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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934664/targeted-h-triggered-bubble-generating-nanosystems-for-effective-therapy-in-cancer-cells
#1
Zhili Deng, Menghuan Tang, Li Zhao, Yijuan Long, Zuhuang Wen, Yuan Cheng, Huzhi Zheng
A novel targeting drug delivery system for cancer therapy based on H(+)-triggered bubble-generating nanosystems (BGNSs) was engineered. First, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) were used to load doxorubicin (DOX). Then, the obtained drug-loaded HMSNs were treated with NaHCO3 to prepare the BGNSs. The BGNSs were coated with polydopamine (pDA), and finally, folic acids (FA) were anchored on the nanosystems to obtain the desired nanoscale drug delivery system (BGNSs@pDA-FA). BGNSs@pDA-FA was effectively internalized by cancer cells through folate receptor-mediated endocytosis and generated CO2 bubbles under the acidic environment of the lysosomes, thus enhancing lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP) to release caspase-3 into the cytoplasm, resulting in cancer cell death via an apoptosis-like pathway...
September 14, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933866/bubble-assemblies-of-nanocrystals-superlattices-without-a-substrate
#2
Yixuan Yu, Adrien Guillaussier, Vikas Reddy Voggu, Daniel Houck, Detlef-M Smilgies, Brian A Korgel
A method was developed to create free-standing nanocrystal films in the form of solidified bubbles. Bubbles of octadecanethiol-capped gold nanocrystals were studied by in situ grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) to determine how the absence of an underlying substrate influences a disorder-order transition of a nanocrystal superlattice. We find that the presence of the substrate does not significantly change the nature of the disorder-order transition, but does lead to reduced interparticle separation and reduced thermal expansion...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933706/the-influence-of-atmosphere-on-performance-of-pure-phase-wz-and-zb-inas-nanowire-transistors
#3
Abu Rifat Ullah, Hannah J Joyce, Hoe Tan, Chennupati Jagadish, Adam P Micolich
We compare the characteristics of phase-pure MOCVD grown ZB and WZ InAs nanowire transistors in several atmospheres: air, dry pure N<sub>2</sub> and O<sub>2</sub>, and N<sub>2</sub> bubbled through liquid H<sub>2</sub>O and alcohols to identify whether phase-related structural/surface differences affect their response. Both WZ and ZB give poor gate characteristics in dry state. Adsorption of polar species reduces off-current by 2-3 orders of magnitude, increases on-off ratio and significantly reduces sub-threshold slope...
September 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933497/use-of-nh-a-3-%C3%AE-x-3-%C3%AE-sonoluminescence-for-diagnostics-of-nonequilibrium-plasma-produced-by-multibubble-cavitation
#4
Rachel Pflieger, Temim Ouerhani, Thierry Belmonte, Sergey I Nikitenko
In this work, the sonoluminescence of NH radicals has been evaluated as a new spectroscopic probe for the nonequilibrium plasma produced by multibubble cavitation in liquids. The experiments were performed in aqueous ammonia solutions subjected to power ultrasound at low and high frequencies and under two different rare gases (Ar and Xe). Sonoluminescence (SL) spectroscopy focuses on the emission of the two present systems: NH (A(3)Π-X(3)Σ(-)) and OH (A(2)Σ(+)-X(2)Π). Both spectroscopic systems indicate the absence of thermal equilibrium during bubble collapse (Tv > Tr) irrespective of the saturating gas...
September 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932993/oxygen-therapy-with-high-flow-nasal-cannula-as-an-effective-treatment-for-perioperative-pneumocephalus-case-illustrations-and-pathophysiological-review
#5
Jason L Siegel, Karen Hampton, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Diane McLaughlin, Jose L Diaz-Gomez
Pneumocephalus (PNC) is a condition in which when air is trapped inside the intracranial vault. The causes are varied, but include trauma and intracranial surgery. Treatment of PNC typically consists of augmenting patient oxygenation with the attempt of washing out pulmonary nitrogen, creating a gradient in which nitrogen in the intracranial air bubble diffuses out of the lungs via the blood. Though several high flow methods have been tested, the ideal mode of oxygenation has not fully been investigated. Here we present 3 cases of post-operative PNC who we felt were symptomatic from PNC...
September 20, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932826/interobserver-variation-of-the-bolus-and-burst-method-for-pancreatic-perfusion-with-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound
#6
Marcus Stangeland, Trond Engjom, Martin Mezl, Radovan Jirik, Odd Helge Gilja, Georg Dimcevski, Kim Nylund
PURPOSE: Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) can be used for calculating organ perfusion. By combining bolus injection with burst replenishment, the actual mean transit time (MTT) can be estimated. Blood volume (BV) can be obtained by scaling the data to a vessel on the imaging plane. The study aim was to test interobserver agreement for repeated recordings using the same ultrasound scanner and agreement between results on two different scanner systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients under evaluation for exocrine pancreatic failure were included...
