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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152573/self-organization-of-helium-precipitates-into-elongated-channels-within-metal-nanolayers
#1
Di Chen, Nan Li, Dina Yuryev, J Kevin Baldwin, Yongqiang Wang, Michael J Demkowicz
Material degradation due to precipitation of implanted helium (He) is a key concern in nuclear energy. Decades of research have mapped out the fate of He precipitates in metals, from nucleation and growth of equiaxed bubbles and voids to formation and bursting of surface blisters. By contrast, we show that He precipitates confined within nanoscale metal layers depart from their classical growth trajectories: They self-organize into elongated channels. These channels form via templated nucleation of He precipitates along layer surfaces followed by their growth and spontaneous coalescence into stable precipitate lines...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152448/vision-assisted-micromanipulation-using-closed-loop-actuation-of-multiple-microrobots
#2
M Arifur Rahman, Noboru Takahashi, Kawai F Siliga, Nigel K Ng, Zhidong Wang, Aaron T Ohta
Accurate control and precise positioning of opto-thermocapillary flow-addressed bubble microrobots are necessary for micromanipulation. In addition, micromanipulation using the simultaneous actuation of multiple microrobots requires a robust control system to enable independent motion. This paper demonstrates a hybrid closed-loop vision-assisted control system capable of actuating multiple microrobots simultaneously and positioning them at precise locations relative to micro-objects under manipulation. A vision-assisted grasp-planning application was developed and used to calculate the necessary trajectories of the microrobots to form cages around micro-objects...
2017: Robotics and Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152216/macrophage-polarization-is-related-to-the-pathogenesis-of-decompression-induced-lung-injury
#3
REVIEW
Cui-Hong Han, Pei-Xi Zhang, Wen-Wu Liu
Studies have shown that blood bubbles may be detectable and there is ultrasonic evidence of acute interstitial lung edema even after diving without protocol violation. Macrophages play a central role in the inflammation, and macrophage polarization is closely related to the pathogenesis some lung diseases. Available findings indicate that decompression may induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules in the blood and tissues, which are associated with the macrophage polarization, and hyperbaric treatment may exert therapeutic effects on decompression related diseases via regulating these factors...
July 2017: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149918/oxygen-transfer-in-moving-bed-biofilm-reactor-and-integrated-fixed-film-activated-sludge-processes
#4
(no author information available yet)
A demonstrated approach to design the, so-called, medium-bubble air diffusion network for oxygen transfer into the aerobic zone(s) of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) processes is described in this paper. Operational full-scale biological water resource recovery systems treating municipal sewerage demonstrate that medium-bubble air diffusion networks designed using the method presented here provide reliable service. Further improvement is possible, however, as knowledge gaps prevent more rational process designs...
November 17, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149876/impact-of-donor-graft-quality-on-deep-anterior-lamellar-keratoplasty-dalk
#5
Friederike Schaub, Philip Enders, Werner Adler, Björn O Bachmann, Claus Cursiefen, Ludwig M Heindl
BACKGROUND: To evaluate main features of donor tissue that may influence clinical outcome or complication rate after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). METHODS: Donor tissue parameters of 84 consecutive corneal donor grafts used for big-bubble DALK surgery between June 2011 and December 2014 in 84 eyes of 84 patients with disorders of anterior corneal stroma were correlated to clinical outcome parameters of recipient eyes 12 months after surgery and 3 months after total suture removal...
November 17, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149344/application-of-droplet-detectors-to-alpha-radiation-detection
#6
T Morlat, A C Fernandes, M Felizardo, A Kling, T A Girard, J G Marques, F P Carvalho
Superheated droplet detectors (SDDs) are traditionally employed in the detection of neutrons. In this work the focus is on the detection of alpha particles using C2ClF5 as the target liquid. The alpha-droplet interaction is examined via computational studies, and a geometric model developed to describe the expected detector response. Experiments with alpha-emitting uranium- and samarium-doped SDDs at temperatures of 5-12°C confirm that the event rate is related to the size of the droplets, and are in model agreement for temperatures below 8°C; above this temperature, the acoustic sensitivity is reduced by signal attenuation as a result of the increasing bubble population, for which the addition of an attenuation coefficient restores the agreement with experiment...
