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Hydroxybutyrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632946/emerging-biomarkers-of-illness-severity-urinary-metabolites-associated-with-sepsis-and-necrotizing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#1
Lilliam Ambroggio, Todd A Florin, Samir S Shah, Richard Ruddy, Larisa Yeomans, Julie Trexel, Kathleen A Stringer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the potential of metabolomics to identify novel biomarkers of illness severity in a child with fatal necrotizing pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). DESIGN: Case report with two control groups and a metabolomics analysis. PATIENTS: An infant with fatal MRSA pneumonia, four children with influenza pneumonia (pneumonia control group), and seven healthy children with no known infections (healthy control group)...
June 20, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630648/comparative-metabolic-profiling-of-the-lipid-producing-green-microalga-chlorella-reveals-that-nitrogen-and-carbon-metabolic-pathways-contribute-to-lipid-metabolism
#2
Hui Chen, Yanli Zheng, Jiao Zhan, Chenliu He, Qiang Wang
Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuel production. Microalgal metabolic pathways are heavily influenced by environmental factors. For instance, lipid metabolism can be induced by nitrogen-limiting conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms of lipid biosynthesis are unclear. In this study, we analyzed the global metabolic profiles of three genetically closely related Chlorella strains (C1, C2, and C3) with significant differences in lipid productivity to identify the contributions of key metabolic pathways to lipid metabolism...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629069/evaluation-of-electrospun-biomimetic-substrate-surface-decorated-with-nanohydroxyapatite-precipitation-for-osteoblasts-behavior
#3
Sai Zhang, Guojun Jiang, Molamma P Prabhakaran, Xiaohong Qin, Seeram Ramakrishna
To engineer bone tissue, it is crucial to design scaffolds with micro- and nano-sized architecture imitating approximate hierarchical structure of native bone, and afford desirable biological properties by introducing biocompatible polymers and bioceramics into the scaffolds. Here, a novel scaffold consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV)/polyaspartic acid (PAA) was fabricated by electrospinning and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) was deposited by calcium-phosphate dipping process for bone tissue regeneration...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623167/the-ketogenic-diet-affects-the-social-behavior-of-young-male-rats
#4
Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz D Liśkiewicz, Marta M Nowacka-Chmielewska, Joanna Nowicka, Andrzej Małecki, Jarosław J Barski
The positive effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on social behavior have been recently reported in patients and rodent models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Given the beneficial effects of the KD on epilepsy, mitochondrial function, carbohydrate metabolism, and inflammation, treatment based on the KD has the potential to reduce some of the ASD-associated symptoms, including abnormal social interactions. It is not known whether the KD influences sociability by reducing the pathological processes underlying ASD or through some independent mechanism...
June 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622787/monitoring-of-the-newborn-dog-and-prediction-of-neonatal-mortality
#5
Hanna Mila, Aurélien Grellet, Marine Delebarre, Claire Mariani, Alexandre Feugier, Sylvie Chastant-Maillard
Despite the high neonatal mortality rate in puppies, pertinent criteria for health evaluation of the newborns are not defined. This study was thus designed to measure and to characterize factors of variation of six health parameters in dog neonates, and to evaluate their value as predictors of neonatal mortality. A total of 347 purebred puppies under identical conditions of housing and management were examined within the first 8h after birth and then at Day 1. The first health evaluation included Apgar score, weight, blood glucose, lactate and β-hydroxybutyrate concentration, rectal temperature and urine specific gravity (SG)...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618347/biodegradation-and-biocompatibility-of-haloarchaea-produced-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-copolymers
#6
Jing Han, Lin-Ping Wu, Xiao-Bin Liu, Jing Hou, Li-Li Zhao, Jun-Yu Chen, Da-He Zhao, Hua Xiang
We previously reported that the tailor-made random poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (R-PHBHV) and higher-order PHBHV (O-PHBHV) produced by haloarchaea possessed unique material properties to meet biomedical application-specific requirements. Here, we further investigated the biocompatibility and biodegradation of these novel materials. Cell biocompatibility of solution-cast films, assessed using rat fibroblast and osteoblast cells, revealed that R-PHBHV and O-PHBHV exhibited better support for cell attachment and proliferation compared with the bacteria-produced poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and PHBHV or polylactic acid (PLA)...
