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Training body composition

Jonpaul Nevin, Mark Waldron, Stephen Patterson, Paul Smith, Mike Price, Alex Hunt
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week concurrent strength and endurance training programme in comparison to endurance training only on several key determinants of hand cycling performance. Five H4 and five H3 classified hand cyclists with at least one year's hand cycling training history consented to participate in the study. Subjects underwent a battery of tests to establish body mass, body composition, VO2peak, maximum aerobic power, gross mechanical efficiency, maximal upper body strength, and 30 km time trial performance...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Victoria Pons, Joan Riera, Xavier Capó, Miquel Martorell, Antoni Sureda, Josep A Tur, Franchek Drobnic, Antoni Pons
Background: Caloric restriction induces mitochondrial biogenesis and improves physical fitness in rodents. We aimed to provide evidence of how caloric restriction affects the body composition and physical performance of trained athletes and to evaluate the possible impact of an every-other-day feeding diet on nutritional deficiencies of micronutrients and essential fatty acids. Methods: The study was performed with 12 healthy male athletes by carrying out a 33% caloric restriction with respect to their usual diet...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Eva M Pérez-Merino, Jesús Usón-Gargallo, Francisco M Sánchez-Margallo, Jesús M Usón-Casaús
OBJECTIVE To compare the usefulness of fresh-frozen canine cadavers (FFCCs) and a validated canine simulator model for training veterinary students in basic gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. DESIGN Randomized trial. SAMPLE 48 veterinary students in their final year of training. PROCEDURES Students were randomly assigned to receive basic gastrointestinal endoscopic training on a canine simulator or FFCC. All students were trained as assigned in esophagogastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic gastric biopsy, and gastric foreign body removal for 2 h/d for 5 days...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Yair Lahav, Yoram Epstein, Ron Kedem, Haggai Schermann
Anthropometric measures of body composition are often used for rapid and cost-effective estimation of percentage body fat (%BF) in field research, serial measurements and screening. Our aim was to develop a validated estimate of %BF for the general population, based on simple body circumferences measures. The study cohort consisted of two consecutive samples of health club members, designated as 'development' (n 476, 61 % men, 39 % women) and 'validation' (n 224, 50 % men, 50 % women) groups. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements as part of their registration to a health club...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Luzia Jaeger Hintze, Virginie Messier, Marie-Ève Lavoie, Martin Brochu, Jean-Marc Lavoie, Denis Prud'homme, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Éric Doucet
Resistance training (RT) has been shown to decrease fat mass (FM), and increase fat-free mass (FFM), which can be a useful for weight loss maintenance. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a 1-year RT intervention on weight loss maintenance following a 6-month dietary weight loss intervention. DESIGN: Following a 6-month dietary weight loss intervention (-6% ± 5.8; 5.05 kg ± 4.45), 70 postmenopausal women living with overweight or obesity were randomized to a control group (n = 34) or a RT group (n = 36) (3×/week first 6 months, 2×/week last 6 months, 70-80% of 1-repetition maximum)...
March 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Karsten Königstein, Denis Infanger, Christopher Klenk, Timo Hinrichs, Anja Rossmeissl, Sandra Baumann, Benjamin Hafner, Henner Hanssen, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower pulse wave velocity and arterial stiffness in normal weight individuals, and this has not been examined in obese individuals. It is unclear whether an altered body composition acts as a modifier of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and arterial stiffness. We examined the association between peak oxygen uptake and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and analysed whether body composition attenuates this association in obese middle-aged individuals...
