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Samane Bayrami, Zahra Esmaili, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Saeed Reza Jamali Moghadam, Sepide Bayrami, Hamid AkbariJavar, Morteza Rafiee Tehrani, Farid Abedin Dorkoosh
The purpose of this research was the fabrication, statistical optimization and in vitro characterization of insulin loaded poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanoparticles (INS-PHBV-NPs). Nanoparticles were successfully developed by double emulsification solvent evaporation method. The NPs were characterized for particle size, entrapment efficiency (EE %), polydispersity index (PDI). The NPs also were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, XRD, DSC and CD. The optimum conditions were found to be 1.6% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 0...
March 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Marek Dziadosz
Multiple analyte adduct formation was examined and discussed in the context of reproducible signal detection in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry applied in the analysis of biologically-related samples. Appropriate infusion solutions were prepared in H2 O/methanol (3/97, v/v) with 1 mM sodium acetate and 10 mM acetic acid. An API 4000 QTrap tandem mass spectrometer was used for experiments performed in the negative scan mode (-Q1 MS) and the negative enhanced product ion mode (-EPI). γ‑Hydroxybutyrate and its deuterated form were used as model compounds to highlight both the complexity of adduct formation in popular mobile phases used and the effective signal compensation by the application of isotope-labelled analytes as internal standards...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Eri Soejima, Tsuyoshi Ohki, Yayoi Kurita, Xiaohong Yuan, Kayo Tanaka, Satomi Kakino, Kento Hara, Hitomi Nakayama, Yuji Tajiri, Kentaro Yamada
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which severe hypoglycemia accelerates vascular complications. Furthermore, we assessed the possible protective effect of ketone bodies against the endothelial cell damage caused by glucose deficiency. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured at a glucose level of either 0.56 or 5.6 mmol/L with or without 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) supplementation. Cell viability was assessed with a CCK-8 assay and a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay...
2018: PloS One
Ye Jianwen, Hu Dingkai, Che Xuemei, Jiang Xiaoran, Li Teng, Chen Jinchun, Zhang Haoqian, Chen Guo-Qiang
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] is one of the most promising biomaterials expected to be used in a wide range of scenarios. However, its large-scale production is still hindered by the high cost. Here we report the engineering of Halomonas bluephagenesis as a low-cost platform for non-sterile and continuous fermentative production of P(3HB-co-4HB) from glucose. Two interrelated 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) biosynthesis pathways were constructed to guarantee 4HB monomer supply for P(3HB-co-4HB) synthesis by working in concert with 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) pathway...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Dina Vojinovic, Sven J van der Lee, Cornelia M van Duijn, Meike W Vernooij, Maryam Kavousi, Najaf Amin, Ayşe Demirkan, M Arfan Ikram, Aad van der Lugt, Daniel Bos
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increasing evidence shows that intracranial carotid artery atherosclerosis may develop under the influence of a differential metabolic risk factor profile than atherosclerosis in the extracranial part of the carotid artery. To further elucidate these differences, we investigated associations of a wide range of circulating metabolites with intracranial and extracranial carotid artery atherosclerosis. METHODS: From the population-based Rotterdam Study, blood samples from 1111 participants were used to determine a wide range of metabolites by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
March 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Cynthia L Miltenburg, Todd F Duffield, Dorothee Bienzle, Elizabeth L Scholtz, Stephen J LeBlanc
The determinants of metabolic and reproductive health disorders in the peripartum period and the degree to which feeding and lying space and management can influence health are only partially understood. The objective of this randomized controlled study was to determine whether providing noncompetitive feeding and lying access in the close-up dry period improves health and immune function. Forty-eight Holstein cows of all parities were randomly assigned to a treatment group of 6 to 10 cows in 1 pen with either 80% cows to stalls and 90 cm of feeding space per cow (understocked) or 120% stocking density and 45 cm of feeding space per cow (overstocked) for 3 wk before expected calving...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Mohamed Abdelwahab, Nehal Salahuddin, Mohamed Gaber, Maie Mousa