September 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612562/-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-and-apoptosis-induced-by-elevated-free-fatty-acids-synergize-with-hyperglycemia
#7
Hui-Wen Tan, Nai-Qian Zhao, Ye-Rong Yu, Li-Na Han, Xiang-Xun Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To analysis the effects of glucoxicity and lipotoxicity on the function and apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells. METHODS: The levels of circulating glucose and free fat acids (FFAs) were elevated by infusion dextrose and fat emulsion in high-fat obese rats. The insulin resistance model obese rats were divided into four gourp: obese group with saline infusion (OB-NS group, n=7), obese group with glucose infusion (OB-GS group, n=9), obese group with Lipid emulsion infusion (OB-FFA group, n=8), obese group with glucose and lipid emulsion infusion (OB-FG group, n=9)...
January 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609018/pcl-phbv-blended-three-dimensional-scaffolds-fabricated-by-fused-deposition-modeling-and-responses-of-chondrocytes-to-the-scaffolds
#8
Wasana Kosorn, Morakot Sakulsumbat, Paweena Uppanan, Pakkanun Kaewkong, Surapol Chantaweroad, Jaturong Jitsaard, Kriskrai Sitthiseripratip, Wanida Janvikul
In this study, poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PCL/PHBV) blended porous scaffolds were fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM). PCL/PHBV filaments, initially prepared at different weight ratios, that is, 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, and 25/75, were fabricated by the lay-down pattern of 0/90/45/135° to obtain scaffolds with dimension of 6.0 × 6.0 × 2.5 mm(3) and average filament diameters and channel sizes in the ranges of 370-390 µm and 190-210 µm, respectively. To enhance the surface hydrophilicity of the materials, the scaffolds were subsequently subjected to a low pressure oxygen plasma treatment...
July 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601768/heterotrophic-nitrification-and-aerobic-denitrification-by-diaphorobacter-polyhydroxybutyrativorans-sl-205-using-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-as-the-sole-carbon-source
#9
Shusong Zhang, Xingbin Sun, Yueting Fan, Tianlei Qiu, Min Gao, Xuming Wang
A new strain of Diaphorobacter polyhydroxybutyrativorans (strain SL-205) was recently isolated and identified. SL-205 can utilize nitrate and nitrite for denitrification and ammonium for nitrification using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) as the carbon source under aerobic conditions. SL-205 removed 99.11% of NH4(+)-derived N (83.90mg/L), 95.02% of NO3(-)-N (308.24mg/L), and 84.13% of NO2(-)-N (211.70mg/L), with average removal rates of 1.73mg NH4(+)-N/(L·h), 6.10mg NO3(-)-N/(L·h), and 4...
May 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601458/ad-libitum-milk-replacer-feeding-but-not-butyrate-supplementation-affects-growth-performance-as-well-as-metabolic-and-endocrine-traits-in-holstein-calves
#10
D Frieten, C Gerbert, C Koch, G Dusel, K Eder, E Kanitz, J M Weitzel, H M Hammon
The enhanced growth performance of calves fed a higher plane of nutrition pre-weaning is well documented, and the effect of butyrate on the development of the gastrointestinal tract in calves has been evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine the synergistic effects of ad libitum milk replacer (MR) feeding and butyrate supplementation on growth performance and energy metabolism in calves. Sixty-four (32 male, 32 female) Holstein calves were examined from birth until wk 11 of life. Calves received MR either ad libitum (Adl) or restrictively (Res) with (AdlB+, ResB+) or without (AdlB-, ResB-) 0...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600130/highly-antibacterial-polypeptide-based-amphiphilic-copolymers-as-multifunctional-non-viral-vectors-for-enhanced-intracellular-sirna-delivery-and-anti-infection
#11
Li Zhou, Yuewei Xi, Meng Yu, Min Wang, Yi Guo, Peng Li, Peter X Ma, Bo Lei
For next-generation regenerative medicine and cancer therapy applications, the development of multifunctional biodegradable biomaterials with good antibacterial activity, biocompatibility and gene delivery capability is showing increased interests. As a natural cationic polypeptide, poly(ε-L-lysine) (EPL) has been as attractive antibacterial agent and non-viral gene vectors, however, its gene therapy is still limited probably due to the cytotoxicity, low stability in physiological environment and poor transfection efficiency...
