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Hydroxybutyrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230660/diagnostic-performance-of-48-hour-fasting-test-and-insulin-surrogates-in-patients-with-suspected-insulinoma
#1
Keijiro Ueda, Ken Kawabe, Lingaku Lee, Yuichi Tachibana, Nao Fujimori, Hisato Igarashi, Yoshinao Oda, Robert T Jensen, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Tetsuhide Ito
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the 48-hour fasting test and insulin surrogates followed by a glucagon stimulatory test (GST) for the diagnosis of insulinoma. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with suspected insulinoma who underwent 48-hour fasting test and GST were retrospectively included in our study: 15 patients with surgically proven insulinomas and 20 patients in whom insulinoma was clinically ruled out. We determined the duration of the fasting test, plasma glucose levels, serum levels of immunoreactive insulin and C-peptide, and insulin surrogates (serum levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, free fatty acid, and response of plasma glucose to intravenous glucagon [ΔPG]) at the end of the fast...
February 23, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230059/synergistic-effects-of-dimethyloxallyl-glycine-and-recombinant-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-on-repair-of-critical-sized-bone-defects-in-rats
#2
Xin Qi, Yang Liu, Zhen-Yu Ding, Jia-Qing Cao, Jing-Huan Huang, Jie-Yuan Zhang, Wei-Tao Jia, Jing Wang, Chang-Sheng Liu, Xiao-Lin Li
In bone remodeling, osteogenesis is closely coupled to angiogenesis. Bone tissue engineering using multifunctional bioactive materials is a promising technique which has the ability to simultaneously stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis for repair of bone defects. We developed mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)-doped poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) composite scaffolds as delivery vehicle. Two bioactive molecules, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a small-molecule angiogenic drug, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), an osteoinductive growth factor, were co-incorporated into the scaffold...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229388/effects-of-boron-supplementation-on-peripartum-dairy-cows-health
#3
Abdullah Basoglu, Nuri Baspinar, Leonardo Tenori, Alessia Vignoli, Erdem Gulersoy
Although many different dietary studies on the prevention of negative energy balance related diseases are often encountered, this is the first study investigating the effects of boron supplementation on peripartum dairy cows' health in the light of an omics approach. Twenty-eight healthy cows (1 control and 3 experimental groups) were enrolled from 2 months before predicted calving until 2 months after calving. Experimental groups were assigned to receive boron at increasing doses as an oral bolus. Production parameters, biochemical profile, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance based metabolomics profile, and mRNA abundance of gluconeogenic enzymes and lipid oxidation genes were determined...
February 22, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217111/integration-of-metagenomic-and-stable-carbon-isotope-evidence-reveals-the-extent-and-mechanisms-of-carbon-dioxide-fixation-in-high-temperature-microbial-communities
#4
Ryan de Montmollin Jennings, James J Moran, Zackary J Jay, Jacob P Beam, Laura M Whitmore, Mark A Kozubal, Helen W Kreuzer, William P Inskeep
Although the biological fixation of CO2 by chemolithoautotrophs provides a diverse suite of organic compounds utilized by chemoorganoheterotrophs as a carbon and energy source, the relative amounts of autotrophic C in chemotrophic microbial communities are not well-established. The extent and mechanisms of CO2 fixation were evaluated across a comprehensive set of high-temperature, chemotrophic microbial communities in Yellowstone National Park by combining metagenomic and stable (13)C isotope analyses. Fifteen geothermal sites representing three distinct habitat types (iron-oxide mats, anoxic sulfur sediments, and filamentous "streamer" communities) were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216550/the-acute-effects-of-simple-sugar-ingestion-on-appetite-gut-derived-hormone-response-and-metabolic-markers-in-men
#5
Adora M W Yau, John McLaughlin, William Gilmore, Ronald J Maughan, Gethin H Evans
This pilot study aimed to investigate the effect of simple sugar ingestion, in amounts typical of common ingestion, on appetite and the gut-derived hormone response. Seven healthy men ingested water (W) and equicaloric solutions containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate (G), 36 g fructose (F), 36 g sucrose (S), and 19.8 g glucose monohydrate + 18 g fructose (C), in a randomised order. Serum concentrations of ghrelin, glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, lactate, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and d-3 hydroxybutyrate, were measured for 60 min...
