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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750317/advantages-of-cooled-fiber-for-monitoring-laser-tissue-ablation-through-temporal-and-spectral-analysis-of-rf-ultrasound-signal-a-case-study
#1
Simona Granchi, Enrico Vannacci, Luca Breschi, Elena Biagi
The promising minimally invasive laser thermal therapy technique may be improved if thermal lesions induced into the tissue can be carefully monitored in extension and morphology during the treatment. According to results obtained in several recent experimentations, solutions that avoid tissue carbonization during the treatment have been proposed, in order to allow deeper and longer lasting light penetration in treated tissue and to reduce failures of the applicator tip and fiber optic, dangerous for patients...
July 19, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748246/the-mechanism-of-roughness-induced-co2-microbubble-nucleation-in-polypropylene-foaming
#2
Linyan Wang, Wei Zhang, Xiangdong Wang, Jianguo Mi, Jingjun Ma, Zhongjie Du
Within the framework of classical density functional theory, the thermodynamic driving forces for CO2 microbubble nucleation have been quantitatively evaluated in the foaming of polypropylene containing amorphous and crystalline structures. After the addition of fluorinated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane particles into the polypropylene matrix, we construct different composite surfaces with nanoscale roughness for bubble nucleation. Meanwhile, as the dissolved CO2 molecules increase, the corresponding CO2/PP binary melts can be formulated in the systems...
July 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747812/numerical-analysis-of-the-influence-of-low-frequency-vibration-on-bubble-growth
#3
D Han, Mark A Kedzierski
Numerical simulation of bubble growth during pool boiling under the influence of low frequency vibration was performed to understand the influence of common vibrations such as those induced by wind, highway transportation, and nearby mechanical devices on the performance of thermal systems that rely on boiling. The simulations were done for saturated R123 boiling at 277.6 K with a 15 K wall superheat. The numerical volume-of-fluid method (fixed grid) was used to define the liquid-vapor interface. The basic bubble growth characteristics including the bubble departure diameter and the bubble departure time were determined as a function of the bubble contact angle (20°-80°), the vibration displacement (10 µm-50 µm), the vibration frequency (5 Hz-25 Hz), and the initial vibration direction (positive or negative)...
2017: International Journal of Transport Phenomena
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745648/fizzy-extraction-of-volatile-organic-compounds-combined-with-atmospheric-pressure-chemical-ionization-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry
#4
Hao-Chun Yang, Cheng-Hao Chang, Pawel L Urban
Chemical analysis of volatile and semivolatile compounds dissolved in liquid samples can be challenging. The dissolved components need to be brought to the gas phase, and efficiently transferred to a detection system. Fizzy extraction takes advantage of the effervescence phenomenon. First, a carrier gas (here, carbon dioxide) is dissolved in the sample by applying overpressure and stirring the sample. Second, the sample chamber is decompressed abruptly. Decompression leads to the formation of numerous carrier gas bubbles in the sample liquid...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744689/pediatric-cerebellar-giant-cavernous-malformation-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#5
Javier Villaseñor-Ledezma, Marcelo Budke, Juan-Antonio Alvarez-Salgado, María-Angeles Cañizares, Luis Moreno, Francisco Villarejo
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Giant cavernous malformations (GCM) are low flow, angiographically occult vascular lesions, with a diameter >4 cm. Cerebellar GCMs are extremely rare, with only seven cases reported based on English literature. These lesions are most commonly seen in the pediatric age group, which is known to have an increased risk of hemorrhage, being surgery clearly recommended. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: An 18-month-old girl presented with a 6-month history of cervical torticollis and upper extremities clumsiness...
July 25, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744328/ultrasonographic-imaging-and-anti-inflammatory-therapy-of-muscle-and-tendon-injuries-using-polymer-nanoparticles
#6
Gi-Wook Kim, Changsun Kang, Young-Bin Oh, Myoung-Hwan Ko, Jeong-Hwan Seo, Dongwon Lee
Ultrasonography is a reliable diagnostic modality for muscle and tendon injuries, but it has been challenging to find right diagnosis of minor musculoskeletal injuries by conventional ultrasonographic imaging. A large amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are known to be generated during tissue damages such as mechanical injury and therefore H2O2 holds great potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker for mechanical injuries in the musculoskeletal system. We previously developed poly(vanillyl alcohol-co-oxalate) (PVAX), which rapidly scavenges H2O2 and exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in H2O2-associated diseases...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743969/human-amniotic-membrane-as-newly-identified-source-of-amniotic-fluid-pulmonary-surfactant
#7
Angela Lemke, José Carlos Castillo-Sánchez, Florian Prodinger, Asja Ceranic, Simone Hennerbichler-Lugscheider, Jesús Pérez-Gil, Heinz Redl, Susanne Wolbank
Pulmonary surfactant (PS) reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface in the alveolar epithelium of the lung, which is required for breathing and for the pulmonary maturity of the developing foetus. However, the origin of PS had never been thoroughly investigated, although it was assumed to be secreted from the foetal developing lung. Human amniotic membrane (hAM), particularly its epithelial cell layer, composes the amniotic sac enclosing the amniotic fluid. In this study, we therefore aimed to investigate a potential contribution of the cellular components of the hAM to pulmonary surfactant found in amniotic fluid...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743326/a-review-of-surfactant-role-in-soil-clogging-processes-at-wastewater-exfiltration-locations-in-sewers
#8
Mitra Nikpay, Peter Krebs, Bryan Ellis
  Wastewater contains significant sources of pollutants and contaminants. often the failure of a pipe, inadequate sealing or corrupt pipe-connections cause the loss of raw sewage, which percolates into the nearby soil. As a consequence, a colmation layer in conjunction with soil clogging is developing, which regulates the exfiltration rate. Recently, literature has emerged that offers findings about the effects of wastewater surfactants on the change of physical properties of the soil. A survey of published literature in this field provides information highlighting the influential mechanisms of surfactants in soil clogging through physical, chemical and biological processes...