June 2017: Ultrasound International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932065/blowing-bubbles-dermoscopy-of-bubble-hair
#7
Lauren N Albers, Alexander M Maley, Jamie B MacKelfresh
Exposing wet hair to high temperatures can create gas bubbles within the hair shaft, leading to brittle, dry hairs in a disorder known as bubble hair abnormality. We present a case of a 61-year-old woman who presented for hair breakage over her crown. She regularly dried her damp hair with a blow dryer. Dermoscopy revealed multiple bubbles within the hair shaft, and diagnosis of bubble hair abnormality was confirmed by light microscopy. Our unusual case highlights the ease of acquisition of this abnormality by means of a common hair dryer, and the utility of dermoscopy to make a fast and accurate diagnosis within the office...
July 2017: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930919/2017-military-supplement-mini-review-perfluorocarbons-oxygen-transport-and-microcirculation-in-low-flow-states-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#8
Ivo P Torres Filho
The in vivo study of microvascular oxygen transport requires accurate and challenging measurements of several mass transfer parameters. Although recommended, blood flow and oxygenation are typically not measured in many studies where treatments for ischemia are tested. Therefore, the aim of this communication is to briefly review cardinal aspects of oxygen transport, and the effects of perfluorocarbon treatment on blood flow and oxygenation based mostly on studies performed in our laboratory. Since physiologically relevant events in oxygen transport take place at the microvascular level, we implemented the phosphorescence quenching technique coupled with non-invasive intravital videomicroscopy for quantitative evaluation of these events in vivo...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930452/electrowetting-on-immersed-conducting-hydrogel
#9
Caroline Duc, Alexis Vlandas, George G Malliaras, Vincent Senez
Conducting polymers demonstrate an interesting ability to change their wettability at ultra-low voltage (<1V). While the conducting hydrogel poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is increasingly used as an interface with biology partly thanks to its mechanical properties, little is known about the electrical control of its wettability. We rely on the captive bubble technique to study this hydrogel property in relevant conditions (fully immerged) We here report that the wettability variations of PEDOT:PSS are driven by an electrowetting phenomenon in contrast to other conducting polymers which are thought to undergo wettability changes due to oxido-reduction reactions...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930381/intraocular-pressure-and-big-bubble-diameter-in-deep-anterior-lamellar-keratoplasty-an-ex-vivo-microscope-integrated-oct-with-heads-up-display-study
#10
Paramjit K Bhullar, Oscar M Carrasco-Zevallos, Alexandria Dandridge, Neel D Pasricha, Brenton Keller, Liangbo Shen, Joseph A Izatt, Cynthia A Toth, Anthony N Kuo
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and big bubble (BB) formation in a model of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). DESIGN: Ex-vivo. METHODS: Corneoscleral buttons from human donors were loaded onto an artificial anterior chamber connected to a column of balanced salt solution. A surgeon-in-training learned to perform DALK via the BB technique using swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (SS-MIOCT) with heads-up display (HUD)...
September 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929603/injectable-technique-for-direct-provisional-restoration
#11
Alvaro Blasi, Talal Alnassar, Gerard Chiche
OBJECTIVE: New technique describes an alternative treatment modality of making direct provisional restoration. CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS: A preoperative wax-up should be fabricated, followed by fabrication of a transparent polyvinyl siloxane (VPS) matrix in a clear plastic prefabricated tray with retentive holes. After the tray is separated from the model, two additional holes will be made through the tray and the VPS for injecting and venting of the temporary resin...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929519/left-superior-pulmonary-vein-connected-to-superior-vena-cava-vein-in-a-patient-with-situs-inversus-totalis-a-challenging-diagnosis
#12
Lionel Rozen, Nadia Debbas, Nash Damry, Aurelia David-Cojocariu, Didier de Cannière, Philippe Unger
We herein describe the previously unreported combination of partial anomalous venous connection to the superior vena cava combined with situs inversus totalis. Following peripheral contrast injection, bubbles appeared initially in the left atrium allowing the diagnosis of a supra-atrial connection to be made using transthoracic echocardiography, but this timing was not anymore reproduced during transesophageal echocardiography performed minutes later. Cardiac computed tomography allowed the final diagnosis to be made...
September 19, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929325/computational-fluid-dynamics-cfd-analysis-of-airlift-bioreactor-effect-of-draft-tube-configurations-on-hydrodynamics-cell-suspension-and-shear-rate
#13
Sanjay B Pawar
The biomass productivity of microalgae cells mainly depends on the hydrodynamics of airlift bioreactor (ABR). Thus, the hydrodynamics of concentric tube ABR was initially studied using two-phase three-dimensional CFD simulations with the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. The performance of ABR (17 L) was examined for different configurations of the draft tube using various drag models such as Grace, Ishii-Zuber, and Schiller-Naumann. The gas holdups in the riser and the downcomer were well predicted using E-L approach...
