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Cardiac stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675777/inhibition-of-p16-ink4a-to-rejuvenate-aging-human-cardiac-progenitor-cells-via-the-upregulation-of-anti-oxidant-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-pathways
#1
Roshni V Khatiwala, Shuning Zhang, Xiuchun Li, Neil Devejian, Edward Bennett, Chuanxi Cai
Autologous human cardiac stem/progenitor cell (hCPC) therapy is a promising treatment that has come into use in recent years for patients with cardiomyopathy. Though innovative in theory, a major hindrance to the practical application of this treatment is that the hCPCs of elderly patients, who are most susceptible to myocardial disease, are senescent and prone to cell death. Rejuvenating hCPCs from elderly patients may help overcome this obstacle, and can be accomplished by reversing entry into the cellular stage of senescence...
April 19, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674497/plasma-cell-proliferative-index-predicts-outcome-in-immunoglobulin-light-chain-amyloidosis-treated-with-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
M Hasib Sidiqi, Mohammed Aljama, Dragan Jevremovic, William G Morice, Michael Timm, Francis K Buadi, Rahma Warsame, Martha Q Lacy, Angela Dispenzieri, David Dingli, Wilson I Gonsalves, Shaji Kumar, Prashant Kapoor, Taxiarchis Kourelis, Nelson Leung, William J Hogan, Morie Gertz
The plasma cell proliferative index provides an insight into plasma cell biology in plasma cell disorders and is an important prognostic marker in myeloma and smoldering myeloma. We analyzed the prognostic impact of the plasma cell proliferative index in 513 patients with systemic AL Amyloidosis undergoing stem cell transplantation at the Mayo Clinic between January 2003 and 31 August 2016. Two cohorts were identified; Low or Elevated plasma cell proliferative index. Patients with an Elevated plasma cell proliferative index had more cardiac involvement (56% vs 44%; p=0...
April 19, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671225/effectiveness-of-early-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-preventing-neurocognitive-decline-in-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii-a-case-series
#3
A Selvanathan, C Ellaway, C Wilson, P Owens, P J Shaw, K Bhattacharya
The early progressive form of the X-linked disorder, Hunter syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) (OMIM #309900), is characterized by cognitive decline, and pulmonary and cardiac complications that often cause death before 20 years of age. Deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme, iduronate-2-sulfatase (EC 3.1.6.13) results in deposition of the glycosaminoglycans, dermatan, and heparan sulfate in various tissues. In recent years, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has become the mainstay of treatment, but is expensive and ineffective in arresting cognitive decline...
April 19, 2018: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665255/concise-review-rational-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-ischemic-heart-disease
#4
REVIEW
Michael R Ward, Armin Abadeh, Kim A Connelly
The capacity of stem and progenitor cells to stimulate cardiac regeneration has been studied for almost 20 years, with very promising preclinical data and mixed clinical results. Several cell types have been studied, identified by their cell surface markers, differentiation capacity and their secreted growth factors. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to have potent regenerative capacity, through multiple mechanisms, including mesoderm lineage differentiation, immunomodulation, and paracrine stimulation...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665185/laminar-shear-stress-modulates-endothelial-luminal-surface-stiffness-in-a-tissue-specific-manner
#5
Nick Merna, Andrew K Wong, Victor Barahona, Pierre Llanos, Balvir Kunar, Brisa Palikuqi, Michael Ginsberg, Shahin Rafii, Sina Y Rabbany
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cells form vascular beds in all organs and are exposed to a range of mechanical forces that regulate cellular phenotype. We sought to determine the role of endothelial luminal surface stiffness in tissue-specific mechanotransduction of laminar shear stress in microvascular mouse cells and the role of arachidonic acid in mediating this response. METHODS: Microvascular mouse endothelial cells were subjected to laminar shear stress at 4 dynes/cm2 for 12 hours in parallel plate flow chambers that enabled real-time optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements of cell stiffness...
