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Cardiac stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237394/developmental-changes-in-the-balance-of-glycolytic-atp-production-and-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-ventricular-cells-a-simulation-study
#1
Hitomi I Sano, Tamami Toki, Yasuhiro Naito, Masaru Tomita
The developmental program of the heart requires accurate regulation to ensure continuous circulation and simultaneous cardiac morphogenesis, because any functional abnormalities may progress to congenital heart malformation. Notably, energy metabolism in fetal ventricular cells is regulated in a manner that differs from adult ventricular cells: fetal cardiomyocytes generally have immature mitochondria and fetal ventricular cells show greater dependence on glycolytic ATP production. However, although various characteristics of energy metabolism in fetal ventricular cells have been reported, to our knowledge, a quantitative description of the contributions of these factors to fetal ventricular cell functions has not yet been established...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231509/a-single-injection-of-protein-loaded-coacervate-gel-significantly-improves-cardiac-function-post-infarction
#2
H K Awada, D W Long, Z Wang, M P Hwang, K Kim, Y Wang
After myocardial infarction (MI), the heart undergoes fibrotic pathological remodeling instead of repair and regeneration. With multiple pathologies developing after MI, treatment using several proteins is expected to address this range of pathologies more effectively than a single-agent therapy. A factorial design of experiments study guided us to combine three complementary factors in one injection: tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) was embedded in a fibrin gel for signaling in the initial phase of the treatment, while basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and stromal cell-derived factor 1-alpha (SDF-1α) were embedded in heparin-based coacervates for sustained release and distributed within the same fibrin gel to exert their effects over a longer period...
February 17, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231436/myocardial-homing-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-following-intrapericardial-application-and-amplification-by-inflammation-an-experimental-pilot-study
#3
Nina Jung, Heinz Rupp, Rembert Koczulla, Claus Vogelmeier, Peter Alter
Recent studies demonstrated potential effects of stem cells on cardiac function in heart failure. However, influences of the technique of application remained undetermined. In the present study, the pericardial sac was used as depot for fluorescent-labeled mesenchymal stem cells in rats. To evaluate influences of inflammation on cell homing, a sterile pericarditis was induced by talc. It is shown that intrapericardial stem cells application is sufficient to provide myocardial penetration. The extent of homing was amplified by inflammation in a talc-induced pericarditis...
February 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229427/stem-cell-exosomes-cell-freetherapy-for-organ-repair
#4
Mohsin Khan, Raj Kishore
Cardiovascular disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. The damaged cardiac tissue is unable to repair itself following injury warranting the development of alternate therapies. Cell therapy has emerged recently as a viable treatment option resulting in significant improvement in cardiac function. Nevertheless, donated stem cells are hard to find in the heart after transplantation leading to the hypothesis that release of extracellular factors by stem cells is primarily responsible for the beneficial effect of cell therapy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229425/optimal-environmental-stiffness-for-stem-cell-mediated-ischemic-myocardium-repair
#5
Honghai Liu, Christian Paul, Meifeng Xu
Cardiovascular diseases related to myocardial infarction (MI) contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality worldwide. The loss of cardiomyocytes during MI is a key factor in the impairment of cardiac-pump functions. Employing cell transplantation has shown great potential as a therapeutic approach in regenerating ischemic myocardium. Several studies have suggested that the therapeutic effects of stem cells vary based on the timing of cell administration. It has been clearly established that the myocardium post-infarction experiences a time-dependent stiffness change, and many studies have highlighted the importance of stiffness (elasticity) of microenvironment on modulating the fate and function of stem cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228287/adipose-derived-stem-cells-combined-with-neuregulin-microparticles-for-efficient-cardiac-repair
#6
EDITORIAL
Kinam Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224242/next-generation-stem-cell-therapy-genetically-modified-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cardiac-repair-editorial-to-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-enos-over-expression-enhance-cardiac-repair-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction-by-leilei-chen-et-al
#7
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223232/the-versatility-and-paradox-of-gdf-11
#8
REVIEW
A Jamaiyar, W Wan, D M Janota, M K Enrick, W M Chilian, L Yin
In addition to its roles in embryonic development, Growth and Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF 11) has recently drawn much interest about its roles in other processes, such as aging. GDF 11 has been shown to play pivotal roles in the rescue of the proliferative and regenerative capabilities of skeletal muscle, neural stem cells and cardiomyocytes. We would be remiss not to point that some controversy exists regarding the role of GDF 11 in biological processes and whether it will serve as a therapeutic agent. The latest studies have shown that the level of circulating GDF 11 correlates with the outcomes of patients with cardiovascular diseases, cancer and uremia...