September 19, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929140/real-time-probing-of-granular-dynamics-with-magnetic-resonance
#14
Alexander Penn, Takuya Tsuji, David O Brunner, Christopher M Boyce, Klaas P Pruessmann, Christoph R Müller
Granular dynamics govern earthquakes, avalanches, and landslides and are of fundamental importance in a variety of industries ranging from energy to pharmaceuticals to agriculture. Nonetheless, our understanding of the underlying physics is poor because we lack spatially and temporally resolved experimental measurements of internal grain motion. We introduce a magnetic resonance imaging methodology that provides internal granular velocity measurements that are four orders of magnitude faster compared to previous work...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924422/femtosecond-laser-assisted-cataract-surgery-in-vitrectomized-eye-with-posterior-chamber-phakic-intraocular-lens
#15
Natalia Anisimova, Boris Malyugin, Lisa B Arbisser, Nikolay Sobolev
We describe a case of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) in an eye with multiple comorbidities, including retinal detachment surgery, high myopia, posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens (PC pIOL) and residual, emulsified, silicone oil located in the anterior chamber. FLACS was affected by the optical blockage, but the incomplete capsular tear was recoverable. The case suggests that silicone oil bubbles concentrated at the dome of the posterior corneal surface, along with the PC pIOL optic edges and scars after corneal astigmatic relaxing incisions can lead to incomplete anterior capsulotomy...
2017: Digital Journal of Ophthalmology: DJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924401/the-trump-effect-with-no-peer-review-how-do-we-know-what-to-really-believe-on-social-media
#16
REVIEW
Justin T Brady, Molly E Kelly, Sharon L Stein
Social media is a source of news and information for an increasing portion of the general public and physicians. The recent political election was a vivid example of how social media can be used for the rapid spread of "fake news" and that posts on social media are not subject to fact-checking or editorial review. The medical field is susceptible to propagation of misinformation, with poor differentiation between authenticated and erroneous information. Due to the presence of social "bubbles," surgeons may not be aware of the misinformation that patients are reading, and thus, it may be difficult to counteract the false information that is seen by the general public...
September 2017: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924079/dynamic-surface-tension-of-heterogemini-surfactants-with-quaternary-ammonium-salt-and-gluconamide-or-sulfobetaine-headgroups
#17
Tomokazu Yoshimura, Kanae Nyuta
Dynamic surface tensions of two types of heterogemini surfactants with nonidentical hydrophilic headgroups consisting of a quaternary ammonium salt (cationic) and a gluconamide (nonionic) or sulfobetaine (zwitterionic) group were measured using the maximum bubble pressure method. For these compounds, effects of alkyl chain length, structure of the hydrophilic groups, and surfactant concentration were investigated using diffusion coefficients and parameter x. The parameter x is related to the difference between the energies of adsorption and desorption of the surfactant...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922601/substrate-dependence-of-the-freezing-dynamics-of-supercooled-water-films-a-high-speed-optical-microscope-study
#18
Elzbieta Pach, Laura Rodríguez, Albert Verdaguer
The freezing of supercooled water films on silicon-based surfaces was investigated using a high-speed camera coupled to an optical microscope. We were able to study in detail the two phases or stages in during water freezing; the first stage, faster, when dendritic grow occurs co-planar with the cold surface of the substrate and the second stage, slower, when the ice formed on the surface grows vertically until all the film is frozen. Several differentiated processes were identified during the freezing: two dimensional dendrite growing on the substrate interface, vertical dendrite growing, formation and evolution of ice domains, trapping of air bubbles in ice and freezing of the water film surface...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921952/nano-air-seeds-trapped-in-mesoporous-janus-nanoparticles-facilitate-cavitation-and-enhance-ultrasound-imaging
#19
Konstantin Tamarov, Andrey Sviridov, Wujun Xu, Markus Malo, Valery Andreev, Victor Yu Timoshenko, Vesa-Pekka Lehto
The current contrast agents utilized in ultrasound (US) imaging are based on microbubbles which, however, suffer from a short lifetime in the systemic circulation. The present study introduces a new type of contrast agents for US imaging based on bioresorbable Janus nanoparticles (NPs) that are able to generate microbubbles in situ under US radiation for extended time. The Janus NPs were fabricated from porous silicon (PSi) that was modified via a nanostopper technique. The technique was exploited to prepare PSi NPs which had hydrophobic pore walls (inner face) while the external surfaces of the NPs (outer face) were hydrophilic...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920086/organic-compounds-generated-after-the-flow-of-water-through-micro-orifices-were-they-synthesized
#20
Tomiichi Hasegawa, Akiomi Ushida, Masaki Goda, Yasushi Ono
Micro-fluid mechanics is an important area of research in modern fluid mechanics because of its many potential industrial and biological applications. However, the field is not fully understood yet. In previous work, when passing ultrapure water (UPW) in which air was dissolved (UPW*) through micro-orifices, we found that the flow velocity decreased and stopped over time, and membranes were frequently formed in the orifice when the flow stopped. The membrane came from the dissolved air in UPW*, and membrane formation was closely related to electric charges generated in orifices by the flow...
August 2017: Heliyon
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