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Chunhui Zhang, Bo Zhang, Hongyu Ma, Zhe Li, Xiao Xiao, Yuheng Zhang, Xinyu Cui, Cunming Yu, Moyuan Cao, Lei Jiang
Bio-surfaces with geometry-gradient structures or special wettabilities demonstrate intriguing performance in manipulating the behaviors of versatile fluids. By mimicking natural species, i.e., the cactus spine with a shape-gradient morphology and the Picher plant with a lubricated inner surface, we have successfully prepared an asymmetric slippery surface by following the processes of CO2-laser cutting, superhydrophobic modification, and the fluorinert infusion. The asymmetric morphology will cause the deformation of gas bubbles and subsequently engender an asymmetric driven force on them...
January 18, 2018: ACS Nano
Kenneth Petroski, Shannon Poges, Chris Monteleone, Joseph Grady, Ram Bhatt, Steven L Suib
The chemical vapor infiltration technique is one of the most popular for the fabrication of the matrix portion of a ceramic matrix composite. This work focuses on tailoring an atmospheric pressure deposition of silicon carbide onto carbon fiber tows using the methyltrichlorosilane (CH3SiCl3) and H2 deposition system at atmospheric pressure to create minicomposites faster than low pressure systems. Adjusting the flow rate of H2 bubbled through CH3SiCl3 will improve the uniformity of the deposition as well as infiltrate the substrate more completely as the flow rate is decreased...
January 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Katherine Graham, Linsey C Marr, Lauren M Sassoubre, Alexandria B Boehm
We characterized the microbial communities in SSA, water, and sand of three beaches in central California (Cowell Beach, Baker Beach, and Lovers Point) by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Average concentrations of 16S rRNA genes in SSA ranged from 2.4 × 104 to 1.4 × 105 gene copies per m3 of air. A total of 9,781 distinct OTUs were identified in SSA and of these, 1,042 OTUs were found in SSA of all beaches. SSA microbial communities included marine taxa, as well as some associated with the terrestrial environment...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Susana Pedraza-de la Cuesta, Lore Keijzers, Luuk A M van der Wielen, Maria C Cuellar
In multiphase fermentations where the product forms a second liquid phase or where solvents are added for product extraction, turbulent conditions disperse the oil phase as droplets. Surface-active components (SACs) present in the fermentation broth can stabilize the product droplets thus forming an emulsion. Breaking this emulsion increases process complexity and consequently the production cost. In previous works, it has been proposed to promote demulsification of oil/supernatant emulsions in an off-line batch bubble column operating at low gas flow rate...
January 18, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Meishuang Li, Yanan Wang, Yulong Chen, Zhenfa Zhang
BACKGROUND: Recent wide spread use of low-dose helical computed tomography for the screening of lung cancer have led to an increase in the detection rate of very faint and smaller lesions known as ground-glass opacity nodules. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical factors of lung cancer patients with solitary ground-glass opacity pulmonary nodules on computed tomography. METHODS: A total of 423 resected solitary ground-glass opacity nodules were retrospectively evaluated...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Liuyang Duan, Zhaoyao Zhou, Bibo Yao
There is an increasing interest in developing porous metals or metallic foams for functional and structural applications. The study of the physical and mechanical properties of porous metals is very important and helpful for their application. In this paper, a novel sintered multilayer wire mesh porous plate material (WMPPs) with a thickness of 0.5 mm-3 mm and a porosity of 10-35% was prepared by winding, pressing, rolling, and subsequently vacuum sintering them. The pore size and total size distribution in the as-prepared samples were investigated using the bubble point method...
January 17, 2018: Materials
M P Tooley, B Ersfeld, S R Yoffe, A Noble, E Brunetti, Z M Sheng, M R Islam, D A Jaroszynski
Self-injection in a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator is usually achieved by increasing the laser intensity until the threshold for injection is exceeded. Alternatively, the velocity of the bubble accelerating structure can be controlled using plasma density ramps, reducing the electron velocity required for injection. We present a model describing self-injection in the short-bunch regime for arbitrary changes in the plasma density. We derive the threshold condition for injection due to a plasma density gradient, which is confirmed using particle-in-cell simulations that demonstrate injection of subfemtosecond bunches...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Irma Liascukiene, Gabriel Amselem, Deniz Z Gunes, Charles N Baroud
Foams can be stabilized for long periods by the adsorption of solid particles on the liquid-gas interfaces. Although such long-term observations are common, mechanistic descriptions of the particle adsorption process are scarce, especially in confined flows, in part due to the difficulty of observing the particles in the complex gas-liquid dispersion of a foam. Here, we characterise the adsorption of micron-scale particles onto the interface of a bubble flowing in a colloidal aqueous suspension within a microfluidic channel...