November 15, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148713/wireless-acoustic-surface-actuators-for-miniaturized-endoscopes
#7
Tian Qiu, Fabian Adams, Stefano Palagi, Kai Melde, Andrew G Mark, Ulrich Wetterauer, Arkadiusz Miernik, Peer Fischer
Endoscopy enables minimally invasive procedures in many medical fields, such as urology. However, current endoscopes are normally cable-driven, which limits their dexterity and makes them hard to miniaturize. Indeed current urological endoscopes have an outer diameter of about 3 mm and still only possess one bending degree of freedom. In this paper, we report a novel wireless actuation mechanism that increases the dexterity and that permits the miniaturization of a urological endoscope. The novel actuator consists of thin active surfaces that can be readily attached to any device and are wirelessly powered by ultrasound...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148219/breaking-free-from-vascular-confinement-status-and-prospects-for-submicron-ultrasound-contrast-agents
#8
REVIEW
Carly Pellow, David E Goertz, Gang Zheng
The development of encapsulated microbubbles (~1-6 μm) has expanded the utility of ultrasound from soft tissue anatomical imaging to not only functional intravascular imaging, but therapeutic interventions, with compelling studies of elicited biological effects. The large diameter of these bubbles has confined their utility to the vasculature, but converging interdisciplinary research pathways are giving rise to new submicron ultrasound contrast agents capable of extending their effects beyond the vascular compartment...
November 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147983/dynamics-of-microbial-biomass-and-community-composition-after-short-term-water-status-change-in-chinese-paddy-soils
#9
Hongkai Liao, Stephen James Chapman, Yaying Li, Huaiying Yao
Paddy soil experiences repeated anaerobic and aerobic changes during rice growth, the dramatic dynamics of soil water status accompanied by changes in redox condition and O2 availability. However, the effect of rapid water status change on soil microbial biomass and community composition is not well explored. Here, we present a comprehensive study focusing on the short-term water status change in 13 Chinese paddy soils. In order to gain a reliable way to determine soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in flooded or water-saturated soils, we also evaluated two different procedures (nitrogen bubbled and 100 °C water bath) to remove chloroform in extracts during the fumigation process...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146933/coupled-motion-of-contact-line-on-nanoscale-chemically-heterogeneous-surfaces-for-improved-bubble-dynamics-in-boiling
#10
Arvind Jaikumar, Satish G Kandlikar
We demonstrate that the contact line (CL) motion on energetically heterogeneous solid surfaces occurs in a coupled fashion as against the traditional staggered stick-slip motion. Introducing chemical inhomogeneities at nanoscale induces a local change in dynamic contact angles which manifests as a smooth and continuous motion of the CL. Nanoscale chemically inhomogeneous surfaces comprising of gold, palladium and nickel were generated on copper substrates to demonstrate the underlying CL dynamics. The spatial variations of chemical constituents were mapped using elemental display scanning electron microscope images...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146917/flow-behavior-of-n2-huff-and-puff-process-for-enhanced-oil-recovery-in-tight-oil-reservoirs
#11
Teng Lu, Zhaomin Li, Jian Li, Dawei Hou, Dingyong Zhang
In the present work, the potential of N2 huff and puff process to enhance the recovery of tight oil reservoir was evaluated. N2 huff and puff experiments were performed in micromodels and cores to investigate the flow behaviors of different cycles. The results showed that, in the first cycle, N2 was dispersed in the oil, forming the foamy oil flow. In the second cycle, the dispersed gas bubbles gradually coalesced into the continuous gas phase. In the third cycle, N2 was produced in the form of continuous gas phase...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146810/catalytic-molten-metals-for-the-direct-conversion-of-methane-to-hydrogen-and-separable-carbon
#12
D Chester Upham, Vishal Agarwal, Alexander Khechfe, Zachary R Snodgrass, Michael J Gordon, Horia Metiu, Eric W McFarland
Metals that are active catalysts for methane (Ni, Pt, Pd), when dissolved in inactive low-melting temperature metals (In, Ga, Sn, Pb), produce stable molten metal alloy catalysts for pyrolysis of methane into hydrogen and carbon. All solid catalysts previously used for this reaction have been deactivated by carbon deposition. In the molten alloy system, the insoluble carbon floats to the surface where it can be skimmed off. A 27% Ni-73% Bi alloy achieved 95% methane conversion at 1065°C in a 1.1-meter bubble column and produced pure hydrogen without CO2 or other by-products...
November 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145881/multiple-small-hemorrhagic-infarcts-in-cerebral-air-embolism-a-case-report
#13
Masaya Togo, Taku Hoshi, Ryosuke Matsuoka, Yukihiro Imai, Nobuo Kohara
BACKGROUND: Cerebral air embolism is a rare cause of cerebral infarction. In cerebral air embolism, T2 star-weighted imaging shows numerous spotty hypointense signals. Previous reports have suggested that these signals represent air in the brain and are gradually diminished and absorbed. We experienced two cases of cerebral air embolism, and in one of them, we conducted an autopsy. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 76-year-old Japanese man with lung cancer and emphysema...