February 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215889/effects-of-a-combination-butaphosphan-and-cyanocobalamin-product-and-insulin-on-ketosis-resolution-and-milk-production
#6
J L Gordon, T F Duffield, T H Herdt, D F Kelton, L Neuder, S J LeBlanc
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of butaphosphan-cyanocobalamin (B+C), glargine insulin, and propylene glycol on resolution of ketosis and average daily milk yield after treatment. Cows from 16 herds in Ontario, Canada, and 1 herd in Michigan were tested at weekly intervals between 3 and 16 DIM. Ketosis was defined as blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1.2 mmol/L. All ketotic cows were given a baseline treatment of 3 d of 300 g of propylene glycol orally. Animals were then randomly assigned to treatment with 3 doses of either 25 mL of B+C or 25 mL of saline placebo and 1 dose of either 2 mL (200 IU) of glargine insulin or 2 mL of saline placebo in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215216/effect-of-milk-replacer-and-concentrate-intake-on-growth-rate-feeding-behaviour-and-systemic-metabolite-concentrations-of-pre-weaned-bull-calves-of-two-dairy-breeds
#7
C J Byrne, S Fair, A M English, D Johnston, P Lonergan, D A Kenny
Early-life nutrition affects calf development and thus subsequent performance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect plane of nutrition on growth, feeding behaviour and systemic metabolite concentrations of artificially reared dairy bull calves. Holstein-Friesian (F; n=42) and Jersey (J; n=25) bull calves with a mean±SD age (14±4.7 v. 27±7.2 days) and BW (47±5.5 v. 33±4.7 kg) were offered a high, medium or low plane of nutrition for 8 weeks using an electronic feeding system which recorded a range of feed-related events...
February 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213850/gamma-hydroxybutyrate-ghb-content-in-hair-samples-correlates-negatively-with-age-in-succinic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#8
S S Johansen, X Wang, D Sejer Pedersen, P L Pearl, J-B Roullet, G R Ainslie, K R Vogel, K M Gibson
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse, an approved therapeutic for narcolepsy, an agent employed for facilitation of sexual assault, as well as a biomarker of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD). Our laboratory seeks to identify surrogate biomarkers in SSADHD that can shed light on the developmental course of this neurometabolic disease. Since GHB may be quantified in hair as a potential surrogate to identify victims of drug-related assault, we have opted to examine its level in SSADHD...
February 18, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209498/genome-wide-screening-of-transcription-factor-deletion-targets-in-escherichia-coli-for-enhanced-production-of-lactate-based-polyesters
#9
Ryosuke Kadoya, Yu Kodama, Ken'ichiro Matsumoto, Toshihiko Ooi, Seiichi Taguchi
Engineered Escherichia coli is a useful platform for production of lactate (LA)-based polyester poly[LA-co-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB)] from renewable sugars. Here we screened all non-lethal transcription factor deletions of E. coli for efficient production of the polymer. This approach aimed at drawing out the latent potential of the host for efficient polymer production via indirect positive effects. Among 252 mutants from Keio Collection tested, eight mutants (ΔpdhR, ΔcspG, ΔyneJ, ΔchbR, ΔyiaU, ΔcreB, ΔygfI and ΔnanK) accumulated greater amount of polymer (6...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204983/application-of-acetyl-coa-acetyltransferase-atoad-in-escherichia-coli-to-increase-3-hydroxyvalerate-fraction-in-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate
#10
Jong-Min Jeon, Hyun-Joong Kim, Shashi Kant Bhatia, Changmin Sung, Hyung-Min Seo, Jung-Ho Kim, Hyung-Yeon Park, Dahye Lee, Christopher J Brigham, Yung-Hun Yang
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a family of biodegradable polymers, and incorporation of different monomers can alter its physical properties. To produce the copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-co-3HV)) containing a high level of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) by altering acetyl-CoA pool levels, we overexpressed an acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (atoAD) in an engineered E. coli strain, YH090, carrying PHA synthetic genes bktB, phaB, and phaC. It was found that, with introduction of atoAD and with propionate as a co-substrate, 3HV fraction in PHA was increased up to 7...
