Read by QxMD icon Read

Infant abusive head trauma

Paige A Culotta, James E Crowe, Quynh-Anh Tran, Jeremy Y Jones, Amy R Mehollin-Ray, H Brandon Tran, Marcella Donaruma-Kwoh, Cristina T Dodge, Elizabeth A Camp, Andrea T Cruz
BACKGROUND: Young children with suspected abusive head trauma often receive skull radiographs to evaluate for fractures as well as computed tomography (CT) of the head to assess for intracranial injury. Using a CT as the primary modality to evaluate both fracture and intracranial injury could reduce exposure to radiation without sacrificing performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity of CT head with (3-D) reconstruction compared to skull radiographs to identify skull fractures in children with suspected abusive head trauma...
October 15, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Megan M Letson, Jennifer N Cooper, Katherine J Deans, Philip V Scribano, Kathi L Makoroff, Kenneth W Feldman, Rachel P Berger
Infants with minor abusive injuries are at risk for more serious abusive injury, including abusive head trauma (AHT). Our study objective was to determine if children with AHT had prior opportunities to detect abuse and to describe the opportunities. All AHT cases from 7/1/2009 to 12/31/2011 at four tertiary care children's hospitals were included. A prior opportunity was defined as prior evaluation by either a medical or child protective services (CPS) professional when the symptoms and/or referral could be consistent with abuse but the diagnosis was not made and/or an alternate explanation was given and accepted...
October 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Robert Zant, Michael Melter, Christian Doerfler, Felix Schlachetzki, Ernst-Michael Jung, Stefan Schilling, Juergen Kunkel
Internal carotid artery (ICA) dissections with associated stroke are rare events in infants. The usual pathomechanisms include direct trauma to the artery, blunt intraoral trauma, or child abuse. We describe the case of a 4-month-old male patient with ICA dissection and associated middle cerebral artery territory infarction associated with hyperextension/hyperrotation after a minor head injury. Upon treatment with anticoagulants, the patient showed significant improvement of the left-sided hemiparesis. Hemorrhagic transformation that presented shortly after middle cerebral artery infarction did not further increase under heparin treatment and prevented further embolism...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Brian S Payne, Timothy J Kutz, Ann Di Maio, James M Gerard
BACKGROUND: Fractures are a frequent reason for emergency department visits and evaluation for abusive head trauma is an associated concern in infants. Recent guidelines have suggested that retinal examination may not be necessary in the absence of intracranial injury, but there is a lack of empirical evidence in infants < 1 year of age. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of retinal hemorrhages in infants with isolated long bone fractures. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of infants < 1 year of age who presented to an urban, tertiary care pediatric hospital between January 2004 and April 2014 with the diagnosis of an acute long bone fracture or retinal hemorrhages...
October 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Gunjan Kamdar Tiyyagura, Marcie Gawel, Aimee Alphonso, Jeannette Koziel, Kyle Bilodeau, Kirsten Bechtel
BACKGROUND: Prehospital care providers are in a unique position to provide initial unadulterated information about the scene where a child is abusively injured or neglected. However, they receive minimal training with respect to detection of Child Abuse and Neglect (CAN) and make few reports of suspected CAN to child protective services. AIMS: To explore barriers and facilitators to the recognition and reporting of CAN by prehospital care providers. DESIGN/METHODS: Twenty-eight prehospital care providers participated in a simulated case of infant abusive head trauma prior to participating in one-on-one semi-structured qualitative debriefs...
July 19, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
Shunsuke Amagasa, Hikoro Matsui, Satoshi Tsuji, Takashi Moriya, Kosaku Kinoshita
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the accuracy of parental reports of infant trauma history. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 166 infants from 3 tertiary institutions in Japan that had suffered a traumatic intracranial hemorrhage between 2002 and 2013. The infants were classified into 3 groups based on the parents' report of the mechanism of injury: the low-risk group consisted of injuries sustained from falling off a height below 3 ft. (n=84); the middle-to-high-risk group comprised other mechanisms of injury (n=54); and the unknown-risk group consisted of unknown mechanisms of injury (n=28)...
