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Jeeyeon Kim, Miesha Farahmand, Colleen Dunn, Zoe Davies, Eric Frisbee, Carlos Milla, Jeffrey J Wine
Beta-adrenergically-stimulated sweat rates determined by evaporimetry or by sweat bubble imaging are useful for measuring CFTR function because they provide a near-linear readout across almost the full range of CFTR function. They differentiate cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects from CF carriers and carriers from controls. However, evaporimetry, unlike bubble imaging, appears to be unable to detect improved levels of CFTR function in G551D subjects taking the CFTR modulator ivacaftor. Here, we quantify the sensitivity of evaporimetry and bubble imaging methods for assessing low levels of CFTR-dependent sweat rates...
2016: PloS One
Young S Kang, Frederick Rueggeberg, Van Ramos
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression materials must be cold disinfected before cast pouring to prevent cross-contamination among personnel and patients. However, disinfection may affect the ability of PVS impression materials to provide bubble-free stone surfaces because of the removal of surfactants. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the water contact angles of a PVS impression material treated with either a quaternary ammonium-based (QAB) (DisCide Ultra) or a chlorine-based (CLB) (Dispatch) disinfectant for various exposure times...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Leonardo Pacheco Roquero, Sandra Camelo-Piragua, Carl Schmidt
Cerebral air embolism is a recognized life-threatening complication, sometimes iatrogenic. Its timely diagnosis is essential because it can result in neurologic deficits or death. We report a case of a 58-year-old man who died from cerebral air embolism diagnosed by nonenhanced computed tomography scan of the head after a cardiac bypass surgery with Biventricular Assist Device and multiple vascular line placements. Autopsy revealed extensive subcutaneous emphysema, intravascular and perivascular air bubbles in the central nervous system and associated cerebral and cerebellar hemorrhagic infarction...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Y Amerlinck, W De Keyser, G Urchegui, I Nopens
At wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) aeration is the largest energy consumer. This high energy consumption requires an accurate assessment in view of plant optimization. Despite the ever increasing detail in process models, models for energy production still lack detail to enable a global optimization of WWTPs. A new dynamic model for a more accurate prediction of aeration energy costs in activated sludge systems, equipped with submerged air distributing diffusers (producing coarse or fine bubbles) connected via piping to blowers, has been developed and demonstrated...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Hedieh Alavi Tamaddoni, William W Roberts, Alexander P Duryea, Charles A Cain, Timothy L Hall
Cavitation plays a significant role in the efficacy of stone comminution during shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). Although cavitation on the surface of urinary stones helps to improve fragmentation, cavitation bubbles along the propagation path may shield or block subsequent shockwaves, and potentially induce collateral tissue damage. Previous in vitro work has shown that applying low amplitude acoustic waves after each shockwave can force bubbles to consolidate and enhance SWL efficacy. In this study, the feasibility of applying acoustic bubble coalescence (ABC) in vivo was tested...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Endourology
Pierre-Olivier Barale, Paolo Mora, Marie-Hélène Errera, Raphaëlle Ores, Michel Pâques, José-Alain Sahel
PURPOSE: We discuss a modified surgical procedure for the treatment of macular folds complicating retinal reattachment surgery. METHODS: To facilitate the completion of the macular redetachment and the subsequent unrolling of the fold, we propose the subretinal injection, in addition to the conventional balanced salt solution, of filtered air as an original approach. In the presence of a subretinal air bubble, the action of gravity on the perfluorocarbon liquid in the vitreous cavity combined with an active globe manipulation proved to be very effective for flattening the central retina...