January 17, 2018: Soft Matter
Jiale Yong, Feng Chen, Jinglan Huo, Yao Fang, Qing Yang, Jingzhou Zhang, Xun Hou
Controlling underwater bubble behavior on a solid surface is of great research significance, particularly in extreme cases. However, the realization of artificial underwater superaerophobic or superaerophilic surfaces is still a challenge. Herein, a micro/nanoscale hierarchical rough structure was formed on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface by one-step femtosecond laser ablation. The as-prepared surface showed superhydrophobicity in air and superaerophilicity in water. Interestingly, the wettability of such a PDMS surface could be easily switched to in-air superhydrophilicity and underwater superaerophobicity once it was further irradiated by oxygen plasma because the surface chemistry changed...
January 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Tschung-Il Kim, Hyunju Park, Mooyoung Han
In this study, we developed a customized low cost and low energy bubble generator that can control bubble size. Hence, it can be used not only in the water treatment process but also in various other processes. This device was able to generate bubbles with a very simple system using only a general pump and a mixing chamber. Increasing the number of partition walls in the mixing chamber reduced the bubble size. Furthermore, bubbles of a few hundred nanometers were produced by the shear stress caused by increasing the thickness of the partition wall...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Pia Leon, Mohit Parekh, Yoav Nahum, Michael Mimouni, Giuseppe Giannaccare, Laura Sapigni, Alessandro Ruzza, Massimo Busin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the risk factors for early graft detachment in Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK). DESIGN: Case-control Study. METHODS: ▪ PARTICIPANTS: 173 donor corneas and 173 eyes of the patients following DMEK or DMEK in combination with phacoemulsification and IOL implantation were included. INTERVENTION: Pre-stripped DMEK grafts were transplanted using pull-through technique. At the end of surgery, the anterior chamber was filled with air, which was removed 3 hours later only if pupillary block was suspected...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Nicolas Cassar, Weiyi Tang, Hans Gabathuler, Kuan Huang
Because of the difficulty in resolving the large variability of N2 fixation with current methods which rely on discrete sampling, the development of new methods for high resolution measurements is highly desirable. We present a new method for high-frequency measurements of aquatic N2 fixation by continuous flow-through incubations and spectral monitoring of the acetylene (C2H2, a substrate analog for N2) reduction to ethylene (C2H4). In this method, named "Flow-through incubation Acetylene Reduction Assays by Cavity ring-down laser Absorption Spectros-copy" (FARACAS), dissolved C2H2 is continuously admixed with seawater upstream of a continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CFSR) in which C2H2 reduction takes place...
January 17, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Ali Faisal Saleem, Ondrej Mach, Attaullah Baig, Roland W Sutter, Anita K M Zaidi
Background: Administration of intradermal fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (fIPV) has proven to be safe and immunogenic; however, its intradermal application using needle and syringe is technically difficult and requires trained personnel. Methods: We assessed feasibility of conducting an intradermal fIPV campaign in polio high risk neighborhood of Karachi using Tropis needle-free injector. During the one-day fIPV campaign, we measured average "application time" to administer fIPV with Tropis, collected ergonomic information and measured vaccine wastage...
August 2017: Heliyon
Qihui Fan, Wenqi Hu, Aaron T Ohta
Localized single cells can be lysed precisely and selectively using microbubbles optothermally generated by microsecond laser pulses. The shear stress from the microstreaming surrounding laser-induced microbubbles and direct contact with the surface of expanding bubbles cause the rupture of targeted cell membranes. High-resolution single-cell lysis is demonstrated: cells adjacent to targeted cells are not lysed. It is also shown that only a portion of the cell membrane can be punctured using this method. Both suspension and adherent cell types can be lysed in this system, and cell manipulation can be integrated for cell-cell interaction studies...