September 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Scott Boop, Mary Axente, Blakely Weatherford, Paul Klimo
OBJECTIVE Research on pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT) has largely focused on clinical presentation and management. The authors sought to review a single-institution experience from a public health perspective to gain a better understanding of the local population affected, determine overall incidence and seasonal trends, and provide details on the initial hospitalization, including extent of injuries, neurosurgical interventions, and hospital charges. METHODS All cases of AHT involving patients who presented to Le Bonheur Children's Hospital (LBCH) from 2009 through 2014 were identified...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Rachel Pardes Berger, Janet Fromkin, Bruce Herman, Mary Clyde Pierce, Richard A Saladino, Lynda Flom, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Tom McGinn, Rudolph Richichi, Patrick M Kochanek
BACKGROUND: Abusive head trauma is the leading cause of death from physical abuse. Misdiagnosis of abusive head trauma as well as other types of brain abnormalities in infants is common and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. We previously derived the Pittsburgh Infant Brain Injury Score (PIBIS), a clinical prediction rule to assist physicians deciding which high-risk infants should undergo computed tomography of the head. METHODS: Well-appearing infants 30 to 364 days of age with temperature <38...
July 2016: Pediatrics
Erica L Spies, Joanne Klevens
In the United States, abusive head trauma (AHT) is one of the leading causes of maltreatment fatalities among infants and children, accounting for approximately one third of these deaths (1). Monitoring trends in AHT and evaluating prevention strategies have historically been difficult because of differences in AHT definitions used in research and surveillance. CDC's case definition for AHT and data from the National Vital Statistics System were used to examine the trends in fatal AHT during 1999-2014 using Joinpoint trend analysis software...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Jennifer K Lee, Ken M Brady, Nina Deutsch
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the most common cause of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in infants and the leading cause of child abuse-related deaths. For reasons that remain unclear, mortality rates after moderate AHT rival those of severe nonintentional TBI. The vulnerability of the developing brain to injury may be partially responsible for the poor outcomes observed after AHT. AHT is mechanistically more complex than nonintentional TBI. The acute-on-chronic nature of the trauma along with synergistic injury mechanisms that include rapid rotation of the brain, diffuse axonal injury, blunt force trauma, and hypoxia-ischemia make AHT challenging to treat...
June 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Naoto Shiomi, Tadashi Echigo, Akihiko Hino, Naoya Hashimoto, Tarumi Yamaki
Criteria for computed tomography (CT) to head injured infants have not been established. Since the identification of neurological findings is difficult in infants, examination by CT may be necessary in some cases, but it may be difficult to perform CT because of problems with radiation exposure and body movement. Moreover, even though no intracranial abnormality was found immediately after injury, abnormal findings may appear after several hours. From this viewpoint, course observation after injury may be more important than CT in the initial treatment of head trauma in infants...
July 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Amy E Ornstein, Eleanor Fitzpatrick, Jill Hatchette, Christy G Woolcott, Linda Dodds
BACKGROUND: Infants follow a predictable trajectory of increased early crying. Frustration with crying is reported to be a trigger for abusive head trauma (AHT). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of postpartum delivery of the educational program, the Period of PURPLE Crying (PURPLE), in a group of first-time mothers. The primary objective was to determine whether there was a change in knowledge about infant crying and shaking after exposure to PURPLE. Factors associated with change in knowledge were also examined...
March 2016: Paediatrics & Child Health
J A Cramer, U A Rassner, G L Hedlund
A possible misconception among radiologists is that chronic subdural hemorrhage should show some degree of blooming on T2*-gradient recalled-echo or susceptibility-weighted sequences such as SWI and susceptibility-weighted angiography, which is not necessarily true. We present 5 cases of chronic subdural hemorrhages in infants, demonstrating intensity near or greater than that of CSF with variable amounts of hemosiderin staining along the neomembranes. We review the physiology and MR imaging physics behind the appearance of a chronic subdural hemorrhage, highlighting that the absence of a BBB can allow hemosiderin to be completely removed from the subdural compartment...
