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Hydroxybutyrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811136/determination-of-ghb-and-ghb-%C3%AE-o-glucuronide-in-hair-of-three-narcoleptic-patients-comparison-between-single-and-chronic-ghb-exposure
#1
Lena-Maria Mehling, Xin Wang, Sys-Stybe Johansen, Annika Spottke, Anna Heidbreder, Peter Young, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) can be used as a knock-out drug in drug facilitated crime (DFC). Due to its rapid metabolism and resulting narrow detection window, uncovering GHB use in DFC still constitutes a problem. In this experiment we determined the GHB and GHB-β-O-glucuronide (GHB-Gluc) concentrations in hair samples after single and chronic GHB exposures. Hair samples of three narcoleptic patients therapeutically taking sodium oxybate (GHB-sodium-salt) were collected. Patients 1 (P1) and 2 (P2) took the medication for nine and six years, respectively...
July 31, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809137/paracoccus-mangrovi-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-mangrove
#2
Wen-Ming Chen, Yi-Shu Li, Chiu-Chung Young, Shih-Yi Sheu
A bacterial strain, designated gyp-1T, was isolated from a mangrove in Taiwan and characterized using the polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of gyp-1T were Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating, non-motile, coccoid or short-rod-shaped and formed cream-coloured colonies. Growth occurred at 15-37 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 5.5-7.0 (optimum, pH 6.0) and with 0-4 % NaCl (optimum, 1-2 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that gyp-1T represented a member of the genus Paracoccus and showed the highest levels of sequence similarity with respect to Paracoccus lutimaris HDM-25T (97...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806625/association-of-changes-among-body-condition-score-during-the-transition-period-with-nefa-and-bhba-concentrations-milk-production-fertility-and-health-of-holstein-cows
#3
R V Barletta, M Maturana Filho, P D Carvalho, T A Del Valle, A S Netto, F P Rennó, R D Mingoti, J R Gandra, G B Mourão, P M Fricke, R Sartori, E H Madureira, M C Wiltbank
Our objective was to evaluate the association between body condition score (BCS) change during the transition period with fertility, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations, milk yield, and health problems of Holstein cows in a retrospective cohort study. Holstein cows (n = 232) were assessed for BCS (5 point scale; 0.25 point increments) and had blood collected at 21 and 7 d before, on the day of, and 7 and 21 d after calving. Blood samples were assayed for NEFA and BHBA concentrations...
July 27, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803103/engineering-halomonas-bluephagenesis-td01-for-non-sterile-production-of-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate
#4
Xiangbin Chen, Jin Yin, Jianwen Ye, Haoqian Zhang, Xuemei Che, Yiming Ma, Mengyi Li, Lin-Ping Wu, Guo-Qiang Chen
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate), short as P(3HB-co-4HB), was successfully produced by engineered Halomonas bluephagenesis TD01 grown in glucose and γ-butyrolactone under open non-sterile conditions. Gene orfZ encoding 4HB-CoA transferase of Clostridium kluyveri was integrated into the genome to achieve P(3HB-co-4HB) accumulation comparable to that of strains encoding orfZ on plasmids. Fed-batch cultivations conducted in 1-L and 7-L fermentors, respectively, resulted in over 70g/L cell dry weight (CDW) containing 63% P(3HB-co-12mol% 4HB) after 48h under non-sterile conditions...