February 16, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193453/energy-and-the-alzheimer-brain
#11
REVIEW
Mortimer Mamelak
The high energy demands of the poorly myelinated long axon hippocampal and cortical neurons render these neurons selectively vulnerable to degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. However, pathology engages all of the major elements of the neurovascular unit of the mature Alzheimer brain, the neurons, glia and blood vessels. Neurons present with retrograde degeneration of the axodendritic tree, capillaries with string vessels and markedly reduced densities and glia with signs of inflammatory activation. The neurons, capillaries and astrocytes of the mature Alzheimer brain harbor structurally defective mitochondria...
February 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188877/laser-deposition-of-poly-3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid-lysozyme-microspheres-based-coatings-with-anti-microbial-properties
#12
V Grumezescu, A M Holban, L E Sima, M B Chiritoiu, G N Chiritoiu, A M Grumezescu, L Ivan, F Safciuc, F Antohe, C Florica, C R Luculescu, M C Chifiriuc, G Socol
The purpose of this study was to obtain, characterize and evaluate the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of coatings based on poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) - Lysozyme (P(3HB-3HV)/Lys) and P(3HB-3HV) - Polyethylene glycol - Lysozyme (P(3HB-3HV)/PEG/Lys) spheres prepared by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique, in order to obtain functional and improved Ti-based implants. Morphological investigation of the coatings by Infrared Microscopy (IRM) and SEM revealed that the average diameter of P(3HB-3HV)/Lys spheres is around 2μm and unlike the drop cast samples, IRM recorded on MAPLE films revealed a good distribution of monitored functional groups on the entire scanned surface...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188583/the-role-of-point-of-care-3-hydroxybutyrate-testing-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-undergoing-coronary-angiography
#13
S Vigili de Kreutzenberg, A Avogaro
PURPOSE: Ketone bodies, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3BOHB), and acetoacetate derive from increased free fatty acid beta-oxidation, thus reflecting marked insulin deprivation with or without decompensated diabetes. Objectives of this study were (1) to determine circulating levels of 3BOHB in patients with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM), before and after an elective coronary angiography; (2) to detect 3BOHB modification during the procedure; (3) to study possible associations between 3BOHB and clinical parameters/outcomes...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186869/sedative-hypnotic-drug-withdrawal-syndrome-recognition-and-treatment
#14
Cynthia Santos, Ruben E Olmedo
Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents...
March 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183452/controversies-in-the-management-of-hyperglycaemic-emergencies-in-adults-with-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Luís Cardoso, Nuno Vicente, Dírcea Rodrigues, Leonor Gomes, Francisco Carrilho
Hyperglycaemic emergencies are associated with significant morbi-mortality and healthcare costs. Management consists on fluid replacement, insulin therapy, and electrolyte correction. However, some areas of patient management remain debatable. In patients without respiratory failure or haemodynamic instability, arterial and venous pH and bicarbonate measurements are comparable. Fluid choice varies upon replenishment phase and patient's condition. If patient is severely hypovolaemic, normal saline solution should be the first option...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177247/zwitterionic-polyhydroxybutyrate-electrospun-fibrous-membranes-with-a-compromise-of-bioinert-control-and-tissue-cell-growth
#16
Antoine Venault, Andre Subarja, Yung Chang
We present a method for surface modification by thermal-evaporation self-assembling of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) fibrous membranes with a copolymer of hydrophobic octadecyl acrylate repeat units and hydrophilic zwitterionic 4-vinylpyridine blocks, zP(4VP-r-ODA), in view of controlling biofoulant-fiber interactions. PHB is of interest as a material for bioscaffolding, but its disadvantage is its hydrophobicity, which leads to unwanted interactions with proteins, blood cells, or bacteria. Surface modification of electrospun PHB fibers addresses this issue because the hydrophilicity of the membranes is improved, leading to a significant reduction in bovine serum albumin (92%), lysozyme (73%), and fibrinogen (50%) adsorption...