August 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742366/femtosecond-laser-enhanced-amyloid-fibril-formation-of-insulin
#9
Tsung-Han Liu, Ken-Ichi Yuyama, Takato Hiramatsu, Naoki Yamamoto, Eri Chatani, Hiroshi Miyasaka, Teruki Sugiyama, Hiroshi Masuhara
Femtosecond (fs) laser-induced crystallization as a novel crystallization technique was proposed for the first time by our group, where crystallization time can be significantly shortened under fs laser irradiation. Similarly, we have further extended our investigation to amyloid fibril formation also known as a nucleation-dependence process. Here we demonstrate that necessary time for amyloid fibril formation can be much shortened by fs laser irradiation leading to favorable enhancement. The enhancement was confirmed by both spectral measurements and direct observations of amyloid fibrils...
July 25, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742364/solvent-exchange-leading-to-nanobubble-nucleation-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#10
Qianxiang Xiao, Yawei Liu, Zhenjiang Guo, Zhiping Liu, Detlef Lohse, Xianren Zhang
The solvent exchange procedure has become the most-used protocol to produce surface nanobubbles, while the molecular mechanisms behind the solvent exchange are far from being fully understood. In this paper, we build a simple model and use molecular dynam- ics simulations to investigate the dynamic characteristics of solvent exchange for producing nanobubbles. We find that at the first stage of solvent exchange, there exists an interface between interchanging solvents of different gas solubility. This interface moves towards the substrate gradually as the exchange process proceeds...
July 25, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742073/biological-nitrogen-fixation-in-the-oxygen-minimum-region-of-the-eastern-tropical-north-pacific-ocean
#11
Amal Jayakumar, Bonnie X Chang, Brittany Widner, Peter Bernhardt, Margaret R Mulholland, Bess B Ward
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) was investigated above and within the oxygen-depleted waters of the oxygen-minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean. BNF rates were estimated using an isotope tracer method that overcame the uncertainty of the conventional bubble method by directly measuring the tracer enrichment during the incubations. Highest rates of BNF (~4 nM day(-1)) occurred in coastal surface waters and lowest detectable rates (~0.2 nM day(-1)) were found in the anoxic region of offshore stations...
July 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741663/carbon-dioxide-flush-of-an-integrated-minimized-perfusion-circuit-prior-to-priming-prevents-spontaneous-air-release-into-the-arterial-line-during-clinical-use
#12
Marco C Stehouwer, Roel de Vroege, Gerard J F Hoohenkerk, Frederik N Hofman, Johannes C Kelder, Bas Buchner, Bastian A de Mol, Peter Bruins
Recently, an oxygenator with an integrated centrifugal blood pump (IP) was designed to minimize priming volume and to reduce blood foreign surface contact even further. The use of this oxygenator with or without integrated arterial filter was compared with a conventional oxygenator and nonintegrated centrifugal pump. To compare the air removal characteristics 60 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were alternately assigned into one of three groups to be perfused with a minimized extracorporeal circuit either with the conventional oxygenator, the oxygenator with IP, or the oxygenator with IP plus integrated arterial filter (IAF)...
July 25, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740100/quantification-of-cell-bubble-interactions-in-a-3d-engineered-tissue-phantom
#13
C Walsh, N Ovenden, E Stride, U Cheema
Understanding cell-bubble interactions is crucial for preventing bubble related pathologies and harnessing their potential therapeutic benefits. Bubbles can occur in the body as a result of therapeutic intravenous administration, surgery, infections or decompression. Subsequent interactions with living cells, may result in pathological responses such as decompression sickness (DCS). This work investigates the interactions that occur between bubbles formed during decompression and cells in a 3D engineered tissue phantom...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739402/graft-detachment-and-re-bubbling-rate-in-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty
#14
REVIEW
Mohit Parekh, Pia Leon, Alessandro Ruzza, Davide Borroni, Stefano Ferrari, Diego Ponzin, Vito Romano
Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK) is a selective replacement of dysfunctional endothelium with healthy donor Descemet's membrane and endothelium. Although the donor preparation and surgical methods still remain a challenge, DMEK is gaining popularity in terms of early rehabilitation and visual outcomes. New and improved donor preparation techniques like pre-stripped DMEK tissues are taken up rapidly due to less manipulation that is required in the surgical theatre. Donor graft delivery in the recipient eye has also been improved due to new products like pre-stripped and pre-loaded membranes...
