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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532662/molecular-design-of-flotation-collectors-a-recent-progress
#1
REVIEW
Guangyi Liu, Xianglin Yang, Hong Zhong
The nature of froth flotation is to selectively hydrophobize valuable minerals by collector adsorption so that the hydrophobized mineral particles can attach air bubbles. In recent years, the increasing commercial production of refractory complex ores has been urgent to develop special collectors for enhancing flotation separation efficiency of valuable minerals from these ores. Molecular design methods offer an effective way for understanding the structure-property relationship of flotation collectors and developing new ones...
May 10, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531363/beneficial-effect-of-enriched-air-nitrox-on-bubble-formation-during-scuba-diving-an-open-water-study
#2
Anne-Kathrin Brebeck, Andreas Deussen, Ursula Range, Costantino Balestra, Sinclair Cleveland, Jochen D Schipke
Bubble formation during scuba diving might induce decompression sickness. This prospective randomised and double-blind study included 108 advanced recreational divers (38 females). Fifty-four pairs of divers, 1 breathing air and the other breathing nitrox28 undertook a standardised dive (24 ± 1 msw; 62 ± 5min) in the Red Sea. Venous gas bubbles were counted (Doppler) 30-<45 min (early) and 45-60 min (late) post-dive at jugular, subclavian and femoral sites. Only 7% (air) vs. 11% (air28®) (n.s.) were bubble-free after a dive...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530818/metal-foam-based-ultrafast-electronucleation-of-hydrates-at-low-voltages
#3
Arjang Shahriari, Palash Vadiraj Acharya, Katherine Carpenter, Vaibhav Bahadur
The induction time for the nucleation of hydrates can be significantly reduced by electronucleation, which consists of applying an electrical potential across the hydrate precursor solution. This study reveals that open-cell aluminum foam electrodes can reduce the electronucleation induction time by 150X, when compared to non-foam electrodes. Experiments with tetrahydrofuran hydrates show that aluminum foam electrodes trigger near-instantaneous nucleation (in only 10's of seconds) at low voltages. Furthermore, this study suggests that two distinct interfacial mechanisms influence electronucleation, namely electrolytic bubble generation, and the formation of metal ion complex-based coordination compounds...
May 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529631/theranostic-performance-of-acoustic-nanodroplet-vaporization-generated-bubbles-in-tumor-intertissue
#4
Yi-Ju Ho, Chih-Kuang Yeh
Solid tumors with poorly perfused regions reveal some of the treatment limitations that restrict drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy. Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) has been applied to directly disrupt vessels and release nanodroplets, ADV-generated bubbles (ADV-Bs), and drugs into tumor tissue. In this study, we investigated the in vivo behavior of ADV-Bs stimulated by US, and evaluated the possibility of moving intertissue ADV-Bs into the poorly perfused regions of solid tumors. Intravital imaging revealed intertissue ADV-B formation, movement, and cavitation triggered by US, where the distance of intertissue ADV-B movement was 33-99 µm per pulse...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528785/resonance-tube-phonation-in-water-the-effect-of-tube-diameter-and-water-depth-on-back-pressure-and-bubble-characteristics-at-different-airflows
#5
Greta Wistbacka, Pedro Amarante Andrade, Susanna Simberg, Britta Hammarberg, Maria Södersten, Jan G Švec, Svante Granqvist
OBJECTIVES: Resonance tube phonation with tube end in water is a voice therapy method in which the patient phonates through a glass tube, keeping the free end of the tube submerged in water, creating bubbles. The purpose of this experimental study was to determine flow-pressure relationship, flow thresholds between bubble types, and bubble frequency as a function of flow and back volume. METHODS: A flow-driven vocal tract simulator was used for recording the back pressure produced by resonance tubes with inner diameters of 8 and 9 mm submerged at water depths of 0-7 cm...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524721/thermoresponsive-pegylated-bubble-liposome-nanovectors-for-efficient-sirna-delivery-via-endosomal-escape
#6
Kholod Alamoudi, Patricia Martins, Jonas G Croissant, Sachin Patil, Haneen Omar, Niveen M Khashab
AIM: Improving the delivery of siRNA into cancer cells via bubble liposomes. Designing a thermoresponsive pegylated liposome through the introduction of ammonium bicarbonate salt into liposomes so as to control their endosomal escape for gene therapy. METHODS: A sub-200 nm nanovector was fully characterized and examined for cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, endosomal escape and gene silencing. RESULTS: The siRNA-liposomes were internalized into cancer cells within 5 min and then released siRNAs in the cytosol prior to lysosomal degradation upon external temperature elevation...
May 19, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521998/co2-switchable-behavior-of-chitosan-g-poly-2-dimethylamino-ethyl-methacrylate-as-an-emulsifier
#7
Yeong-Tarng Shieh, Yen-Tzu Lin, Chih-Chia Cheng
Chitosan-g-poly[(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] was investigated as a CO2-switchable emulsifier in this study. Poly(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA) was prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization followed by grafting to chitosan (CS). The CO2-responsiveness and reversible CO2-switchable temperature- and pH-sensitive behavior of PDMAEMA and CS-g-PDMAEMA were investigated as emulsifiers via simple CO2 and N2 bubbling. The lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) of PDMAEMA and CS-g-PDMAEMA aqueous solutions both increased as pH decreased to about pH 7...