June 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597971/diagnosis-of-congenital-hyperinsulinism-biochemical-profiles-during-hypoglycemia
#12
Azumi Sakakibara, Yukiko Hashimoto, Rie Kawakita, Yuki Hosokawa, Keiko Nagahara, Yukihiro Hasegawa, Shin Hoshino, Hironori Nagasaka, Tohru Yorifuji
OBJECTIVES: To define the ranges of biochemical markers during hypoglycemia for the diagnosis of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), using high sensitivity insulin assays. SUBJECTS: A total of 298 patients with CHI and 58 control patients with non-hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, who were diagnosed after 2007. METHODS: The levels of biochemical markers (glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate [BHB], free fatty acids [FFA], lactate, ammonia) at the time of hypoglycemia were analyzed along with the maximal glucose infusion rate (GIR) to maintain euglycemia and clinical outcomes...
June 9, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597074/early-metabolic-markers-identify-potential-targets-for-the-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes
#13
Gopal Peddinti, Jeff Cobb, Loic Yengo, Philippe Froguel, Jasmina Kravić, Beverley Balkau, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Tero Aittokallio, Leif Groop
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aims of this study were to evaluate systematically the predictive power of comprehensive metabolomics profiles in predicting the future risk of type 2 diabetes, and to identify a panel of the most predictive metabolic markers. METHODS: We applied an unbiased systems medicine approach to mine metabolite combinations that provide added value in predicting the future incidence of type 2 diabetes beyond known risk factors. We performed mass spectrometry-based targeted, as well as global untargeted, metabolomics, measuring a total of 568 metabolites, in a Finnish cohort of 543 non-diabetic individuals from the Botnia Prospective Study, which included 146 individuals who progressed to type 2 diabetes by the end of a 10 year follow-up period...
June 8, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596765/enzymatic-degradation-of-aromatic-and-aliphatic-polyesters-by-p-pastoris-expressed-cutinase-1-from-thermobifida-cellulosilytica
#14
Caroline Gamerith, Marco Vastano, Sahar M Ghorbanpour, Sabine Zitzenbacher, Doris Ribitsch, Michael T Zumstein, Michael Sander, Enrique Herrero Acero, Alessandro Pellis, Georg M Guebitz
To study hydrolysis of aromatic and aliphatic polyesters cutinase 1 from Thermobifida cellulosilytica (Thc_Cut1) was expressed in P. pastoris. No significant differences between the expression of native Thc_Cut1 and of two glycosylation site knock out mutants (Thc_Cut1_koAsn and Thc_Cut1_koST) concerning the total extracellular protein concentration and volumetric activity were observed. Hydrolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was shown for all three enzymes based on quantification of released products by HPLC and similar concentrations of released terephthalic acid (TPA) and mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (MHET) were detected for all enzymes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595135/soft-nanocomposites-of-gelatin-and-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-nanoparticles-for-dual-drug-release
#15
Rafael A Bini, Mônica F Silva, Laudemir C Varanda, Marcelo A da Silva, Cécile A Dreiss
We developed a nanocomposite gel composed of gelatin and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) polymeric nanoparticles (PNP) to be used as an injectable gel for the contemporaneous, dual sustained release of bioactive molecules. The hydrogel matrix was formed by a very simple process, using either the physical gelation of gelatin or the natural enzyme transglutaminase to covalently cross-link the gelatin chains in the presence of embedded PNP. Oscillatory rheological measurements showed that the addition of the PNP induced an increase in the storage modulus compared to pure gelatin gels, for both physical and chemical gels...
