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Oriol Blázquez, Gemma Martín, Ivan Camps, Antonio Mariscal, Julian López-Vidrier, Joan Manel Ramirez, Sergi Hernández, Sonia Estrade, Francesca Peiro, Rosalía Serna, Blas Garrido
The resistive switching properties of silicon-aluminium oxynitride (SiAlON) based devices have been studied. Electrical transport mechanisms at both resistance states were determined, exhibiting an ohmic behaviour at low resistant state and a defect-related Poole-Frenkel mechanism at high resistant state. Nevertheless, some features on the Al top-electrode are generated during the initial electroforming, suggesting some material modifications. An in-depth microscopic study at the nanoscale have been performed after the electroforming process, by acquiring scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images...
March 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Zhili Wan, Yingen Sun, Lulu Ma, Feibai Zhou, Jian Guo, Song-Qing Hu, Xiao-Quan Yang
Nanofibrils from self-assembly of the naturally occurring saponin glycyrrhizic acid (GA) can be used to create an oil-in-water emulsion foam with long-term stability. Through a homogenization and aeration followed by a rapid cooling, stable emulsion foams can be produced from the mixtures of sunflower oil and saponin nanofibrils. At high temperature, the GA fibrils form a multilayer assembly at the interface, creating an interfacial fibrillar network to stabilize the oil droplets and air bubbles generated during homogenization...
March 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Benzhong Zhao, Amir Alizadeh Pahlavan, Luis Cueto-Felgueroso, Ruben Juanes
Immiscible fluid-fluid displacement in partial wetting continues to challenge our microscopic and macroscopic descriptions. Here, we study the displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous fluid in a circular capillary tube in the partial wetting regime. In contrast with the classic results for complete wetting, we show that the presence of a moving contact line induces a wetting transition at a critical capillary number that is contact angle dependent. At small displacement rates, the fluid-fluid interface deforms slightly from its equilibrium state and moves downstream at a constant velocity, without changing its shape...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Mark Hindmarsh
A model for the acoustic production of gravitational waves at a first-order phase transition is presented. The source of gravitational radiation is the sound waves generated by the explosive growth of bubbles of the stable phase. The model assumes that the sound waves are linear and that their power spectrum is determined by the characteristic form of the sound shell around the expanding bubble. The predicted power spectrum has two length scales, the average bubble separation and the sound shell width when the bubbles collide...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jun Ma, Bin Chen, Dong Li, Yue Zhang, Zhaoxia Ying
Port-wine stain (PWS) birthmark is a congenital microvascular malformation of the skin. A 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser can achieve a deeper treatment, but the weak absorption by blood limits its clinical application. Multiple laser pulses (MLPs) are a potential solution to enhance the curative effect of a Nd:YAG laser. To reduce the pulse number (pn ) required for the thermal destruction of the blood vessel, the effect of glucose in conjunction with MLP was investigated. In vivo experiments were performed on a dorsal skin chamber model...
March 14, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Ralf C Buckley
Achievements and capabilities influence the self-esteem of skilled adventure athletes. Self-esteem affects individual mental health. Aging commonly reduces adventure capabilities. To avoid loss in self-esteem, aging adventure athletes are forced to adjust their aspirations. Here, I examine this process using participant observation, ethnographic and autoethnographic approaches. The qualitative data for this analysis are derived from 60 years' experience in outdoor adventure activities, and ∼30,000 person-hours of participant observation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Keigo Nakamura, Tetsuya Hisanaga, Koichi Fujimoto, Keiji Nakajima, Hirofumi Wada
The female sex organ of the liverwort ( Marchantia polymorpha ) has a characteristic parasol-like form highly suitable for collecting water droplets containing sperm for fertilization. Motivated by this observation and using three-dimensional printing techniques, we develop a parasol-like rigid object that can grab, transport and release water droplets of a maximum size of about 1 cm. By combining experiments and scaling theory, we quantify the object's fundamental wetting and fluid dynamical properties. We construct a stability phase diagram and suggest that it is largely insensitive to properties of liquids such as surface tension and viscosity...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Victoria J Cunningham, Emma C Giakoumatos, Melissa Marks, Steven P Armes, Erica J Wanless
High-speed video analysis has enabled the interaction between a pair of millimetre-sized air bubbles to be studied in aqueous solution. The bubbles were grown in the presence of either poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PBzMA) diblock copolymer spheres or poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA-PBzMA) triblock copolymer worms prepared by polymerisation-induced self-assembly (PISA). A reduction in interfacial tension relative to air bubbles grown in the absence of nanoparticles indicated the adsorption of nanoparticles at the air-water interface...
March 14, 2018: Soft Matter
He Zhang, Jinglei Yang
Hollow glass bubbles (HGBs) with through-holes at micron level were fabricated by etching them using diluted 1% hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution in a specially designed reaction system. In this study, the function of each component in the system was carefully investigated and improved to realize the controllable etching process. Various parameters were investigated to explore the optimal etching condition. Highest gross yield of about 85% and effective yield of about 50% were obtained at the optimized etching condition...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
Jing Qi, Huachun Lan, Ruiping Liu, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu
The coagulation/flocculation/flotation (C/F/F) process is becoming a popular method for algae-laden water treatment. However, the efficiency of flotation is highly dependent on the ability of the preceding coagulation/flocculation process to form flocculated algae flocs. This study aims to improve the Microcystis aeruginosa flotation efficiency from algae cell and organic matter aspects by applying Fe(II)-regulated pretreatment enhanced Al coagulation process. The ability of the C/F/F process to remove cyanobacterial cells can be enhanced from 8% to 99% at a Fe(II) dose of 30 μM...