February 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176283/effect-of-nitrogen-availability-on-the-poly-3-d-hydroxybutyrate-accumulation-by-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#17
Diogo J Portugal-Nunes, Sudhanshu S Pawar, Gunnar Lidén, Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
Poly-3-D-hydroxybutyrate (or PHB) is a polyester which can be used in the production of biodegradable plastics from renewable resources. It is naturally produced by several bacteria as a response to nutrient starvation in the excess of a carbon source. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be an alternative production host as it offers good inhibitor tolerance towards weak acids and phenolic compounds and does not depolymerize the produced PHB. As nitrogen limitation is known to boost the accumulation of PHB in bacteria, the present study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrogen availability on PHB accumulation in two recombinant S...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175936/chloroform-induces-outstanding-crystallization-of-poly-hydroxybutyrate-phb-vesicles-within-bacteria
#18
Rolando Rebois, Delphine Onidas, Curtis Marcott, Isao Noda, Alexandre Dazzi
Poly[(R)-3-hydroxyalkanoate]s or PHAs are aliphatic polyesters produced by numerous microorganisms. They are accumulated as energy and carbon reserve in the form of small intracellular vesicles. Poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and simplest PHA. An atomic force microscope coupled with a tunable infrared laser (AFM-IR) was used to record highly spatially resolved infrared spectra of commercial purified PHB and native PHB within bacteria. For the first time, the crystallinity degree of native PHB within vesicle has been directly evaluated in situ without alteration due to the measure or extraction and purification steps of the polymer: native PHB is in crystalline state at 15% whereas crystallinity degree reaches 57% in commercial PHB...
February 7, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167112/combining-molecular-and-bioprocess-techniques-to-produce-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate-with-controlled-monomer-composition-by-burkholderia-sacchari
#19
Thatiane T Mendonça, Rafaela R Tavares, Lucas G Cespedes, Ruben J Sánchez-Rodriguez, Jan Schripsema, Marilda K Taciro, José G C Gomez, Luiziana F Silva
Biopolymers as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) composed by different co-monomers 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] has attracted interest since its properties are similar to low density polyethylene. Burkholderia sacchari produces this copolymer with a very low 3HHx molar fraction, about 2 mol%. B. sacchari mutant (unable to produce polymer) was engineered to host PHA biosynthesis genes (phaPCJ) from Aeromonas sp. In addition, a two-step bioprocess to increase biopolymer production was developed...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161177/influence-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-and-vitamin-e-on-performance-energy-metabolism-and-change-of-fat-depot-mass-in-transitional-dairy-cows
#20
S Schäfers, D von Soosten, U Meyer, C Drong, J Frahm, J Kluess, C Raschka, J Rehage, A Tröscher, W Pelletier, S Dänicke
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E as well as their interaction on performance variables and lipomobilization during late pregnancy and early lactation (wk 6 antepartum until wk 10 postpartum). For this purpose, 59 pluriparous German Holstein cows were assigned to 4 dietary groups in a 2 × 2 design with the factors CLA and vitamin E at 2 levels. For this trial, we selected cows with a high body condition score because they are more likely to mobilize fat and consequently are at a higher risk of developing ketosis...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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