November 16, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143191/evaluation-of-the-solitary-pulmonary-nodule-size-matters-but-do-not-ignore-the-power-of-morphology
#14
REVIEW
Annemie Snoeckx, Pieter Reyntiens, Damien Desbuquoit, Maarten J Spinhoven, Paul E Van Schil, Jan P van Meerbeeck, Paul M Parizel
Subsequent to the widespread use of multidetector computed tomography and growing interest in lung cancer screening, small pulmonary nodules are more frequently detected. The differential diagnosis for a solitary pulmonary nodule is extremely broad and includes both benign and malignant causes. Recognition of early lung cancers is vital, since stage at diagnosis is crucial for prognosis. Estimation of the probability of malignancy is a challenging task, but crucial for follow-up and further work-up. In addition to the clinical setting and metabolic assessment, morphological assessment on thin-section computed tomography is essential...
November 15, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142385/blowing-bubbles-helps-intubation
#15
David Howe
Rocuronium is commonly used in preference to suxamethonium for rapid sequence induction in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We describe a patient who suffered significant neck trauma following a suicide attempt. On initial presentation to accident and emergency, he was an easy intubation with a Grade 1 view obtained at laryngoscopy. After surgery to repair his neck laceration, he was extubated and discharged from ICU. He later developed a severe aspiration pneumonia and required reintubation. After induction and paralysis with suxamethonium, the best view at laryngoscopy was a Grade 3 despite the use of different laryngoscopes...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141114/ph-ultrasound-dual-responsive-gas-generator-for-ultrasound-imaging-guided-therapeutic-inertial-cavitation-and-sonodynamic-therapy
#16
Qianhua Feng, Wanxia Zhang, Xuemei Yang, Yuzhen Li, Yongwei Hao, Hongling Zhang, Lin Hou, Zhenzhong Zhang
Herein, a pH/ultrasound dual-responsive gas generator is reported, which is based on mesoporous calcium carbonate (MCC) nanoparticles by loading sonosensitizer (hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)) and modifying surface hyaluronic acid (HA). After pinpointing tumor regions with prominent targeting efficiency, HMME/MCC-HA decomposes instantaneously under the cotriggering of tumoral inherent acidic condition and ultrasound (US) irradiation, concurrently accompanying with CO2 generation and HMME release with spatial/temporal resolution...
November 15, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140865/influence-of-syringe-volume-on-foam-stability-in-sclerotherapy-for-varicose-vein-treatment
#17
Taoping Bai, Wentao Jiang, Yubo Fan
BACKGROUND: Despite the popularity of sclerotherapy for treating varicose veins, it still exhibits various problems, such as pulmonary embolism, deep-vein thrombosis, phlebitis, and visual disorders. OBJECTIVE: To investigate syringe volume influence on foam stability, obtain the foam decay rule, and provide a reference for clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five types of syringes are used to prepare foam at room temperature with various liquid-gas ratios...
November 14, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140346/performance-evaluation-of-underwater-optical-communications-using-spatial-modes-subjected-to-bubbles-and-obstructions
#18
Yifan Zhao, Andong Wang, Long Zhu, Weichao Lv, Jing Xu, Shuhui Li, Jian Wang
Spatial modes have attracted increasing interest in free-space and fiber-based optical communications. Underwater wireless optical communication is becoming a promising technique in marine exploration. Here we investigate the underwater wireless optical communications using different spatial modes, i.e., traditional Gaussian modes, orbital angular momentum modes having helical phase fronts, and diffraction-free and obstruction-tolerant Bessel modes. We evaluate the underwater transmission performance of three spatial modes subjected to dynamic bubbles, which cause similar power fluctuations, regardless of spatial modes...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140136/salt-glycerol-induced-hyperhydration-enhances-fluid-retention-more-than-salt-or-glycerol-induced-hyperhydration
#19
Eric D B Goulet, Adrien De La Flore, Félix A Savoie, Jonathan Gosselin
Hyperhydration has been demonstrated to improve work capacity and cardiovascular and thermoregulatory functions, enhance orthostatic tolerance, slow or neutralize bone demineralization and decrease post-dive bubble formation. Adding sodium or glycerol to a hyperhydration solution optimizes fluid retention. Sodium and glycerol produce their effect through different physiological mechanisms. If combined into a hyperhydration solution their impact on fluid retention could potentially be greater than their singular effect...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138909/improvement-of-biosynthesis-and-accumulation-of-bioactive-compounds-by-elicitation-in-adventitious-root-cultures-of-polygonum-multiflorum
#20
Thanh-Tam Ho, Jong-Du Lee, Cheol-Seung Jeong, Kee-Yoeup Paek, So-Young Park
We examined the effects of abiotic (methyl jasmonate [MeJA] and salicylic acid [SA]) and biotic (yeast extract and chitosan) elicitors for improvement of bioactive compounds production on adventitious root cultures in Polygonum multiflorum. The application of yeast extract resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher dry root biomass (9.98 g/L) and relative growth rate versus the control. Cultures treated with abiotic elicitors showed higher percentage of dry weight than the other samples. Low concentrations of all elicitors (50 μM MeJA and SA, and 50 mg/L yeast extract) improved secondary metabolite production except for chitosan, whose performance was worse than that of the control...
November 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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