February 14, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223123/proarrhythmia-liability-assessment-and-the-comprehensive-in-vitro-proarrhythmia-assay-cipa-an-industry-survey-on-current-practice
#9
Simon Authier, Michael K Pugsley, John E Koerner, Bernard Fermini, William S Redfern, Jean-Pierre Valentin, Hugo M Vargas, Derek J Leishman, Krystle Correll, Michael J Curtis
INTRODUCTION: The Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) has conducted a survey of its membership to identify industry practices related to testing considered in the Comprehensive In vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA). METHODS: Survey topics included nonclinical approaches to address proarrhythmia issues, conduct of in silico studies, in vitro ion channel testing methods used, drugs used as positive controls during the conduct of cardiac ion channel studies, types of arrhythmias observed in non-clinical studies and use of the anticipated CiPA ion channel assay...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220995/development-of-hydrogels-for-regenerative-engineering
#10
REVIEW
Xiaofei Guan, Meltem Avci-Adali, Emine Alarçin, Hao Cheng, Sara Saheb Kashaf, Yuxiao Li, Aditya Chawla, Hae Lin Jang, Ali Khademhosseini
The aim of regenerative engineering is to restore complex tissues and biological systems through convergence in the fields of advanced biomaterials, stem cell science, and developmental biology. Hydrogels are one of the most attractive biomaterials for regenerative engineering, since they can be engineered into tissue mimetic 3D scaffolds to support cell growth due to their similarity to native extracellular matrix. Advanced nano- and micro-technologies have dramatically increased the ability to control properties and functionalities of hydrogel materials by facilitating biomimetic fabrication of more sophisticated compositions and architectures, thus extending our understanding of cell-matrix interactions at the nanoscale...
February 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220464/perspectives-and-challenges-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-cardiac-arrhythmia-research
#11
REVIEW
Alexander Goedel, Ilaria My, Daniel Sinnecker, Alessandra Moretti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The promises of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for modeling arrhythmogenic disease, but also for drug discovery and toxicity tests, are straightforward and exciting. However, the full potential of this new technology has not been fully realized yet. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art research in arrhythmogenic disease modeling and drug discovery and an outlook of what can be expected from the second decade of hiPSC-based arrhythmia research...
March 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219898/sk4-k-channels-are-therapeutic-targets-for-the-treatment-of-cardiac-arrhythmias
#12
Shiraz Haron-Khun, David Weisbrod, Hanna Bueno, Dor Yadin, Joachim Behar, Asher Peretz, Ofer Binah, Edith Hochhauser, Michael Eldar, Yael Yaniv, Michael Arad, Bernard Attali
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a stress-provoked ventricular arrhythmia, which also manifests sinoatrial node (SAN) dysfunction. We recently showed that SK4 calcium-activated potassium channels are important for automaticity of cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells. Here SK4 channels were identified in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from healthy and CPVT2 patients bearing a mutation in calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2-D307H) and in SAN cells from WT and CASQ2-D307H knock-in (KI) mice...
February 20, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218286/vinculin-variant-m94i-identified-in-sudden-unexplained-nocturnal-death-syndrome-decreases-cardiac-sodium-current
#13
Jianding Cheng, John W Kyle, Brandi Wiedmeyer, Di Lang, Ravi Vaidyanathan, Jonathan C Makielski
Sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS) remains an autopsy negative disorder with unclear etiology. Vinculin (VCL) was linked to sudden arrhythmia death in VCL knockout mice prior to the appearance of cardiomyopathy. We hypothesized VCL mutations underlie risk for SUNDS. A rare heterozygous variant VCL-M94I was found in a SUNDS victim who suffered sudden nocturnal tachypnea and lacked pathogenic variants in known arrhythmia-causing genes. VCL was identified to interact with SCN5A in vitro/vivo. The VCL-M94I was co-expressed with the cardiac sodium channel in HEK293 cells and also overexpressed in induced pluripotent stem cells derived cardiomyocytes (iPSCs-CM)...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216140/expression-profiles-of-cancer-stem-cell-markers-cd133-cd44-musashi-1-and-epcam-in-the-cardiac-mucosa-barrett-s-esophagus-early-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-advanced-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-sequence
#14
Anna Mokrowiecka, Lothar Veits, Christina Falkeis, Jacek Musial, Radzislaw Kordek, Mariusz Lochowski, Jozef Kozak, Agnieszka Wierzchniewska-Lawska, Michael Vieth, Ewa Malecka-Panas
INTRODUCTION: Barrett's esophagus (BE), which develops as a result of gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a preneoplastic condition for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). A new hypothesis suggests that cancer is a disease of stem cells, however, their expression and pathways in BE - EAC sequence are not fully elucidated yet. AIMS: We used a panel of putative cancer stem cells markers to identify stem cells in consecutive steps of BE-related cancer progression. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 58 patients with normal cardiac mucosa (n=5), BE (n=14), early EAC (pT1) from mucosal resection (n=17) and advanced EAC (pT1-T4) from postoperative specimens (n=22)...