May 22, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594679/initial-experience-with-biologic-polymer-scaffold-poly-4-hydroxybuturate-in-complex-abdominal-wall-reconstruction
#16
Joseph F Buell, David Sigmon, Christopher Ducoin, Max Shapiro, Nikhil Teja, Emmett Wynter, Mary K Hanisee, Geoffrey Parker, Emad Kandil, Michael Darden
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of the new absorbable polymer scaffold poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB) in complex abdominal wall reconstruction. BACKGROUND: Complex abdominal wall reconstruction has witnessed tremendous success in the last decade after the introduction of cadaveric biologic scaffolds. However, the use of cadaveric biologic mesh has been expensive and plagued by complications such as seroma, infection, and recurrent hernia. Despite widespread application of cadaveric biologic mesh, little data exist on the superiority of these materials in the setting of high-risk wounds in patients...
July 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593546/differential-toxicity-of-arsenic-on-renal-oxidative-damage-and-urinary-metabolic-profiles-in-normal-and-diabetic-mice
#17
Jinbao Yin, Su Liu, Jing Yu, Bing Wu
Diabetes is a common metabolic disease, which might influence susceptibility of the kidney to arsenic toxicity. However, relative report is limited. In this study, we compared the influence of inorganic arsenic (iAs) on renal oxidative damage and urinary metabolic profiles of normal and diabetic mice. Results showed that iAs exposure increased renal lipid peroxidation in diabetic mice and oxidative DNA damage in normal mice, meaning different effects of iAs exposure on normal and diabetic individuals. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolome analyses found that diabetes significantly changed urinary metabolic profiles of mice...
June 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593540/mesorhizobium-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-the-legume-lotus-corniculatus-are-an-alternative-source-for-the-production-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates-phas-to-obtain-bioplastics
#18
Marta Marcos-García, Paula García-Fraile, Alena Filipová, Esther Menéndez, Pedro F Mateos, Encarna Velázquez, Tomáš Cajthaml, Raúl Rivas
Polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHAs) are natural polyesters that can be used to produce bioplastics which are biodegradable. Numerous microorganisms accumulate PHAs as energy reserves. Combinations of different PHAs monomers lead to the production of bioplastics with very different properties. In the present work, we show the capability of strains belonging to various phylogenetic lineages within the genus Mesorhizobium, isolated from Lotus corniculatus nodules, to produce different PHA monomers. Among our strains, we found the production of 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxyvalerate, 3-hydroxydodecanoate, and 3-hydroxyhexadecanoate...
June 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589916/design-and-fabrication-of-novel-polymeric-biodegradable-stents-for-small-caliber-blood-vessels-by-computer-aided-wet-spinning
#19
D Puppi, A Pirosa, G Lupi, P A Erba, G Giachi, F Chiellini
Biodegradable stents have emerged as one of the most promising approaches in obstructive cardiovascular disease treatment due to their potential in providing mechanical support while it is needed and then leaving behind only the healed natural vessel. The aim of this study was to develop polymeric biodegradable stents for application in small caliber blood vessels. Poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate] (PHBHHx), a renewable microbial aliphatic polyester, and poly(ε-caprolactone), a synthetic polyester approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for different biomedical applications, were investigated as suitable polymers for stent development...
June 7, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589154/prolonged-ketosis-in-a-patient-with-euglycemic-diabetic-ketoacidosis-secondary-to-dapagliflozin
#20
Shreya Pujara, Adriana Ioachimescu
Since the approval of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors by the US Food and Drug Administration for type 2 diabetes, there have been several reports of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis in patients using this class of medication. We present a case of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis where ketonemia and glucosuria persisted well beyond the expected effect of dapagliflozin. Our patient is a 50-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes since age 35 who was taking metformin and dapagliflozin. She presented with fatigue, constipation, and 3 days of reduced oral intake...
April 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
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