August 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521731/working-in-dissonance-experiences-of-work-instability-in-workers-with-common-mental-disorders
#8
Louise Danielsson, Monica Bertilsson, Kristina Holmgren, Gunnel Hensing
BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders have a negative impact on work functioning, but less is known about the process when the functioning starts to destabilize. This study explores experiences of work instability in workers with common mental disorders. METHODS: A grounded theory study using a theoretical sampling frame, individual in-depth interviews and a constant comparative analysis conducted by a multidisciplinary research team. The sample involved 27 workers with common mental disorders, currently working full or part time, or being on sick leave not more than 6 months...
May 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521161/visible-light-photo-fenton-oxidation-of-phenol-with-rgo-%C3%AE-feooh-supported-on-al-doped-mesoporous-silica-mcm-41-at-neutral-ph-performance-and-optimization-of-the-catalyst
#9
Ying Wang, Mingxing Liang, Jiasheng Fang, Jun Fu, Xiaochun Chen
In this study, α-FeOOH on reduced graphene oxide (rGO-α-FeOOH) supported on an Al-doped MCM-41 catalyst (RFAM) was optimized for the visible-light photo-Fenton oxidation of phenol at neutral pH. The stability of the catalysts, effect of bubbling aeration, and degradation intermediates were investigated. Results indicated that RFAM with a large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) area and mesoporous structure displayed excellent catalytic activity for the visible-light-driven (VLD) photo-Fenton process. Phenol degradation was well described by a pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics model...
May 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520431/anomalous-behavior-of-ultra-low-amplitude-capillary-waves-a-glimpse-of-the-viscoelastic-properties-of-interfacial-water
#10
Antonio Raudino, Domenica Raciti, Mario Corti
We investigate, both theoretically and by a differential interferometric technique, the behavior of large-wavelength capillary waves (of order of 10^-4 m) selectively excited at the surface of drops and bubbles with typical eigenfrequencies of order of 10^2 Hz. The resonance peaks of gas bubbles or hydrocarbon drops in water (radius less than 1 mm) highlight anomalously small dissipation in the region of ultra-low (sub-nanometric) oscillation amplitudes, reaching a plateau at higher amplitudes. This is in sharp contrast to the usual oscillating systems, where an anomalous behavior holds at large amplitudes alone...
May 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517999/venous-gas-emboli-and-ambulation-at-4-3-psia
#11
Johnny Conkin, Neal W Pollock, Michael J Natoli, Stefanie D Martina, James H Wessel, Michael L Gernhardt
INTRODUCTION: Ambulation during extravehicular activity on Mars may increase the risk of decompression sickness through enhanced bubble formation in the lower body. HYPOTHESES: walking effort (ambulation) before an exercise-enhanced denitrogenation (prebreathe) protocol at 14.7 psia does not increase the incidence of venous gas emboli (VGE) at 4.3 psia, but does increase incidence if performed after tissues become supersaturated with nitrogen at 4.3 psia. METHODS: VGE results from 45 control subjects who performed exercise prebreathe without ambulation before or during a 4-h exposure to 4...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516776/electrochemical-generation-of-individual-o2-nanobubbles-via-h2o2-oxidation
#12
Hang Ren, Sean R German, Martin A Edwards, Qianjin Chen, Henry S White
The nucleation and dynamics of gas bubbles are of fundamental interest. Herein, we use Pt nanodisk electrodes (apparent radii from 4 to 80 nm) to investigate the nucleation of individual O2 nanobubbles generated by electrooxidation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A single bubble reproducibly nucleates when the dissolved O2 concentration reaches ~0.17 M at the Pt electrode surface. This nucleation concentration is ~130 times higher than the equilibrium saturation concentration of O2 and is independent of electrode size...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515431/early-onset-of-nucleate-boiling-on-gas-covered-biphilic-surfaces
#13
Biao Shen, Masayuki Yamada, Sumitomo Hidaka, Jiewei Liu, Junichiro Shiomi, Gustav Amberg, Minh Do-Quang, Masamichi Kohno, Koji Takahashi, Yasuyuki Takata
For phase-change cooling schemes for electronics, quick activation of nucleate boiling helps safeguard the electronics components from thermal shocks associated with undesired surface superheating at boiling incipience, which is of great importance to the long-term system stability and reliability. Previous experimental studies show that bubble nucleation can occur surprisingly early on mixed-wettability surfaces. In this paper, we report unambiguous evidence that such unusual bubble generation at extremely low temperatures-even below the boiling point-is induced by a significant presence of incondensable gas retained by the hydrophobic surface, which exhibits exceptional stability even surviving extensive boiling deaeration...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514060/improved-in-tube-electro-membrane-extraction-followed-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-simple-and-selective-determination-of-ionic-compounds-optimization-by-central-composite-design
#14
Mohammad Bazregar, Maryam Rajabi, Yadollah Yamini, Alireza Asghari
In this work, an efficient sample clean-up method named in-tube electro-membrane extraction is modified to resolve the formation of bubbles in the extraction process. This modified method is applied for the extraction of two model analytes including tartrazine and sunset yellow from food samples. The method is based upon the electro-kinetic migration of ionized compounds by the application of an electrical potential difference, and on this basis, the analytes under investigation, as anionic compounds, simply migrate from the donor phase, and are concentrated in the acceptor phase...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513733/polylactic-acid-nano-and-microchamber-arrays-for-encapsulation-of-small-hydrophilic-molecules-featuring-drug-release-via-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound
#15
Meiyu Gai, Johannes Frueh, Tianyi Tao, Arseniy V Petrov, Vladimir V Petrov, Evgeniy V Shesterikov, Sergei I Tverdokhlebov, Gleb B Sukhorukov
Long term encapsulation combined with spatiotemporal release for a precisely defined quantity of small hydrophilic molecules on demand remains a challenge in various fields ranging from medical drug delivery, controlled release of catalysts to industrial anti-corrosion systems. Free-standing individually sealed polylactic acid (PLA) nano- and microchamber arrays were produced by one-step dip-coating a PDMS stamp into PLA solution for 5 s followed by drying under ambient conditions. The wall thickness of these hydrophobic nano-microchambers is tunable from 150 nm to 7 μm by varying the PLA solution concentration...
