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M H Romero, L F Uribe-Velásquez, J A Sánchez, A A Rayas-Amor, G C Miranda-de la Lama
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of abattoir type (conventional abattoir -CA- versus modern abattoir -MA-) on stress parameters and risk factors for high muscle pH in Colombia. A total of 522 Zebu young bulls were studied in two groups: 285 at CA, and 237 at MA. Blood samples were taken to measure cortisol, glucose, lactate, creatine kinase, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea, haematocrit, leukocytes and N/L ratio. Cattle were monitored during the unloading, lairage, handling and stunning...
October 11, 2016: Meat Science
Bo Sun, Xubin Wang, Ruili Cao, Qi Zhang, Qiao Liu, Meifeng Xu, Ming Zhang, Xiangbo Du, Fangting Dong, Xianzhong Yan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fuzi, the processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for its analgesic, antipyretic, anti-rheumatoid arthritis and anti-inflammation effects; however, it is also well known for its toxicity. Gancao, the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., is often used concurrently with Fuzi to alleviate its toxicity. However, the mechanism of detoxication is still not well clear. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the effect of Gancao on the metabolic changes induced by Fuzi was investigated by NMR-based metabonomic approaches...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Alan D Brailsford, Christiaan Bartlett, Andrew T Kicman, David A Cowan
The administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been reported to augment the increase in growth hormone (GH) secretion associated with the onset of sleep. The ability of GHB to stimulate GH production in the absence of sleep in both male and female volunteers was investigated as part of a GHB administration study. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men and six women) were given a small oral dose (25 mg/kg) of GHB (as Xyrem(®)) at 10:00 h. Basal blood samples (as serum) were taken 10 min prior to GHB administration, with additional samples taken at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 360 and 480 min post-administration...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
S Ollier, F Beaudoin, N Vanacker, P Lacasse
When cows are unable to consume enough feed to support milk production, they often fall into severe negative energy balance. This leads to a weakened immune system and increases their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reducing the milk production of cows subjected to acute nutritional stress decreases their energy deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on metabolism and immune function of reducing milk production using quinagolide (a prolactin-release inhibitor) or dexamethasone in feed-restricted cows...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
A A Shumilova, M P Myltygashev, A K Kirichenko, E D Nikolaeva, T G Volova, E I Shishatskaya
The study describes preparation and testing of porous 3D implants of natural degradable polymer of 3-hydroxybutyric acid P(3HB) for regeneration of bone tissue defects. The ability of the P(3HB) implants to favor attachment and facilitate proliferation and directed differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was studied in the culture of MSCs isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue. Tissue-engineered hybrid systems (grafts) constructed by using P(3HB) and P(3HB) in combination with osteoblasts were used in experiments on laboratory animals (n=48) with bone defect model...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Albert R Jones Iv, Tova Meshulam, Marcus F Oliveira, Nathan Burritt, Barbara E Corkey
BACKGROUND: Many tissues play an important role in metabolic homeostasis and the development of diabetes and obesity. We hypothesized that the circulating redox metabolome is a master metabolic regulatory system that impacts all organs and modulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, energy production and changes in lipid turnover in many cells including adipocytes. METHODS: Differentiated human preadipocytes were exposed to the redox couples, lactate (L) and pyruvate (P), β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) and acetoacetate (Acoc), and the thiol-disulfides cysteine/ cystine (Cys/CySS) and GSH/GSSG for 1...