March 5, 2018: Water Research
Yi-Lun Ying, Yong-Xu Hu, Rui Gao, Ru-Jia Yu, Zhen Gu, Luke P Lee, Yi-Tao Long
Capturing real-time electron transfer, enzyme activity, molecular dynamics, and biochemical messengers in living cells is essential for un-derstanding the signaling pathways and cellular communications. However, there is no generalizable method for characterizing a broad range of redox-active species in a single living cell at the resolution of cellular compartments. Although nanoelectrodes have been applied in the intracellular detection of redox-active species, the fabrication of nanoelectrodes to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the probe remains challenging because of the stringent requirements of 3D fabrication...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yong Lei Wang, Ning Wang, Ruibao Jia, Kefeng Zhang, Baozhen Liu, Wuchang Song, Junqi Jia
Countercurrent-cocurrent dissolved air flotation (CCDAF), the popular water purification device, which consists of collision and adhesion contact zones, showed favorable flotation conditions for micro-bubble adhesion and stability. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation was employed to confirm that the unique CCDAF configuration create reasonable and that the flow field characteristics were good no matter for single phase or gas-liquid two-phase conditions. In addition, the turbulence of the flow field was enhanced with the increasing influent load; the swirling was remarkably reduced with the increase of gas holdup...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Dong-Heui Kwak, Mi-Sug Kim
Algae are considered water pollutants because they form algal blooms in stagnant water. Algae harvesting technology, however, can help convert them into a useful industrial material like biomass. The core technique (flocculation) separates microalgae from other flocculants, allowing for the harvest of clean and pure algal biomass. This study aims to estimate and evaluate algal separation (removal or harvesting) efficiency (X) to concurrently obtain the objectives of algal bloom management and algal particle collection...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Yanmei Sun, Shiwei Wang, Junfeng Niu
Microbes play important roles during river remediation and the interaction mechanism illustration between microorganisms and sewage is of great significance to improve restoration technology. In this study, micro-nano bubble and submerged resin floating bed composite technology (MBSR) was firstly used to restore two black and stinking urban rivers. After restoration, the water pollution indices such as dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH4 + -N), total phosphorous (TP), chemical oxygen demand (CODCr ), water clarity, and the number of facial coliform were significantly improved...
March 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Reiko Ashida, Ken-Ichi Kawabata, Takashi Maruoka, Kazuhiro Yamanaka, Hideki Yoshikawa, Tatsuya Ioka, Kazuhiro Katayama, Sachiko Tanaka
Bubble-seeded histotripsy (BSH) is a newly developed ultrasound-based mechanical fractionation technique using locally injected phase change nanodroplets (PCNDs) as sensitizers. The PCNDs are a kind of microbubble precursor compressed into submicron-size in droplets form, which were designed for local administration and will expand into microbubbles under ultrasound exposure. Previously, we reported that a combination of PCNDs injection and pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) with an acoustic intensity as low as about 3 kW/cm2 at 1...
March 7, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Chaliga Chiarathanakrit, Sa-Ad Riyajan, Kaewta Kaewtatip
In this work modified fish scale waste (FS) was used as a filler in order to improve the properties of starch foam prepared by a baking process. The FS was modified under two calcination conditions: at 500 °C for 5 h and at 700 °C for 3 h. The FS powder calcined at 700 °C for 3 h (FS700-3) had higher Ca content and lower protein content and was the filler chosen for experimental study of the effects of its addition on the properties of the starch foam. The addition of FS700-3 to the starch foam produced a more expanded structure due to FS700-3 efficiently supported the growth of existing cells during nucleation and bubble growth...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Rajula Elango, Zachary Kockler, Liping Liu, Anna Malkova
Break-induced replication (BIR) is an important mechanism aimed to repair one-ended double-strand DNA breaks. BIR is initiated by invasion of a broken DNA end into a homologous template followed by DNA synthesis that can proceed for hundreds of kilobases to the end of the chromosome. Unlike S-phase replication, BIR is carried out by a migrating DNA bubble and is associated with conservative inheritance of newly synthesized DNA. The unusual mode of DNA synthesis during BIR leads to an increased level of genetic instabilities including increased mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Chuanrui Chen, Emil Karshalev, Jianguo Guan, Joseph Wang
The new capabilities and functionalities of synthetic micro/nanomotors open up considerable opportunities for diverse environmental and biomedical applications. Water-powered micromachines are particularly attractive for realizing many of these applications. Magnesium-based motors directly use water as fuel to generate hydrogen bubbles for their propulsion, eliminating the requirement of common toxic fuels. This Review highlights the development of new Mg-based micromotors and discusses the chemistry that makes it extremely attractive for micromotor applications...
March 9, 2018: Small
Aron H Blaesi, Nannaji Saka
At present, the most prevalent pharmaceutical dosage forms, the orally-delivered immediate-release tablets and capsules, are porous, granular solids. They disintegrate into their constituent particulates upon ingestion to release drug rapidly. The design, development, and manufacture of such granular solids, however, is inefficient due to difficulties associated with the unpredictable inter-particle interactions. Therefore, to achieve more predictable dosage form properties and processing, we have recently introduced melt-processed polymeric cellular dosage forms...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Tsutomu Uchida, Hitoshi Nishikawa, Nobuki Sakurai, Masashi Asano, Naoki Noda
Water containing ultra-fine bubbles (UFB) may promote plant growth. But, as UFBs are too small to distinguish from other impurities in a nutrient solution, it is not known if UFBs survive transport from the water source to the rhizosphere. Here we use the freeze-fracture replica method and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to observe UFBs in the nutrient solutions used in a crop-growing system known as a plant factory. In this factory, TEM images taken from various points in the supply line indicate that the concentration of UFBs in the nutrient solution is conserved, starting from their addition to the nutrient solution in the buffer tank, through the peat-moss layer, all the way to the rhizosphere...
March 8, 2018: Nanomaterials
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