May 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513729/stable-small-bubble-clusters-in-two-dimensional-foams
#16
Kai Zhang, Chin-Chang Kuo, Nathaniel See, Corey O'Hern, Michael Dennin
Key features of the mechanical response of amorphous particulate materials, such as foams, emulsions, and granular media, to applied stress are determined by the frequency and size of particle rearrangements that occur as the system transitions from one mechanically stable state to another. This work describes coordinated experimental and computational studies of bubble rafts, which are quasi-two dimensional systems of bubbles confined to the air-water interface. We focus on small mechanically stable clusters of four, five, six, and seven bubbles with two different sizes with diameter ratio σL/σS ≃ 1...
May 17, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513472/experimental-and-numerical-studies-of-beetle-inspired-flapping-wing-in-hovering-flight
#17
Tien Van Truong, Tuyen Quang Le, Hoon Cheol Park, Doyoung Byun
In this paper, we measure unsteady forces and visualize 3D vortices around a beetle-like flapping wing model in hovering flight by experiment and numerical simulation. The measurement of unsteady forces and flow patterns around the wing were conducted using a dynamically scaled wing model in the mineral-oil tank. The wing kinematics were directly derived from the experiment of a real beetle. The 3D flow structures of the flapping wing were captured by using air bubble visualization while forces were measured by a sensor attached at the wing base...
May 17, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511939/droplet-and-bubble-formation-of-combined-oil-and-gas-releases-in-subsea-blowouts
#18
Lin Zhao, Michel C Boufadel, Thomas King, Brian Robinson, Feng Gao, Scott A Socolofsky, Kenneth Lee
Underwater blowouts from gas and oil operations often involve the simultaneous release of oil and gas. Presence of gas bubbles in jets/plumes could greatly influence oil droplet formation. With the aim of understanding and quantifying the droplet formation from Deepwater Horizon blowout (DWH) we developed a new formulation for gas-oil interaction with jets/plumes. We used the jet-droplet formation model VDROP-J with the new module and the updated model was validated against laboratory and field experimental data...
May 13, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510305/reactive-precipitation-of-anhydrous-alkali-sulfide-nanocrystals-with-concomitant-abatement-of-hydrogen-sulfide-and-co-generation-of-hydrogen
#19
Yongan Yang, Xuemin Li, Yangzhi Zhao, Alice Brennan, Miranda McCeig, Colin A Wolden
Anhydrous alkali sulfide (M2S, M = Li and Na) nanocrystals (NCs) are important materials central to the development of next generation cathodes and solid state electrolytes for advanced batteries, but not commercially available at present. This work reports an innovative method to directly synthesize M2S-NCs through alcohol-mediated reactions between alkali metals and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In the first step, the alkali metal is complexed with alcohol in solution, forming metal alkoxide (ROM) and releasing hydrogen (H2)...
May 16, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508524/co2-triggered-co-assembled-nanotubes-with-controlled-chirality-through-a-co2-bubble-induced-vortex
#20
Ling Zhang, Laicheng Zhou, Na Xu, Zhenjie Ouyang
The design of co-organized nanotube systems with controlled nanoscale chirality that are responsive to the liquid flow field induced by bubbling external gas in aqueous media remains a significant challenge. Here, we report success in utilizing the liquid vortexes induced by bubbling carbon dioxide (CO2) gas to stimulate the formation of nanotubes with controlled chirality based on the co-assembly of two kinds of achiral cationic building blocks in aqueous solution. The results reveal that CO2-triggered nanotube formation occurs via the formation of short helical ribbons and short tubules as metastable intermediate structures, and via transition from short tubules to long tubules based on chirality match self-assembly...
May 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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