2016: PloS One
Krisztina Marosi, Sang Woo Kim, Keelin Moehl, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Aiwu Cheng, Roy Cutler, Simonetta Camandola, Mark P Mattson
During fasting and vigorous exercise, a shift of brain cell energy substrate utilization from glucose to the ketone 3-hydroxybutyrate (3OHB) occurs. Studies have shown that 3OHB can protect neurons against excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Neurons maintained in the presence of 3OHB exhibited increased oxygen consumption and ATP production, and an elevated NAD+/NADH ratio. We found that 3OHB metabolism increases mitochondrial respiration which drives changes in expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in cultured cerebral cortical neurons...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Katrin Niegelhell, Michael Suessenbacher, Katrin Jammernegg, Thomas Ganner, Daniel Schwendenwein, Helmut Schwab, Franz Stelzer, Harald Plank, Stefan Spirk
The creation of nano- and micropatterned polymer films is a crucial step for innumerous applications in science and technology. However, there are several problems associated with environmental aspects concerning the polymer synthesis itself, crosslinkers to induce the patterns as well as toxic solvents used for the preparation and even more important development of the films (e.g. chlorobenzene). In this paper, we present a facile method to produce micro- and nanopatterned biopolymer thin films using enzymes as so called biodevelopers...
October 13, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Serban San-Marina, Ayushman Sharma, Stephen G Voss, Jeffrey R Janus, Grant S Hamilton
Importance: Nasal reconstruction in patients who are missing a significant amount of structural nasal support remains a difficult challenge. One challenge is the deficiency of cartilage left within the nose as a consequence of rhinectomy or a midline destructive disease. Historically, the standard donor source for large quantities of native cartilage has been costal cartilage. Objective: To enable the development of protocols for new mesenchymal stem cell technologies as alternative procedures with reduced donor site morbidity, risk of infection and extrusion...
October 13, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Ronald Zielman, Rudmer Postma, Aswin Verhoeven, Floor Bakels, Willebrordus P J van Oosterhout, Axel Meissner, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Gisela M Terwindt, Oleg A Mayboroda, Michel D Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a common episodic brain disorder. Treatment options and diagnosis are hampered by an incomplete understanding of disease pathophysiology and the lack of objective diagnostic markers. The aim of this study was to identify biochemical differences characteristic for different subtypes of migraine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of migraine patients using an exploratory (1)H-NMR-based metabolomics approach. METHODS: CSF was obtained, in between migraine attacks, via lumbar puncture from patients with hemiplegic migraine, migraine with aura, migraine without aura, and healthy controls...
October 13, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Yang Quan-Jun, Zhang Jian-Ping, Zhang Jian-Hua, Han Yong-Long, Xin Bo, Zhang Jing-Xian, Dai Bona, Zhang Yuan, Guo Cheng
Inhaled budesonide and salbutamol represent the most important and frequently used drugs in asthmatic children during acute exacerbation. However, there is still no consensus about their resulting metabolic derangements; thus, the present study was conducted to determine the distinct metabolic profiles of these two drugs. A total of 69 children with asthma during acute exacerbation were included, and their serum and urine were investigated using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A metabolomics analysis was performed using a principal component analysis and orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares using SIMCA-P...
October 12, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Pei-Shze Mok, Diana Hooi-Ean Ch'ng, Soo-Peng Ong, Keiji Numata, Kumar Sudesh
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] is one of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers which can be degraded by lipases. In this study, the depolymerizing activity of different known commercial lipases was investigated via microassay using P(3HB-co-92 mol % 4HB) thin film as substrate. Non-enzymatic hydrolysis occurred under conditions in which buffers with pH 12 and 13 were added or temperature of 50 °C and above. Different concentrations of metal ions or detergents alone did not cause the film hydrolysis...