Norfloxacin (NOR), a well-known antibacterial agent is also known to have potential antitumor activity. In this study, NOR was immobilized into poly(3-hydroxybutyrate/polyethylene glycol‑nickel oxide (PHB/PEG-NiO) nanocomposites using different NiO contents. The NiO nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method and the nanocomposites were prepared by solution cast films. Physicochemical features of nanocomposites were monitored by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM and TGA. PHB/PEG-5%NiO nanocomposites showed high NOR loading efficiency (60%) and a long-sustained release in comparison with other carriers...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Tingting Zhang, Xiaowei Wang, Jiti Zhou, Yu Zhang
Methanotrophic-heterotrophic communities were selectively enriched from sewage sludge to obtain a mixed culture with high levels of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation capacity from methane. Methane was used as the carbon source, N2 as sole nitrogen source, and oxygen and Cu content were varied. Copper proved essential for PHB synthesis. All cultures enriched with Cu could accumulate high content of PHB (43.2%-45.9%), while only small amounts of PHB were accumulated by cultures enriched without Cu (11...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Gloria Huerta-Ángeles, Kateřina Knotková, Petr Knotek, Ondrej Židek, Martina Brandejsová, Marek Pokorný, Hana Vagnerová, Ipsita Roy, Vladimir Velebný
In this work, a hybrid copolymer consisting of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) grafted to hyaluronic acid (HA) was synthesised and characterised. Once formed, the P(3HB)-g-HA copolymer was soluble in water allowing a green electrospinning process. The diameters of nanofibres can be tailored by simply varying the Mw of polymer. The optimization of the process allowed to produce fibres of average diameter in the range of 100-150 nm and low polydispersity. The hydrophobic modification has not only increased the fibre diameter, but also the obtained layers were homogenous...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Krzysztof B Beć, Yusuke Morisawa, Kenta Kobashi, Justyna Grabska, Ichiro Tanabe, Erika Tanimura, Harumi Sato, Marek J Wójcik, Yukihiro Ozaki
We investigated the surface (<50 nm) of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and its nanocomposite with graphene by attenuated total reflection far- and deep-ultraviolet (ATR-FUV-DUV; 145-300 nm; 8.55-4.13 eV) spectroscopy and quantum mechanical calculations. The major absorption of polymers occurs in FUV and is related to Rydberg transitions. ATR-FUV-DUV spectroscopy allows for direct measurements of these transitions in the solid phase. Using ATR-FUV-DUV spectroscopy, periodic density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT), we explained the origins of the FUV-DUV absorption of PHB and provided insights into structural changes of PHB which occur upon formation of a graphene nanocomposite and upon heating of the pure polymer...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Pamela Oetting-Neumann, Karl Rohn, Martina Hoedemaker
OBJECTIVE: Determination of the frequency of subclinical hypocalcaemia, increased lipomobilisation and subclinical ketosis as problems in dairy herds and identification of possible risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information was obtained from 51 dairy farms on husbandry, feeding, management of the cows and heifers, animal health and prophylactic treatments using a questionnaire. Blood samples from 20% of the cows and 30% of the heifers of each farm (= herd sample) were collected in the week ante partum (a...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Mohammad Hossein Mirmusavi, Saeed Karbasi, Dariush Semnani, Anousheh Zargar Kharazi
Background: Long-term healing tissue engineering scaffolds must hold its full mechanical strength at least for 12 weeks. Nano-micro scaffolds consist of electrospinning nanofibers and textile microfibers to support cell behavior and mechanical strength, respectively. Methods: The new nano-micro hybrid scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning poly 3-hydroxybutyrate-chitosan-multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT functionalized by COOH) solution on knitted silk in a random manner with different amounts of MWNT...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
Hao-Hsin Wu, Yi-Ting Shen, Chien-Shun Chiou, Chi-Tai Fang, Yi-Chun Lo
OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of shigellosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported since the late 1990s. HIV infection is an important risk factor. Since 2014, the global shigellosis epidemic has intensified. Whether chemsex (the use of crystal methamphetamine, γ-hydroxybutyrate or mephedrone to enhance sex) is a new risk factor has not been previously examined. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, case-control study in Taiwan. Acute shigellosis cases diagnosed during the 2015 outbreak among MSM living with HIV were compared with those without shigellosis...