July 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799767/a-comprehensive-metabolomics-study-to-assess-longitudinal-biochemical-changes-and-potential-early-biomarkers-in-nod-mice-that-progress-to-diabetes
#5
Peter Buchwald, Alejandro Tamayo-Garcia, Sivapriya Ramamoorthy, Marta Garcia-Contreras, Armando J Mendez, Camillo Ricordi
A global non-targeted longitudinal metabolomics study was carried out in male and female NOD mice to characterize the time-profile of the changes in the metabolic signature caused by onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and identify possible early biomarkers in T1D progressors. Metabolomics profiling of samples collected at five different time-points identified 676 and 706 biochemicals in blood and feces, respectively. Several metabolites were expressed at significantly different levels in progressors at all time-points, and their proportion increased strongly following onset of hyperglycemia...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794421/beta-hydroxybutyrate-an-endogenic-nlrp3-inflammasome-inhibitor-attenuates-stress-induced-behavioral-and-inflammatory-responses
#6
Takehiko Yamanashi, Masaaki Iwata, Naho Kamiya, Kyohei Tsunetomi, Naofumi Kajitani, Nodoka Wada, Takahiro Iitsuka, Takahira Yamauchi, Akihiko Miura, Shenghong Pu, Yukihiko Shirayama, Ken Watanabe, Ronald S Duman, Koichi Kaneko
Neuro-inflammation has been shown to play a critical role in the development of depression. Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is a ketone body and has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. Here, we investigated the potential antidepressant and anti-inflammatory effects of BHB on rats exposed to acute and chronic stress. We examined the influence of repeated BHB administration on depressive and anxiety behaviors in a rodent model of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790891/adenosine-a1-receptor-antagonism-abolished-the-anti-seizure-effects-of-exogenous-ketone-supplementation-in-wistar-albino-glaxo-rijswijk-rats
#7
Zsolt Kovács, Dominic P D'Agostino, Arpád Dobolyi, Csilla Ari
The state of therapeutic ketosis can be achieved by using the ketogenic diet (KD) or exogenous ketone supplementation. It was suggested previously that the adenosinergic system may be involved in the mediating effect of KD on suppressing seizure activity in different types of epilepsies, likely by means of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs). Thus, we tested in the present study whether exogenous ketone supplements (ketone ester: KE, 2.5 g/kg/day; ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT: KSMCT, 2.5 g/kg/day) applied sub-chronically (for 7 days) by intragastric gavage can modulate absence epileptic activity in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780092/whole-body-propionate-and-glucose-metabolism-of-multiparous-dairy-cows-receiving-folic-acid-and-vitamin-b12-supplements
#8
M Duplessis, H Lapierre, B Ouattara, N Bissonnette, D Pellerin, J-P Laforest, C L Girard
This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 on glucose and propionate metabolism. Twenty-four multiparous cows were assigned according to a complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to one of the following treatments: (1) saline 0.9% NaCl, (2) 320 mg of folic acid, (3) 10 mg of vitamin B12, or (4) 320 mg of folic acid and 10 mg of vitamin B12. Intramuscular injections were given weekly from 3 wk before the expected calving date until 9 wk postpartum...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776872/changes-in-some-blood-parameters-milk-composition-and-yield-of-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis-during-the-transition-period
#9
Enrico Fiore, Sonia Giambelluca, Massimo Morgante, Barbara Contiero, Elisa Mazzotta, Domenico Vecchio, Irene Vazzana, Pasquale Rossi, Francesca Arfuso, Giuseppe Piccione, Matteo Gianesella
In this study changes in hematochemical parameters, milk composition and yield were investigated in buffaloes during the transition period. A total of 93 buffaloes 113.9 ± 8.03 months old and 535 ± 50 kg average body weight were used. Parity was recorded, blood samples were collected from 80 days pre-partum until 70 days post-partum; milk samples were collected from 5 days to 70 days post-partum. On serum samples, the values of non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, urea, total proteins were evaluated...
August 4, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771528/plasma-metabolomics-profiles-in-rats-with-acute-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Fei Zheng, Zi-An Xia, Yi-Fu Zeng, Jie-Kun Luo, Peng Sun, Han-Jin Cui, Yang Wang, Tao Tang, Yan-Tao Zhou
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. We validated the utility of plasma metabolomics analysis in the clinical diagnosis of acute TBI in a rat model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups of 15 rats each: the CCI group and sham group. Blood samples were obtained from the rats within the first 24 h after TBI injury. GC/MS measurements were performed to evaluate the profile of acute TBI-induced metabolic changes, resulting in the identification of 45 metabolites in plasma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766470/effects-of-isovalerate-supplements-on-morphology-and-functional-gene-expression-of-rumen-mucosa-in-pre-and-post-weaning-dairy-calves
#11
Q Liu, C Wang, G Guo, W J Huo, Y L Zhang, C X Pei, S L Zhang, H Wang
Isovalerate supplements could stimulate rumen development by improving morphology and function of rumen mucosa, and then promote the growth of calves. This study was done to evaluate the effects of isovalerate supplements on morphology and functional gene expression of rumen mucosa in dairy calves. In total, 48 Chinese Holstein male calves with 15 days of age and 45.1±0.36 kg of BW were randomly assigned to four groups. The treatments were: control, low-isovalerate, moderate-isovalerate and high-isovalerate with 0, 3, 6 and 9 g isovalerate per calf per day, respectively...