December 2016: AMB Express
Maryam Zamani, George C diCenzo, Branislava Milunovic, Turlough M Finan
We report that the smb20752 gene of the alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti is a novel symbiotic gene required for full N2 -fixation. Deletion of smb20752 resulted in lower nitrogenase activity and smaller nodules without impacting overall nodule morphology. Orthologs of smb20752 were present in all alpha and beta rhizobia, including the ngr_b20860 gene of Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234. A ngr_b20860 mutant formed Fix(-) determinate nodules that developed normally to a late stage of the symbiosis on the host plants Macroptillium atropurpureum and Vigna unguiculata...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Zuleen Delina Fasya Abdul Ghani, Juani Mazmin Husin, Ahmad Hazri Ab Rashid, Khozirah Shaari, Zamri Chik
Piper Betle L. (PB) belongs to the Piperaceae family. The presence of a fairly large quantity of diastase in the betel leaf is deemed to play an important role in starch digestion and calls for the study of weight loss activities and metabolite profile from PB leaf extracts using metabolomics approach to be performed. PB dried leaves were extracted with 70% ethanol and the extracts were subjected to five groups of rats fed with high fat (HF) and standard diet (SD). They were then fed with the extracts in two doses and compared with a negative control group given water only according to the study protocol...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Zhijie Liu, Tiangang Liu
Acrylic acid and propionic acid are important chemicals requiring affordable, renewable production solutions. Here, we metabolically engineered Escherichia coli with genes encoding components of the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle from Metallosphaera sedula for conversion of glucose to acrylic and propionic acids. To construct an acrylic acid-producing pathway in E. coli, heterologous expression of malonyl-CoA reductase (MCR), malonate semialdehyde reductase (MSR), 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA synthetase (3HPCS), and 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA dehydratase (3HPCD) from M...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ilaria Croci, Nuala M Byrne, Veronique S Chachay, Andrew P Hills, Andrew D Clouston, Trisha M O'Moore-Sullivan, Johannes B Prins, Graeme A Macdonald, Ingrid J Hickman
AIM: To investigate the independent effects of 6-mo of dietary energy restriction or exercise training on whole-body and hepatic fat oxidation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Participants were randomised into either circuit exercise training (EX; n = 13; 3 h/wk without changes in dietary habits), or dietary energy restriction (ER) without changes in structured physical activity (ER; n = 8). Respiratory quotient (RQ) and whole-body fat oxidation rates (Fatox) were determined by indirect calorimetry under basal, insulin-stimulated and exercise conditions...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Tianlin Liu, Xin Zhang, Yuan Luo, Yuanliang Huang, Gang Wu
Bone tissue engineering technique is a promising strategy to repair large-volume bone defects. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional construct by combining icariin (a small-molecule Chinese medicine), allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and a siliceous mesostructured cellular foams-poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (SMC-PHBHHx) composite scaffold. We hypothesized that the slowly released icariin could significantly promote the efficacy of SMC-PHBHHx/allogeneic BMSCs for repairing critical-size bone defects in rats...
2016: Stem Cells International
Rodrigo S Raposo, M Catarina M D de Almeida, M da Conceição M A de Oliveira, M Manuela R da Fonseca, M Teresa Cesário
Efficient production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB)) based on glucose-xylose mixtures simulating different types of lignocellulosic hydrolysate (LCH) was addressed using Burkholderia sacchari, a wild strain capable of metabolizing both sugars and producing P(3HB). Carbon catabolite repression was avoided by maintaining glucose concentration below 10g/L. Xylose concentrations above 30g/L were inhibitory for growth and production. In fed-batch cultivations, pulse size and feed addition rate were controlled in order to reach high productivities and efficient sugar consumptions...
October 5, 2016: New Biotechnology
K Schirmann, D M Weary, W Heuwieser, N Chapinal, R L A Cerri, M A G von Keyserlingk
The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the rumination and feeding behavior of freestall-housed Holstein dairy cows in the weeks around parturition, and (2) to determine the relationship between postpartum disease and precalving rumination and feeding behavior. Eighty cows were enrolled at approximately 2 wk (18 ± 7 d, mean ± standard deviation) before calving. Using automatic monitoring systems, rumination and feeding behavior were recorded continuously from 10 d before until 3 wk after calving...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Minzhi Peng, Yanna Cai, Xiefan Fang, Li Liu
A novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been established to quantify metabolic intermediates, including lactate (Lac), pyruvate (Pyr), acetoacetate (ACAC) and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) in blood. Samples were deproteinized with methanol-acetonitrile solution, and analytes were separated on an adamantyl group-bonded reverse phase column and detected in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Total analysis time was 4 min per sample. Method validation results displayed that limits of quantification were 10...
October 26, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
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