March 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Krzysztof Karpowicz, Katarzyna Krych, Małgorzata Karpowicz, Witold Nowak, Piotr Gronek
The map of candidate genes that can potentially affect physical fitness becomes larger every year, and they are associated with such aspects as respiratory and cardiovascular stability; body build and composition - especially muscle mass and strength; carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; response to training; and exercise intolerance.The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the CA repeat polymorphism of the P1 promoter of the IGF1 gene and the structure of motor skills in the two groups of Polish young athletes in 2011-2013...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Elie Fiogbé, Rafaela Ferreira, Márcio Antônio Gonçalves Sindorf, Silvia Aparecida Tavares, Keiti Passoni de Souza, Marcelo de Castro Cesar, Charles Ricardo Lopes, Marlene Aparecida Moreno
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is important to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of water-based training programs in order to prescribe it as an alternative in cardiac rehabilitation for patients who have coronary artery disease (CAD). In these patients, autonomic dysfunction is an important physiological change strongly associated with adverse outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Given that the beneficial effects of physical training in CAD patients have been traditionally evidenced with programs involving land-based aerobic exercises, this study aims to evaluate the effects of water aerobic exercise training (WAET) on the autonomic modulation of heart rate (HR) and body composition, in the rehabilitation of CAD patients...
March 14, 2018: Physiotherapy Research International: the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy
Daniela G L Terson de Paleville, Susan J Harkema, Claudia A Angeli
CONTEXT: Four individuals with motor complete SCI with an implanted epidural stimulator who were enrolled in another study were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, metabolic function and body composition at four time points before, during, and after task specific training. Following 80 locomotor training sessions, a 16-electrode array was surgically placed on the dura (L1-S1 cord segments) to allow for electrical stimulation. After implantation individuals received 160 sessions of task specific training with epidural stimulation (stand and step)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Agata Leońska-Duniec, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Aleksandra Jażdżewska, Waldemar Moska, Ewelina Lulińska-Kuklik, Marek Sawczuk, Svetlana I Gubaydullina, Alsu T Shakirova, Pawel Cięszczyk, Adam Maszczyk, Ildus I Ahmetov
The effectiveness of physical exercise on fat loss and improvement of aerobic capacity varies considerably between individuals. A strong linkage exists between common allelic variants of the adrenergic receptor genes and weight gain, as well as changes in body composition. Therefore we aimed to check if body composition and metabolic variables were modulated by the ADRB2 (Gly16Arg and Glu27Gln), ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) and ADRA2A (rs553668 G/A) gene polymorphisms in 163 Polish sedentary women (age 19-24; body mass index (BMI) 21...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Maria Kerti, Zsuzsanna Balogh, Krisztina Kelemen, Janos T Varga
Rationale: The relationship of functional parameters such as lung mechanics, chest kinematics, metabolism and peripheral and respiratory muscle function with the level of exercise tolerance remains a controversial subject. While it has been previously shown that pulmonary rehabilitation is capable of improving exercise tolerance in patients afflicted by COPD, as expressed by values of 6-minute walking test (6MWT), the degree of contribution to this change by each of the aforementioned parameters remains unclear...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Robin A Wilson, William Deasy, Christos G Stathis, Alan Hayes, Matthew B Cooke
Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males ( n = 39) and females ( n = 49)) were fed a high fat (HF) and sugar (S) water diet (30% ( w / v )) for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1) 'obese' baseline control (OBC); (2) no intervention (CON); (3) intermittent fasting (IF); (4) high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT) and (5) combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT)...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
Mathias T Vangsoe, Malte S Joergensen, Lars-Henrik L Heckmann, Mette Hansen
During prolonged resistance training, protein supplementation is known to promote morphological changes; however, no previous training studies have tested the effect of insect protein isolate in a human trial. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of insect protein as a dietary supplement to increase muscle hypertrophy and strength gains during prolonged resistance training in young men. Eighteen healthy young men performed resistance training four day/week for eight weeks. Subjects were block randomized into two groups consuming either an insect protein isolate or isocaloric carbohydrate supplementation within 1 h after training and pre-sleep on training days...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Liam Bagley, Nasser Al-Shanti, Steven Bradburn, Osamah Baig, Mark Slevin, Jamie S McPhee