August 2, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763296/hair-testing-of-ghb-an-everlasting-issue-in-forensic-toxicology
#12
REVIEW
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini, Simona Zaami, Roberta Pacifici, Pascal Kintz
BACKGROUND: In this paper, the authors present a critical review of different studies regarding hair testing of endogenous γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), concentrations in chronic users, and values measured after a single GHB exposure in drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases together with the role of a recently identified GHB metabolite, GHB-glucuronide. CONTENT: The following databases (up to March 2017) PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were used, searching the following key words: γ-hydroxybutyrate, GHB, GHB glucuronide, hair...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762009/a-fed-batch-strategy-to-produce-high-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate-terpolymer-yield-with-enhanced-mechanical-properties-in-bioreactor
#13
Nursolehah Abd Aziz, Kai-Hee Huong, Coswald Stephen Sipaut, A A Amirul
This study reports an efficient fed-batch strategy to improve poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB)] terpolymer production by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 with enhanced mechanical properties in bioreactor. The cultivations have been performed by combining oleic acid with γ-butyrolactone at different concentration ratios with 1-pentanol at a fixed concentration. The batch and fed-batch fermentations have resulted in P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB) with compositions of 9-35 mol% 3HV and 4-24 mol% 4HB monomers...
July 31, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761106/overall-process-of-using-a-valerate-dominant-sludge-hydrolysate-to-produce-high-quality-polyhydroxyalkanoates-pha-in-a-mixed-culture
#14
Jiuxiao Hao, Xiujin Wang, Hui Wang
The overall process of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production in a mixed culture fed by thermophilic fermented valerate-dominant sludge hydrolysate with high-level soluble organics (proteins and carbohydrates) and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) was investigated in this study. The valerate-dominant hydrolysate was fed to enrich a PHA culture with an increasing concentration, and the enriched culture displayed a strong PHA-producing capacity under feast-famine conditions. Valerate in the feedstock was preferentially utilized over acetate and butyrate, and its uptake correlated with the production of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) and 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate (3H2MV)...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760665/metritis-vaccination-in-holstein-dairy-heifers-using-a-herd-specific-multivalent-vaccine-effects-on-uterine-health-and-fertility-in-first-lactation
#15
M Freick, A Kunze, O Passarge, J Weber, S Geidel
In cattle, acute puerperal metritis (APM) compromises animal welfare and has an economic impact to the farmer because of the detrimental effects on reproductive performance, milk production, and survivability. The aim of this randomized clinical study was to investigate the effects of a prepartum immunization using a herd-specific multivalent vaccine on incidence of APM, prevalence of clinical endometritis (CE), and selected measures of reproductive performance in primiparous Holstein cows. Pregnant nulliparous cows (230±4days of gestation) assigned to the vaccinated group (VG; n=142) received subcutaneously 5...