April 2017: Micromachines
Xiangyu Guo, Hua Bai, Yueguang Lv, Guangcheng Xi, Junfang Li, Xiaoxiao Ma, Yue Ren, Zheng Ouyang, Qiang Ma
Rapid, on-site analysis was achieved through significantly simplified operation procedures for a wide variety of toy samples (crayon, temporary tattoo sticker, finger paint, modeling clay, and bubble solution) using a miniature mass spectrometry system with ambient ionization capability. The labor-intensive analytical protocols involving sample workup and chemical separation, traditionally required for MS-based analysis, were replaced by direct sampling analysis using ambient ionization methods. A Mini β ion trap miniature mass spectrometer was coupled with versatile ambient ionization methods, e...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
L López-Rosales, A Sánchez-Mirón, F García-Camacho, A R Place, Yusuf Chisti, E Molina-Grima
A pilot-scale bioprocess was developed for the production of karlotoxin-enriched extracts of the marine algal dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum. A bubble column and a flat-panel photobioreactors (80-281 L) were used for comparative assessment of growth. Flow hydrodynamics and energy dissipation rates (EDR) in the bioreactors were characterized through robust computational fluid dynamic simulations. All cultures were conducted monoseptically outdoors. Bubble column (maximum cell productivity in semicontinuous operation of 58 × 103 cell mL-1 day-1) proved to be a better culture system for this alga...
December 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
M S Krivokorytov, Q Zeng, B V Lakatosh, A Yu Vinokhodov, Yu V Sidelnikov, V O Kompanets, V M Krivtsun, K N Koshelev, C D Ohl, V V Medvedev
Targeting micrometer sized metal droplets with near-infrared sub-picosecond laser pulses generates intense stress-confined acoustic waves within the droplet. Spherical focusing amplifies their pressures. The rarefaction wave nucleates cavitation at the center of the droplet, which explosively expands with a repeatable fragmentation scenario resulting into high-speed jetting. We predict the number of jets as a function of the laser energy by coupling the cavitation bubble dynamics with Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jonathan J Macoskey, Xi Zhang, Timothy L Hall, Jiaqi Shi, Shahaboddin Alahyari Beig, Eric Johnsen, Fred T Lee, Charles A Cain, Zhen Xu
Bubble-induced color Doppler (BCD) is a histotripsy-therapy monitoring technique that uses Doppler ultrasound to track the motion of residual cavitation nuclei that persist after the collapse of the histotripsy bubble cloud. In this study, BCD is used to monitor tissue fractionation during histotripsy tissue therapy, and the BCD signal is correlated with the destruction of structural and non-structural components identified histologically to further understand how BCD monitors the extent of treatment. A 500-kHz, 112-element phased histotripsy array is used to generate approximately 6- × 6- × 7-mm lesions within ex vivo bovine liver tissue by scanning more than 219 locations with 30-1000 pulses per location...
January 9, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Fernanda Bittencourt-Oliveira, Paulo Teixeira, Alba Alencar, Rodrigo Menezes, Christiane Corrêa, Leandro Neves, Fernanda Almeida, Daniel Daipert-Garcia, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Rosângela Rodrigues-Silva
Polycystic echinococcosis (PE) is caused by Echinococcus vogeli metacestodes (larval stage) in Neotropical countries. E. vogeli is trophically-transmitted between predators bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) and prey pacas (Cuniculus paca). In Brazil, reported PE cases are restricted to the Amazon biome. In this study, metacestodes from a paca hunted in Mato Grosso do Sul state (Cerrado biome) were identified morphological and histopathological techniques and further confirmed by molecular testing (sequencing of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene) for the first time...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Ke Xu, Roger Bonnecaze, Matthew Balhoff
We show that smaller gas bubbles grow at the expense of larger bubbles and all bubbles approach the same surface curvature after long times in porous media. This anticoarsening effect is contrary to typical Ostwald ripening and leads to uniformly sized bubbles in a homogeneous medium. Evolution dynamics of bubble populations were measured, and mathematical models were developed that fit the experimental data well. Ostwald ripening is shown to be the driving mechanism in this anticoarsening phenomenon; however, the relationship between surface curvature and bubble size determined by the pore-throat geometric confinement reverses the ripening direction...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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