July 21, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739379/ultrasound-induced-bubble-clusters-in-tissue-mimicking-agar%C3%A2-phantoms
#15
Pooya Movahed, Wayne Kreider, Adam D Maxwell, Barbrina Dunmire, Jonathan B Freund
Therapeutic ultrasound can drive bubble activity that damages soft tissues. To study the potential mechanisms of such injury, transparent agar tissue-mimicking phantoms were subjected to multiple pressure wave bursts of the kind being considered specifically for burst wave lithotripsy. A high-speed camera recorded bubble activity during each pulse. Various agar concentrations were used to alter the phantom's mechanical properties, especially its stiffness, which was varied by a factor of 3.5. However, the maximum observed bubble radius was insensitive to stiffness...
July 21, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737789/a-model-for-the-effect-of-bulk-liquid-viscosity-on-cavitation-bubble-dynamics
#16
Yang Shen, Kyuichi Yasui, Tong Zhu, Muthupandian Ashokkumar
A new model of single cavitation bubble dynamics has been developed to include the effect of bulk liquid viscosity in addition to the effects of evaporation/condensation of water vapor, thermal conduction and the compressibility of a liquid. In this study, the liquid viscosity is divided into two parts: viscosity at the bubble interface (μ') and viscosity of the bulk liquid (μ). A set of numerical calculations with and without μ has been completed under different viscosities (0.001-0.014 Pa s) to quantitatively analyze the effect of μ on single cavitation bubble dynamics...
July 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735884/from-drop-shape-analysis-to-stress-fitting-elastometry
#17
REVIEW
Mathias Nagel, Theo A Tervoort, Jan Vermant
Drop-shape analysis using pendant or sessile drops is a well-established experimental technique for measuring the interfacial or surface tension, and changes thereof. The method relies on deforming a drop by either gravity or buoyancy and fitting the Young-Laplace equation to the drop shape. Alternatively one can prescribe the shape and measure the pressure inside the drop or bubble using pressure tensiometry. However, when an interface with a complex microstructure is present, extra and anisotropic interfacial stresses may develop due to lateral interactions between the surface-active moieties, leading to deviations of the drop shape or even a wrinkling of the interface...
July 13, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734287/on-the-thermophysical-and-transport-properties-of-3-he-and-4-he-a-bubble-interaction-potential-versus-state-of-the-art
#18
Michael Chrysos, Henri Piel
Three keynote thermophysical and transport properties of (3)He and (4)He, namely, the second virial coefficient, the shear viscosity, and the thermal conductivity, are reported for the "extended Dirac bubble potential" (EDbp), a novel model for He-He [M. Chrysos, J. Chem. Phys. 146, 024106 (2017)]. Comparisons with the experiment as well as with potentials with a proven track record and with the oversimplified Dbp are being made in the range 0.1-500 K to analyze the performance of the EDbp, which is shown here to emerge as a promising analytic model for He-He...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734194/high-yield-one-pot-production-of-18-f-fch-via-a-modified-tracerlab-fxfn-module
#19
Ya-Yao Huang, Chia-Ling Tsai, Hsiang-Ping Wen, Kai-Yuan Tzen, Ruoh-Fen Yen, Chyng-Yann Shiue
INTRODUCTION: [(18)F]Fluoromethylcholine ([(18)F]FCH) is a potent tumors imaging agent. In order to fulfill the demand of pre-clinical and clinical studies, we have developed an automated high yield one-pot synthesis of this potent tumors imaging agent. METHODS: [(18)F]FCH was synthesized using a modified TRACERlab FxFN module. Briefly, dibromomethane (10% in CH3CN) was fluorinated with K[(18)F]/K 2.2.2 in a glassy carbon reaction vessel at 120°C for about 5min to generate [(18)F]fluorobromomethane ([(18)F]FBM)...
July 15, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733708/methane-ebullition-in-temperate-hydropower-reservoirs-and-implications-for-us-policy-on-greenhouse-gas-emissions
#20
Benjamin L Miller, Evan V Arntzen, Amy E Goldman, Marshall C Richmond
The United States is home to 2198 dams actively used for hydropower production. With the December 2015 consensus adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Paris Agreement, it is important to accurately quantify anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Methane ebullition, or methane bubbles originating from river or lake sediments, has been shown to account for nearly all methane emissions from tropical hydropower reservoirs to the atmosphere. However, distinct ebullitive methane fluxes have been studied in comparatively few temperate hydropower reservoirs globally...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Management
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