April 17, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665002/three-dimensional-collagenous-niche-and-azacytidine-selectively-promote-time-dependent-cardiomyogenesis-from-human-bone-marrow-derived-msc-spheroids
#6
Jyotsna Joshi, Gautam Mahajan, Chandrasekhar R Kothapalli
Endogenous adult cardiac regenerative machinery is not capable of replacing the lost cells following myocardial infarction, often leading to permanent alterations in structure-function-mechanical properties. Regenerative therapies based on delivering autologous stem cells within an appropriate 3D milieu could meet such demand, by enabling homing and directed differentiation of the transplanted cells into lost specialized cell populations. Since type I collagen is the predominant cardiac tissue matrix protein, we here optimized the 3D niche which could promote time-dependent evolution of cardiomyogenesis from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC)...
April 17, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664925/actin-and-myosin-ii-modulate-differentiation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#7
Liana C Boraas, Emma T Pineda, Tabassum Ahsan
Use of stem cell-based therapies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is hindered by efficient means of directed differentiation. For pluripotent stem cells, an initial critical differentiation event is specification to one of three germ lineages: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Differentiation is known to be regulated by numerous extracellular and intracellular factors, but the role of the cytoskeleton during specification, or early differentiation, is still unknown. In these studies, we used agonists and antagonists to modulate actin polymerization and the actin-myosin molecular motor during spontaneous differentiation of embryonic stem cells in embryoid bodies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663322/quantitatively-characterizing-drug-induced-arrhythmic-contractile-motions-of-human-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#8
Plansky Hoang, Nathaniel Huebsch, Shin Hyuk Bang, Brian A Siemons, Bruce R Conklin, Kevin E Healy, Zhen Ma, Sabir Jacquir
Quantification of abnormal contractile motions of cardiac tissue has been a noteworthy challenge and significant limitation in assessing and classifying the drug-induced arrhythmias (i.e. Torsades de pointes). To overcome these challenges, researchers have taken advantage of computational image processing tools to measure contractile motion from cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CMs). However, the amplitude and frequency analysis of contractile motion waveforms doesn't produce sufficient information to objectively classify the degree of variations between two or more sets of cardiac contractile motions...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661985/a-net-shaped-multicellular-formation-facilitates-the-maturation-of-hpsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-through-mechanical-and-electrophysiological-stimuli
#9
Taoyan Liu, Chengwu Huang, Hongxia Li, Fujian Wu, Jianwen Luo, Wenjing Lu, Feng Lan
The use of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) is limited in drug discovery and cardiac disease mechanism studies due to cell immaturity. Although many approaches have been reported to improve the maturation of hiPSC-CMs, the elucidation of the process of maturation is crucial. We applied a small-molecule-based differentiation method to generate cardiomyocytes (CMs) with multiple aggregation forms. The motion analysis revealed significant physical differences in the differently shaped CMs, and the net-shaped CMs had larger motion amplitudes and faster velocities than the sheet-shaped CMs...
April 14, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660269/deterministic-encapsulation-of-human-cardiac-stem-cells-in-variable-composition-nanoporous-gel-cocoons-to-enhance-therapeutic-repair-of-injured-myocardium
#10
Pushpinder Kanda, Emilio I Alarcon, Tanya Yeuchyk, Sadrine Parent, Robert A de Kemp, Fabio Variola, David Courtman, Duncan J Stewart, Darryl R Davis
Although cocooning explant-derived cardiac stem cells in protective nanogels prior to intramyocardial injection boosts long-term cell retention, the number of EDCs that finally engraft is trivial and unlikely to account for salutary effects on myocardial function and scar size. As such, we investigated the effect of varying the nanogel content within micro-capsules to alter the physical properties of cocoons without influencing cocoon dimensions. Increasing nanogel concentration enhanced cell migration and viability while improving cell-mediated repair of injured myocardium...