July 22, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755931/blood-plasma-traits-associated-with-genetic-merit-for-feed-utilization-in-holstein-cows
#16
C D Dechow, C R Baumrucker, R M Bruckmaier, J W Blum
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of selection for feed utilization on associated blood plasma metabolite and hormone traits. Dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded in 970 Holsteins from 11 commercial farms in Pennsylvania and used to derive dry matter efficiency (DME; fat-corrected milk yield/DMI), crude protein efficiency (CPE; protein yield/crude protein intake), and residual feed intake (RFI, defined as actual feed intake minus expected feed intake for maintenance and milk production, based on calculation of DMI adjusted for yield, body weight, and body condition score)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752056/the-munich-midy-pig-biobank-a-unique-resource-for-studying-organ-crosstalk-in-diabetes
#17
Andreas Blutke, Simone Renner, Florian Flenkenthaler, Mattias Backman, Serena Haesner, Elisabeth Kemter, Erik Ländström, Christina Braun-Reichhart, Barbara Albl, Elisabeth Streckel, Birgit Rathkolb, Cornelia Prehn, Alessandra Palladini, Michal Grzybek, Stefan Krebs, Stefan Bauersachs, Andrea Bähr, Andreas Brühschwein, Cornelia A Deeg, Erica De Monte, Michaela Dmochewitz, Caroline Eberle, Daniela Emrich, Robert Fux, Frauke Groth, Sophie Gumbert, Antonia Heitmann, Arne Hinrichs, Barbara Keßler, Mayuko Kurome, Miriam Leipig-Rudolph, Kaspar Matiasek, Hazal Öztürk, Christiane Otzdorff, Myriam Reichenbach, Horst Dieter Reichenbach, Alexandra Rieger, Birte Rieseberg, Marco Rosati, Manuel Nicolas Saucedo, Anna Schleicher, Marlon R Schneider, Kilian Simmet, Judith Steinmetz, Nicole Übel, Patrizia Zehetmaier, Andreas Jung, Jerzy Adamski, Ünal Coskun, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Christian Simmet, Mathias Ritzmann, Andrea Meyer-Lindenberg, Helmut Blum, Georg J Arnold, Thomas Fröhlich, Rüdiger Wanke, Eckhard Wolf
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated complications is steadily increasing. As a resource for studying systemic consequences of chronic insulin insufficiency and hyperglycemia, we established a comprehensive biobank of long-term diabetic INS(C94Y) transgenic pigs, a model of mutant INS gene-induced diabetes of youth (MIDY), and of wild-type (WT) littermates. METHODS: Female MIDY pigs (n = 4) were maintained with suboptimal insulin treatment for 2 years, together with female WT littermates (n = 5)...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750585/nutritional-ketone-salts-increase-fat-oxidation-but-impair-high-intensity-exercise-performance-in-healthy-adult-males
#18
Trevor O'Malley, Etienne Myette-Cote, Cody Durrer, Jonathan P Little
This study investigated the impact of raising plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) through ingestion of ketone salts on substrate oxidation and performance during cycling exercise. Ten healthy adult males (age, 23 ± 3 years; body mass index, 25 ± 3 kg/m(2), peak oxygen uptake, 45 ± 10 mL/(kg·min)(-1)) were recruited to complete 2 experimental trials. Before enrollment in the experimental conditions, baseline anthropometrics and cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake) were assessed and familiarization to the study protocol was provided...
July 27, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749752/high-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis-induced-by-cumulation-of-ketones-l-and-d-lactate-5-oxoproline-and-acute-renal-failure
#19
Laura Heireman, Boris Mahieu, Mark Helbert, Wim Uyttenbroeck, Jan Stroobants, Marian Piqueur
INTRODUCTION: Frequent causes of high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) are lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis and impaired renal function. In this case report, a HAGMA caused by ketones, L- and D-lactate, acute renal failure as well as 5-oxoproline is discussed. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with lowered consciousness, hyperventilation, diarrhoea and vomiting. The patient had suffered uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus, underwent gastric bypass surgery in the past and was chronically treated with high doses of paracetamol and fosfomycin...
July 27, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746356/metabolomic-profiling-of-csf-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance
#20
Hyun-Hwi Kim, In Hye Jeong, Ja-Shil Hyun, Byung Soo Kong, Ho Jin Kim, Sung Jean Park
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Although several studies have characterized the metabolome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from MS and NMOSD patients, comparative analyses between them and between the relapse and the remission of each disease have not been performed. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare 1H-NMR spectra of CSF from MS, NMOSD, and healthy controls (HCs). The statistical analysis showed alterations of eight metabolites that were dependent on the disease...
2017: PloS One
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