December 30, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203568/mirna-sequence-indicates-that-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-exosomes-have-similar-mechanism-to-enhance-cardiac-repair
#15
Lianbo Shao, Yu Zhang, Beibei Lan, Juanjuan Wang, Zhiwei Zhang, Lulu Zhang, Pengli Xiao, Qingyou Meng, Yong-Jian Geng, Xi-Yong Yu, Yangxin Li
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) repair infarcted heart through paracrine mechanism. We sought to compare the effectiveness of MSCs and MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) in repairing infarcted hearts and to identify how MSC-Exo mediated cardiac repair is regulated. In a rat myocardial infarction model, we found that MSC-Exo inhibited cardiac fibrosis, inflammation, and improved cardiac function. The beneficial effects of MSC-Exo were significantly superior compared to that of MSCs. To explore the potential mechanisms underlying MSC-Exo's effects, we performed several in vitro experiments and miRNA-sequence analysis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202772/high-throughput-screening-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-cardiotoxicity-with-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Arun Sharma, Paul W Burridge, Wesley L McKeithan, Ricardo Serrano, Praveen Shukla, Nazish Sayed, Jared M Churko, Tomoya Kitani, Haodi Wu, Alexandra Holmström, Elena Matsa, Yuan Zhang, Anusha Kumar, Alice C Fan, Juan C Del Álamo, Sean M Wu, Javid J Moslehi, Mark Mercola, Joseph C Wu
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), despite their efficacy as anticancer therapeutics, are associated with cardiovascular side effects ranging from induced arrhythmias to heart failure. We used human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), generated from 11 healthy individuals and 2 patients receiving cancer treatment, to screen U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved TKIs for cardiotoxicities by measuring alterations in cardiomyocyte viability, contractility, electrophysiology, calcium handling, and signaling...
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202059/cardiosphere-derived-cells-do-not-improve-cardiac-function-in-rats-with-cardiac-failure
#17
Taís Hanae Kasai-Brunswick, Andréa Rodrigues da Costa, Raiana Andrade Quintanilha Barbosa, Bruna Farjun, Fernanda Cristina Paccola Mesquita, Danúbia Silva Dos Santos, Isalira Peroba Ramos, Grazielle Suhett, Guilherme Visconde Brasil, Sandro Torrentes da Cunha, José Oscar R Brito, Juliana do Amaral Passipieri, Adriana Bastos Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Heart failure represents an important public health issue due to its high costs and growing incidence worldwide. Evidence showing the regenerative potential of postmitotic heart tissue has suggested the existence of endogenous cardiac stem cells in adult hearts. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDC) constitute a candidate pool of such cardiac stem cells. Previous studies using acute myocardial infarction (MI) models in rodents demonstrated an improvement in cardiac function after cell therapy with CDC...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202025/mild-electrical-stimulation-with-heat-shock-guides-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-into-pdx1-expressing-cells-within-the-definitive-endoderm
#18
Tomoaki Koga, Nobuaki Shiraki, Shuichiro Yano, Mary Ann Suico, Saori Morino-Koga, Takashi Sato, Tsuyoshi Shuto, Shoen Kume, Hirofumi Kai
BACKGROUND: Because of the increasing number of diabetic patients, it is important to generate pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (Pdx1)-expressing cells, which are capable of differentiating into pancreatic endocrine β cells. Mild electrical stimulation was reported to modulate the differentiation of ES cells into ectoderm-derived neuronal cells or mesoderm-derived cardiac cells. RESULTS: In this study, we report that mild electrical stimulation with heat shock (MET) potentiates the differentiation of ES cells into definitive endoderm-derived Pdx1-expressing cells...
February 15, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199972/generation-of-induced-cardiac-progenitor-cells-via-somatic-reprogramming
#19
Jianyong Xu, Wei Lian, Lingyun Li, Zhong Huang
It has been demonstrated that cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) represent a more effective cell-based therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction. Unfortunately, their therapeutic application is limited by low yield of cell harvesting, declining quality and quantity during the ageing process, and the need for highly invasive heart biopsy. Therefore, there is an emerging interest in generating CPC-like stem cells from somatic cells via somatic reprogramming. This novel approach would provide an unlimited source of stem cells with cardiac differentiation potential...
February 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197667/discovery-and-progress-of-direct-cardiac-reprogramming
#20
REVIEW
Hidenori Kojima, Masaki Ieda
Cardiac disease remains a major cause of death worldwide. Direct cardiac reprogramming has emerged as a promising approach for cardiac regenerative therapy. After the discovery of MyoD, a master regulator for skeletal muscle, other single cardiac reprogramming factors (master regulators) have been sought. Discovery of cardiac reprogramming factors was inspired by the finding that multiple, but not single, transcription factors were needed to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts. We first reported a combination of cardiac-specific transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT), that could convert mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells, which were designated as induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs)...
February 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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