March 13, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Michela Semeraro, Sara Boenzi, Rosalba Carrozzo, Daria Diodato, Diego Martinelli, Giorgia Olivieri, Giacomo Antonetti, Elisa Sacchetti, Giulio Catesini, Cristiano Rizzo, Carlo Dionisi-Vici
Single large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions disorders are classified into three main phenotypes with frequent clinical overlap: Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome (PMS), Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) and chronic progressive external ophtalmoplegia (PEO). So far, only few anecdotal studies have reported on the urinary organic acids profile in this disease class. In this single-center retrospective study, we performed quantitative evaluation of urinary organic acids in a series of 15 pediatric patients, 7 with PMS and 8 with KSS...
March 10, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Oliver G Bosch, Fabrizio Esposito, Dario Dornbierer, Michael M Havranek, Robin von Rotz, Michael Kometer, Philipp Staempfli, Boris B Quednow, Erich Seifritz
According to the triple network hypothesis the brain is equipped with three core neurocognitive networks: the default mode (DMN), the salience (SN), and the central executive (CEN) network. Moreover, the so called dorsal nexus, has met growing interest as it is a hub region connecting these three networks. Assessment of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of these networks enables the elucidation of drug-induced brain alterations. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB/GABA-B receptor agonist that induces a paradoxical state of mixed stimulation and sedation at moderate doses, which makes it a valuable tool to investigate neural signatures of subjective drug effects...
March 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Zsolt Kovács, Dominic P D'Agostino, Csilla Ari
Anxiety disorders are one of the most common mental health problems worldwide, but the exact pathophysiology remains largely unknown. It has been demonstrated previously that administration of exogenous ketone supplement KSMCT (ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT oil) by intragastric gavage for 7 days decreased the anxiety level in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. To investigate the potential role of the adenosinergic system in the pathomechanism of anxiety we tested whether the inhibition of adenosine A1 receptors (A1 Rs) influence the anxiolytic effect of the exogenous ketone supplement...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Guanshi Zhang, Elda Dervishi, Burim N Ametaj
The objective of this study was to search for potential alterations in innate immunity reactants and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after clinical occurrence of milk fever (MF) and identify potential predictive biomarkers of disease. One hundred pregnant multiparous Holstein dairy cows were involved in the study starting from -8wks before the expected day of parturition until +8wks postpartum as part of a large retrospective longitudinal study. Health status, DMI, milk yield, and milk composition were monitored during the whole experimental period...
March 5, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Gretel Ruprechter, Maria de Lourdes Adrien, Alejandro Larriestra, Otavio Meotti, Chester Batista, Ana Meikle, Mirela Noro
The predictive values of plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, albumin and calcium to predict risk of peripartum diseases in primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was investigated. Besides it was assessed if the health status interacted with parity on body condition score and metabolic profiles during the transition period. Dairy cows (126 PP and 182 MP) from a commercial dairy free stall herd (loose-housing system) were weekly body condition scored and tail bled for metabolites determination from -3 to +4 weeks relative to calving...
February 19, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Caiyun Fan, Di Su, He Tian, Xiaojiao Li, Yu Li, Lei Ran, Ruiting Hu, Jianbo Cheng
Objective: The objective of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying liver metabolic perturbations in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Method: Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to analyze metabolic differences in livers of 20 dairy cows, with and without exposure to HS. Results: The results revealed 33 potential metabolite candidate biomarkers for the detection of HS in dairy cows. Fifteen of these metabolites (glucose, lactate, pyruvate, acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), fumaric acid, citric acid, choline, glycine, proline, isoleucine, leucine, urea, creatinine, and orotic acid) were previously found to be potential biomarkers of HS in plasma or milk, discriminating dairy cows with and without HS...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Eleonora Malerba, Michela Mazzarino, Francesca Del Baldo, Sara Corradini, Gaia Carotenuto, Massimo Giunti, Federico Fracassi
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lispro insulin for the treatment of feline diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Times to resolution of hyperglycaemia, ketosis and acidosis were compared between cats treated with continuous rate infusion (CRI) of lispro insulin and cats treated with CRI of regular insulin. Methods Client-owned cats with naturally occurring DKA, newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) or already receiving treatment for DM, were included. Diagnosis of DKA involved the presence of at least two clinical signs consistent with DKA (eg, polyuria/polydipsia, anorexia, severe lethargy, vomiting and dehydration), blood glucose (BG) concentration >13...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
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