet, and the classic ketogenic diet. Extended experience reveals persons with epilepsy, especially pediatric epilepsy, benefit from ketogenic diets although the mechanisms that underlie its effects remain unclear. Data indicate ketotherapeutics enhance mitochondrial respiration, promote neuronal long-term potentiation, increase BDNF expression, increase GPR signaling, attenuate oxidative stress, reduce inflammation, and alter protein post-translational modifications via lysine acetylation and β-hydroxybutyrylation...
June 1, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576733/neuronal-zinc-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-is-decreased-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-patients-and-rats
#19
Ying Liu, Teng Wang, Xi Liu, Xin Wei, Tao Xu, Maojia Yin, Xueying Ding, Lijuan Mo, Lifen Chen
Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a 42-kDa protein encoded by the AZGP1 gene that is known as a lipid mobilizing factor and is highly homologous to major histocompatibility complex class I family molecules. Recently, transcriptomic research has shown that AZGP1 expression is reduced in the brain tissue of epilepsy patients. However, the cellular distribution and biological role of ZAG in the brain and epilepsy are unclear. Patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and brain trauma were included in this study, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats were also used...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570924/effects-of-sglt-2-inhibitors-on-diabetic-ketoacidosis-a-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#20
Matteo Monami, Besmir Nreu, Stefania Zannoni, Carlotta Lualdi, Edoardo Mannucci
AIMS: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) associated with SGLT-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) is a possible adverse event. In fact, SGLT-2i are capable of stimulating the release of glucagon and ketone re-absorption in the renal tubuli, thus increasing the concentration of ketone bodies. METHODS: A Medline search for SGLT2i (dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, canagliflozin, ipragliflozin, ertugliflozin, luseogliflozin) was performed, collecting all randomized trials with a duration of treatment≥12weeks, enrolling patients with type 2 diabetes, and comparing a SGLT2i with placebo or other comparators...
May 18, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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