April 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660000/spermatogonial-behavior-in-marmoset-a-new-generation-their-kinetics-and-niche
#11
A L Caldeira-Brant, L Eras-Garcia, D Alves-Freitas, F R C L Almeida, H Chiarini-Garcia
STUDY QUESTION: Could a more detailed evaluation of marmoset spermatogonial morphology, kinetics, and niches using high-resolution light microscopy (HRLM) lead to new findings? SUMMARY ANSWER: Three new classes of marmoset spermatogonia, which were not evenly distributed in terms of number and position along the basal membrane, and an extra premeiotic cell division not present in humans were identified using HRLM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC) of marmosets is divided into nine stages when based on the acrosome system, and several spermatogenic stages can usually be recognized within the same tubular cross-section...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658608/ipsc%C3%A2-msc-inhibition-assessment-in-raw-264-7-cells-following-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-reveals-a-distinct-function-for-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#12
Yi Yu, Dongping Wang, Hui Li, Yujie Liu, Zhao Xiang, Junlin Wu, Xiaoli Jing
Hypoxia is a serious stress state. The nervous system is less tolerant to hypoxia, and cell death due to hypoxia is irreversible. With the incidence of cardiovascular disease gradually increasing, the sudden cardiac death rate is additionally increasing. Although cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important development, recovery is frequently poor. In a successful recovery population, ~40% of the population was in a vegetative state or subsequently succumbed to their condition, and ~20% had brain damage...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653101/%C3%AE-1-integrin-is-a-cell-autonomous-factor-mediating-the-numb-pathway-for-cardiac-progenitor-maintenance
#13
Brian Gibbs, Lincoln Shenje, Peter Andersen, Matthew Miyamoto, Chulan Kwon
Proper control of multipotent/stem cell number and fate is essential for ensuing organ formation during development. β1-integrin, a subfamily of cell surface receptors, has a conserved role in maintenance of multipotent/stem cells, including renal progenitor cells, follicle stem cells, epidermal stem cells and neural stem cells. However, it remains unclear whether β1-integrin has a role in cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) development. Here we show that a mesodermal deletion of β1-integrin decreases Isl1+ cell number in the second pharyngeal arch (PA2), where CPCs undergo renewal and expansion...
April 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651999/photolithographic-stereolithographic-tandem-fabrication-of-4d-smart-scaffolds-for-improved-stem-cell-cardiomyogenic-differentiation
#14
Shida Miao, Haitao Cui, Margaret Nowicki, Se-Jun Lee, Jose Almeida, Xuan Zhou, Wei Zhu, Xiaoliang Yao, Fahed Masood, Michael W Plesniak, Muhammad Mohiuddin, Lijie Grace Zhang
4D printing is a highly innovative additive manufacturing process for fabricate smart structures with the ability to transform over time. Significantly different from regular 4D printing techniques, this study focuses on creating novel 4D hierarchical micropatterns using a unique photolithographic-stereolithographic-tandem strategy (PSTS) with smart soybean oil epoxidized acrylate (SOEA) inks for effectively regulating human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) cardiomyogenic behaviors. The 4D effect refers to autonomous conversion of the surficial-patterned scaffold into a pre-designed construct through an external stimulus delivered immediately after printing...