BACKGROUND: Regular sprint interval training (SIT) improves whole-body aerobic capacity and muscle oxidative potential, but very little is known about knee extensor anabolic or fatigue resistance adaptations, or whether effects are similar for males and females. The purpose of this study was to compare sex-related differences in knee extensor size, torque-velocity relationship and fatigability adaptations to 12 weeks SIT. METHODS: Sixteen males and fifteen females (mean (SEM) age: 41 (±2...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Abdul-Mutala Fuseini, Mohammad Hossein Rahimi, Mehdi Mollahosseini, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Zhila Maghbooli, Khadijeh Mirzaei
OBJECTIVE: The role of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in the development of obesity has been debated globally. The relationship with body shape and fat distribution was examined in this cross-sectional association study among apparently healthy Iranian adults. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A study population of 265 (126 males and 139 females) aged 18-55 years participated in this cross-sectional study from the communities of Tehran based on cluster sampling...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Daniel R Garza, Marcel C van Verk, Martijn A Huynen, Bas E Dutilh
The environmental metabolome and metabolic potential of microorganisms are dominant and essential factors shaping microbial community composition. Recent advances in genome annotation and systems biology now allow us to semiautomatically reconstruct genome-scale metabolic models (GSMMs) of microorganisms based on their genome sequence1 . Next, growth of these models in a defined metabolic environment can be predicted in silico, mechanistically linking the metabolic fluxes of individual microbial populations to the community dynamics...
March 12, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Kenji Kuzuhara, Kanako Katai, Tatsuya Hojo, Yoshihiko Fujisawa, Misaka Kimura, Yasuyoshi Yanagida, Yosuke Yamada, Junta Iguchi
Well-controlled seasonal distribution of training intensity appears to be an important variable for endurance athletes' success as competitors and/or for avoidance of overtraining. The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships of training distribution, body composition, energy intake/expenditure, and rowing ergometer performance throughout the 2012-2013 season. In the present study of 15 collegiate male rowers, most of whom started rowing during their time at the university, we divided the 2012-2013 season (total 37 weeks) into 3 phases (off-season, December to mid-March, 16 weeks; pre-season, late March to April, 5 weeks; and in-season, May to August, 16 weeks) and analyzed the transition of 2000-m rowing ergometer time, training intensity/volume, body composition (body weight and body fat) and energy intake/expenditure in each phase...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Mahmoudreza Taghizadeh, Sajad Ahmadizad, Mahmood Naderi
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with thrombotic events due to platelets' defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of endurance training on expressions of platelet hsa-miR-223 and P2RY12 receptor, as well as platelet function in T2DM patients. METHODS: Twenty female T2DM patients (age, 62.25±3.81 yr; weight, 73.53±9.04 kg; height, 154.7±4.3 cm) were randomly divided into two groups (Control (CONT) and endurance training (ET))...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Jonas Verbrugghe, Anouk Agten, Bert O Eijnde, Enzo Olivieri, Xavier Huybrechts, Henk Seelen, Frank Vandenabeele, Annick Timmermans
BACKGROUND: Although low to moderate intensity exercise therapy is a predominant part of rehabilitation in nonspecific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP), effect sizes are small and optimal exercise modalities/intensities are unclear. Conversely, effects of high intensity training have not yet been investigated in this population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of high intensity training (HIT) and to explore the magnitude of the effects of a HIT program may have on exercise capacity and disease related outcome measures compared to conventional therapy for persons with NSCLBP...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Marc A Tuazon, Sara C Campbell, Dylan J Klein, Sue A Shapses, Keith R Anacker, Tracy G Anthony, Mehmet Uzumcu, Gregory C Henderson
BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with fatty liver, glucose dysregulation, increased body fat, and impaired bone quality. Previously, it was demonstrated that single sessions of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) are more effective than distance- and duration-matched continuous exercise (CE) on altering hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism and very-low density lipoprotein-TG (VLDL-TG) secretion. METHODS: Six weeks training using these modalities was examined for effects on hepatic TG metabolism/secretion, glucose tolerance, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) mice...
March 6, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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