October 18, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Kristyna Gleghorn, Brandon Goodwin, Ramon Sanchez
Chordoma is a rare primary bone malignancy of notochord origin, representing 1-4% of malignant bone tumors. Typically, chordomas follow a slow progressive course with aggressive local extension, multiple recurrences, and metastases. Of particular interest to this case, cutaneous metastasis is exceedingly rare. Diagnosis of this entity can be a challenge due to the rarity of chordoma, as well as the infrequent presentation of distant cutaneous metastasis and non-specific clinical skin findings. We report a case of a 61-year-old male with a history of sacral chordoma treated by wide local excision 8 years prior to presentation developed a nodule on his scalp for 6 weeks...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Nikola Schmeckenbächer, Andreas Frings, Friedrich E Kruse, Theofilos Tourtas
PURPOSE: To analyze the role of initial intraoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) in graft adhesion in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) during early follow-up. METHODS: This retrospective, observational, single-center case series included 118 eyes from 118 consecutive patients treated between May and July 2015 for DMEK or combined DMEK and phacoemulsification (triple-DMEK). Exclusion criteria were previous eye surgery other than cataract surgery, loss of follow-up, any application of IOP-lowering medication before and after surgery, and low intraindividual repeatability of IOP measurements...
October 14, 2016: Cornea
Sheng Luo, Jodie L Lutkenhaus, Hadi Nasrabadi
For over a century, the phase behavior of bulk fluids has been described as PVT (pressure-volume-temperature) three-dimensional properties, but it has become increasingly clear that the liquid-vapor phase behavior in confined geometries is significantly altered from the bulk. Efforts have been devoted to accessing confined phase transitions using sorption, molecular simulations and theoretical methods. However, a comprehensive picture of PVT relationships for confined hydrocarbons remains uncertain. Herein, we introduce d (confining pore diameter) as a fourth dimension, and we present PVT-d behavior of confined fluids in nanopores...
October 18, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jianlong Wang, Say Hwa Tan, Anh V Nguyen, Geoffrey M Evans, Nam-Trung Nguyen
This paper reports the direct and precise measurement of bubble coalescence in salt solutions using microfluidics. We directly visualised the bubble coalescence process in a microchannel using high-speed imaging and evaluated the shortest coalescence time to determine the transition concentration of sodium halide solutions. We found the transition concentration is ion-specific and the capacity of sodium halide salts to inhibit bubble coalescence follows the order of NaF > NaCl > NaBr > NaI. The microfluidic method overcomes the inherent uncertainties in conventional large-scale devices and methods...
October 18, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Hohyeon Lee, Haemin Kim, Thang Phan Nguyen, Jin Ho Chang, Soo Young Kim, Hyuncheol Kim, Eunah Kang
Photoacoustic activity is the generation of an ultrasonic signal via thermal expansion or bubble formation, stimulated by laser irradiation. Photoacoustic nanoplatforms have recently gained focus for application in bio-electric interfaces. Various photoacoustic material types have been evaluated, including gold nanoparticles, semiconductive π-conjugating polymers (SP), etc. In this study, surfactant-free methoxy-polyethylene glycol-co-polypyrrole copolymer (mPEG-co-PPyr) nanoparticles (NPs) and mPEG-co-PPyr NP/molybdenum disulfide (mPEG-co-PPyr/MoS2) nanocomposites (NCs) were prepared and their photoacoustic activity was demonstrated...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nelson Trieu, Ryan Xia, Robert Loneragan, Lloyd Ridley, Joseph Trieu
INTRODUCTION: We report a series of patients who had computed tomography (CT) of their brains which showed an uncommon artefact caused by excess air bubbles in the cooling oil around the X-ray tube. METHODS: In November and December 2015, it was recognised that artefacts appearing on CT brain images acquired at our department were caused by a scanner fault. The test images were reviewed and the service engineer for the CT scanner was questioned about the artefact cause...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Ming Jiang, Hao Wang, Yingjie Li, Haichuan Zhang, Guoxin Zhang, Zhiyi Lu, Xiaoming Sun, Lei Jiang
Constructing a nanostructured electrode with superaerophobic surface property (i.e., superlow adhesion to gas bubbles) has been strikingly highlighted as an advanced technology to minimize the energy loss during various electrochemical gas evolution reactions. Herein, aiming at enhancing the performance of chlorine evolution reaction (ClER), which holds the key for chlor-alkali industry as well as water treatment, a nanostructured RuO2 @TiO2 electrode is demonstrated to overcome the bubble shielding effect, thereby maximizing the working area and offering a robust working condition...