April 13, 2018: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651156/efficient-differentiation-of-cardiomyocytes-and-generation-of-calcium-sensor-reporter-lines-from-nonhuman-primate-ipscs
#15
Yongshun Lin, Huimin Liu, Michael Klein, John Ostrominski, So Gun Hong, Ravi Chandra Yada, Guibin Chen, Keron Navarengom, Robin Schwartzbeck, Hong San, Zu-Xi Yu, Chengyu Liu, Kaari Linask, Jeanette Beers, Lugui Qiu, Cynthia E Dunbar, Manfred Boehm, Jizhong Zou
Nonhuman primate (NHP) models are more predictive than rodent models for developing induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based cell therapy, but robust and reproducible NHP iPSC-cardiomyocyte differentiation protocols are lacking for cardiomyopathies research. We developed a method to differentiate integration-free rhesus macaque iPSCs (RhiPSCs) into cardiomyocytes with >85% purity in 10 days, using fully chemically defined conditions. To enable visualization of intracellular calcium flux in beating cardiomyocytes, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to stably knock-in genetically encoded calcium indicators at the rhesus AAVS1 safe harbor locus...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648634/personalizing-therapy-for-atrial-fibrillation-the-role-of-stem-cell-and-in-silico-disease-models
#16
Scott Barichello, Jason D Roberts, Peter Backx, Patrick Boyle, Zachary Laksman
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with substantial morbidity. There is considerable inter-patient variability in the pathologic processes that promote AF, and this variability likely has a significant genetic basis. Clinically this is reflected by the observation that anti-arrhythmic drugs (AADs) and interventional procedures have highly variable efficacy, and this highlights the need for adopting a more efficacious personalized approach. We explore recent advancements in both in silico and stem cell disease models that set the stage for a personalized approach...
April 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644628/quantitatively-characterizing-drug-induced-arrhythmic-contractile-motions-of-human-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#17
Plansky Hoang, Nathaniel Huebsch, Shin Hyuk Bang, Brian A Siemons, Bruce R Conklin, Kevin E Healy, Zhen Ma, Sabir Jacquir
Quantification of abnormal contractile motions of cardiac tissue has been a noteworthy challenge and significant limitation in assessing and classifying the drug-induced arrhythmias (i.e. Torsades de pointes). To overcome these challenges, researchers have taken advantage of computational image processing tools to measure contractile motion from cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CMs). However, the amplitude and frequency analysis of contractile motion waveforms doesn't produce sufficient information to objectively classify the degree of variations between two or more sets of cardiac contractile motions...
April 12, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642402/therapeutic-use-of-stem-cells-for-myocardial-infarction
#18
REVIEW
Mariah Madigan, Rony Atoui
Myocardial infarction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although medical and surgical treatments can significantly improve patient outcomes, no treatment currently available is able to generate new contractile tissue or reverse ischemic myocardium. Driven by the recent/novel understanding that regenerative processes do exist in the myocardium-tissue previously thought not to possess regenerative properties-the use of stem cells has emerged as a promising therapeutic approach with high expectations...
April 6, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629881/propofol-a-safe-anaesthetic-drug-in-experimental-cardiac-surgery-in-rabbits
#19
Enrico Giuliani, Antonio Manenti, Alberto Barbieri, Alberto Farinetti, Anna Vittoria Mattioli
ACKGROUND: Experimental surgery needs a pharmacological approach that can interfere with cardiac function. CASE REPORT: In a animal model of regenerative medicine of myocardium we use an anaesthesiological protocol that included Propofol, a benzodiazepine (Midazolam) and an alpha-2 adrenergic agent. RESULTS: In a group of 15 rabbits undergoing cardiac surgery we reported 1 arrhythmic complication during stem cell injection. DISCUSSION: The functional cardio- respiratory depressor activity of Propofol was compensated by alpha-2 adrenergic drugs, avoiding serious complications...
2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628472/hcn4-overexpressing-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-generate-a-new-rapid-rhythm-in-rats-with-bradycardia
#20
Yukihiro Saito, Kazufumi Nakamura, Masashi Yoshida, Hiroki Sugiyama, Makoto Takano, Satoshi Nagase, Hiroshi Morita, Kengo F Kusano, Hiroshi Ito
A biological pacemaker is expected to solve the persisting problems of an artificial cardiac pacemaker including short battery life, lead breaks, infection, and electromagnetic interference. We previously reported HCN4 overexpression enhances pacemaking ability of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (mESC-CMs) in vitro. However, the effect of these cells on bradycardia in vivo has remained unclear. Therefore, we transplanted HCN4-overexpressing mESC-CMs into bradycardia model animals and investigated whether they could function as a biological pacemaker...
April 6, 2018: International Heart Journal
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