September 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Hiroshi Karibe, Motonobu Kameyama, Toshiaki Hayashi, Ayumi Narisawa, Teiji Tominaga
The number of cases with child abuse is increasing in Japan, and abusive head trauma (AHT) is a major cause of death in abused children. Child abuse has been recognized by the late 19th century, and widely accepted as battered child syndrome in the middle of the 20th century. As terms, there had been considerable mechanistic controversies between shaken-baby and -impact syndrome until the beginning of the 21st century. In recent years, AHT has been utilized as a less mechanistic term. Most of the characteristics of AHT in Japan have been similar to those in the United States as follows: infant is the most common victim, acute subdural hematoma (SDH) is the most common intracranial lesion, and retinal hemorrhage is often complicated...
May 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Brittany Coats, Gil Binenbaum, Colin Smith, Robert L Peiffer, Cindy W Christian, Ann-Christine Duhaime, Susan S Margulies
Repetitive back-and-forth head rotation due to vigorous shaking is purported to be a central mechanism responsible for diffuse white matter injury, subdural hemorrhage and retinal hemorrhage in some cases of abusive head trauma (AHT) in young children. Although animal studies have identified mechanisms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) associated with single rapid head acceleration-decelerations at levels experienced in a motor vehicle crash, few experimental studies have investigated TBI from repetitive head rotations...
March 7, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jacqueline Tucker, Arabinda Kumar Choudhary, Joseph Piatt
OBJECTIVE Benign enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces (BESS) is a common finding on imaging studies indicated by macrocephaly in infancy. This finding has been associated with the presence of subdural fluid collections that are sometimes construed as suggestive of abusive head injury. The prevalence of BESS among infants with macrocephaly and the prevalence of subdural collections among infants with BESS are both poorly defined. The goal of this study was to determine the relative frequencies of BESS, hydrocephalus, and subdural collections in a large consecutive series of imaging studies performed for macrocephaly and to determine the prevalence of subdural fluid collections among patients with BESS...
July 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Karuna Shekdar
"Shaken baby syndrome" is a term often used by the physicians and public to describe abusive trauma inflicted on infants and young children. Advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and the associated clinical spectrum of injury has lead us to modify our terminology and address it as "abusive trauma" (AT). Pediatric abusive head trauma is defined as an injury to the skull or intracranial contents of an infant or a young child (< 5 y age) due to inflicted blunt impact and/or violent shaking. This chapter focuses on the imaging aspects of childhood abusive trauma along with a brief description of the mechanism and pathophysiology of abusive injury...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Lauren A Hanlon, Jimmy W Huh, Ramesh Raghupathi
Elevated microglial/macrophage-associated biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid of infant victims of abusive head trauma (AHT) suggest that these cells play a role in the pathophysiology of the injury. In a model of AHT in 11-day-old rats, 3 impacts (24 hours apart) resulted in spatial learning and memory deficits and increased brain microglial/macrophage reactivity, traumatic axonal injury, neuronal degeneration, and cortical and white-matter atrophy. The antibiotic minocycline has been effective in decreasing injury-induced microglial/macrophage activation while simultaneously attenuating cellular and functional deficits in models of neonatal hypoxic ischemia, but the potential for this compound to rescue deficits after impact-based trauma to the immature brain remains unexplored...
March 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Nadine Girard, Hervé Brunel, Philippe Dory-Lautrec, Brigitte Chabrol
Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury...
May 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Ffion C Davies, Timothy J Coats, Ross Fisher, Thomas Lawrence, Fiona E Lecky
INTRODUCTION: Non-accidental injury (NAI) in children is an important cause of major injury. The Trauma Audit Research Network (TARN) recently analysed data on the demographics of paediatric trauma and highlighted NAI as a major cause of death and severe injury in children. This paper examined TARN data to characterise accidental versus abusive cases of major injury. METHODS: The national trauma registry of England and Wales (TARN) database was interrogated for the classification of mechanism of injury in children by intent, from January 2004 to December 2013...
December 2015: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"