October 18, 2016: Small
John M Frostad, Daniele Tammaro, Luciano Santollani, Simone Bochner de Araujo, Gerald G Fuller
Understanding and enabling the control of the properties of foams is important for a variety of commercial processes and consumer products. In these systems, the role of surface active compounds has been the subject of many investigations using a wide range of techniques. The study of their influence on simplified geometries such as two bubbles in a liquid or a thin film of solution (such as in the well-known Scheludko cell), has yielded important fundamental understanding. Similarly, in this work an interferometric technique is used to study the dynamic evolution of the film formed by a single bubble being pressed against a planar air-liquid interface...
October 18, 2016: Soft Matter
Jin Cai, Gengze Wu, Pedro A Jose, Chunyu Zeng
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane vesicles including exosomes and shedding vesicles that mediated a cell-to-cell communication. EVs are released from almost all cell types under both physiological and pathological conditions and incorporate nuclear and cytoplasmic molecules for intercellular delivery. Besides protein, mRNA, and microRNA of these molecules, as recent studies show, specific DNA are prominently packaged into EVs. It appears likely that some of exosomes or shedding vesicles, bearing nuclear molecules are released upon bubble-like blebs...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Yasunori Minami, Tomohiro Minami, Hirokazu Chishina, Masashi Kono, Tadaaki Arizumi, Masahiro Takita, Norihisa Yada, Satoru Hagiwara, Hiroshi Ida, Kazuomi Ueshima, Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
OBJECTIVE: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) induces gas bubbles in ablation zones, and the ablative margin cannot be evaluated accurately on ultrasound (US) during and immediately after RFA. This study assessed the usefulness of US-US fusion imaging to visualize the ablative margin of RFA for liver metastasis. METHODS: RFA guided by US-US fusion imaging was performed on 12 targeted tumors in 10 patients. Secondary hepatic malignancies included patients with colorectal cancer (n = 4), breast cancer (n = 2), lung cancer (n = 1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (n = 1), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (n = 1), and adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 1)...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Enrica Sarnicola, Caterina Sarnicola, Francesco Sabatino, Gian M Tosi, Paolo Perri, Vincenzo Sarnicola
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcomes and possible advantages of 2 different techniques of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in patients with keratoconus: cannula big-bubble DALK and needle big-bubble DALK (Anwar technique). METHODS: This is a retrospective, nonconsecutive, comparative study of 507 eyes affected by keratoconus that underwent DALK between 2002 and 2012. Needle DALK and cannula DALK techniques were performed in 266 eyes and 241 eyes, respectively...
October 5, 2016: Cornea
Christopher Varga, Isaac Luria, Nikolaus Gravenstein
BACKGROUND: Air injection is carefully avoided during IV solution administration; however, ambient air is dissolved in all liquids used for intravenous (IV) therapy. A portion of this gas will come out of solution in the form of bubbles as the solution is warmed to body temperature in a fluid warming system and/or within the body. We sought to quantify the proportion of the gas theoretically dissolved in room temperature crystalloid and 4°C blood products that comes out of solution in the IV tubing on warming to 37°C...
October 3, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Deepa Singh, Deepak, Ashish Garg
In this manuscript, we study the combined effect of mechanical strain and electric field cycling on the ferroelectric properties and polarization fatigue of P(VDF-TrFE) based flexible thin film capacitors from the perspective of flexible memory applications. The devices show nearly 80% retention of ferroelectric polarization after 30 000 bending cycles at mechanical strains of up to ca. 0.8%, mimicking a typical number of bending cycles a product is expected to go through. On the other hand, electric field cycling of the unstrained as well as mechanically strained devices results in over 50% drop in the ferroelectric polarization of the capacitors within 10(5) bipolar switching cycles...
October 17, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Elisabeth Mansfield, Ian H Bell, Stephanie L Outcalt
To develop comprehensive models for multicomponent natural gas mixtures, it is necessary to have binary interaction parameters for each of the pairs of constituent fluids that form the mixture. The determination of accurate mixture interaction parameters depends on reliably collected experimental data. In this work, we have carried out an experimental campaign to measure the bubble-point pressures of mixtures of n-propane and n-decane, a mixture that has been thus far poorly studied with only four existing data sets...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data
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