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Cardiac stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818208/catecholamine-dependent-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-a-pluripotent-stem-cell-model%C3%A2-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#1
Thomas Borchert, Daniela Hübscher, Celina I Guessoum, Tuan-Dinh D Lam, Jelena R Ghadri, Isabel N Schellinger, Malte Tiburcy, Norman Y Liaw, Yun Li, Jan Haas, Samuel Sossalla, Mia A Huber, Lukas Cyganek, Claudius Jacobshagen, Ralf Dressel, Uwe Raaz, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Kaomei Guan, Holger Thiele, Benjamin Meder, Bernd Wollnik, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Thomas F Lüscher, Gerd Hasenfuss, Christian Templin, Katrin Streckfuss-Bömeke
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by an acute left ventricular dysfunction and is associated with life-threating complications in the acute phase. The underlying disease mechanism in TTS is still unknown. A genetic basis has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to establish an in vitro induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of TTS, to test the hypothesis of altered β-adrenergic signaling in TTS iPSC-cardiomyocytes (CMs), and to explore whether genetic susceptibility underlies the pathophysiology of TTS...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817660/cited4-is-related-to-cardiogenic-induction-and-maintenance-of-proliferation-capacity-of-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-during-in-vitro-cardiogenesis
#2
Junichiro Miake, Tomomi Notsu, Katsumi Higaki, Kyoko Hidaka, Takayuki Morisaki, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Ichiro Hisatome
Cardiac progenitor cells have a limited proliferative capacity. The CREB-binding protein/p300-interacting transactivator, with the Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain (Cited) gene family, regulates gene transcription. Increased expression of the Cited4 gene in an adult mouse is associated with exercise-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and proliferation. However, the expression patterns and functional roles of the Cited4 gene during cardiogenesis are largely unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the expression patterns and functional roles of the Cited4 gene during in vitro cardiogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815865/bone-marrow-and-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-cardiac-fibrosis-induced-by-methotrexate-in-rats
#3
Ebtehal Mohammad Fikry, Wedad A Hassan, Amany M Gad
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an ideal adult stem cell with capacity for self-renewal and differentiation with an extensive tissue distribution. The present study evaluates the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) or adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) against the development of methotrexate (MTX)-induced cardiac fibrosis versus dexamethasone (DEX). Rats were allocated into five groups; group 1, received normal saline orally; group 2, received MTX (14 mg/kg/week for 2 weeks); groups 3 and 4, treated once with 2 × 10(6) cells of MTX + BM-MSCs and MTX + AD-MSCs, respectively; and group 5, MTX + DEX (0...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815011/genomic-upregulation-of-cardiac-cav1-2%C3%AE-and-ncx1-by-estrogen-in-women
#4
Rita Papp, Glenna C L Bett, Agnieszka Lis, Randall L Rasmusson, István Baczkó, András Varró, Guy Salama
BACKGROUND: Women have a higher risk of lethal arrhythmias than men in long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), but the mechanisms remain uncertain due to the limited availability of healthy control human tissue. We have previously reported that in female rabbits, estrogen increases arrhythmia risk in drug-induced LQTS2 by upregulating L-type Ca(2+) (ICa,L) and sodium-calcium exchange (INCX) currents at the base of the epicardium by a genomic mechanism. This study investigates if the effects of estrogen on rabbit ICa,L and INCX apply to human hearts...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813672/chromatin-and-transcriptional-analysis-of-mesoderm-progenitor-cells-identifies-hopx-as-a-regulator-of-primitive-hematopoiesis
#5
Nathan J Palpant, Yuliang Wang, Brandon Hadland, Rebecca J Zaunbrecher, Meredith Redd, Daniel Jones, Lil Pabon, Rajan Jain, Jonathan Epstein, Walter L Ruzzo, Ying Zheng, Irwin Bernstein, Adam Margolin, Charles E Murry
We analyzed chromatin dynamics and transcriptional activity of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) and KDR(+)/CD34(+) endothelial cells generated from different mesodermal origins. Using an unbiased algorithm to hierarchically rank genes modulated at the level of chromatin and transcription, we identified candidate regulators of mesodermal lineage determination. HOPX, a non-DNA-binding homeodomain protein, was identified as a candidate regulator of blood-forming endothelial cells...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807015/genomic-upregulation-of-cardiac-cav1-2%C3%AE-and-ncx1-by-estrogen-in-women
#6
Rita Papp, Glenna C L Bett, Agnieszka Lis, Randall L Rasmusson, István Baczkó, András Varró, Guy Salama
BACKGROUND: Women have a higher risk of lethal arrhythmias than men in long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), but the mechanisms remain uncertain due to the limited availability of healthy control human tissue. We have previously reported that in female rabbits, estrogen increases arrhythmia risk in drug-induced LQTS2 by upregulating L-type Ca(2+) (ICa,L) and sodium-calcium exchange (INCX) currents at the base of the epicardium by a genomic mechanism. This study investigates if the effects of estrogen on rabbit ICa,L and INCX apply to human hearts...
August 14, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807014/epigenetic-reprogramming-converts-human-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-functional-cardiomyocytes-by-differential-regulation-of-wnt-mediators
#7
G Bhuvanalakshmi, Frank Arfuso, Alan Prem Kumar, Arun Dharmarajan, Sudha Warrier
BACKGROUND: Lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to cardiac differentiation is controlled by transcription factors that are regulated by epigenetic events, mainly histone deacetylation and promoter DNA methylation. Here, we studied the differentiation of human Wharton's jelly MSCs (WJMSCs) into the cardiomyocyte lineage via epigenetic manipulations. METHODS: We introduced these changes using inhibitors of DNA methyl transferase and histone deacetylase, DC301, DC302, and DC303, in various combinations...
August 14, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804458/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-cigarette-smoke-induced-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction
#8
Yingmin Liang, Xiang Li, Yuelin Zhang, Sze Chun Yeung, Zhe Zhen, Mary S M Ip, Hung Fat Tse, Qizhou Lian, Judith C W Mak
The strong relationship between cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been well-documented, but the mechanisms by which smoking increases CVD risk appear to be multifactorial and incompletely understood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are regarded as an important candidate for cell-based therapy in CVD. We hypothesized that MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-MSCs) or bone marrow (BM-MSCs) might alleviate cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cardiac injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BM-MSCs or iPSC-MSCs on CS-induced changes in serum and cardiac lipid profiles, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as cardiac function in a rat model of passive smoking...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803917/sca1-cells-from-the-heart-possess-a-molecular-circadian-clock-and-display-circadian-oscillations-in-cellular-functions
#9
Bastiaan C Du Pré, Evelyne J Demkes, Dries A M Feyen, Pieterjan Dierickx, Sandra Crnko, Bart J M Kok, Joost P G Sluijter, Pieter A Doevendans, Marc A Vos, Toon A B Van Veen, Linda W Van Laake
Stem cell antigen 1-positive (SCA1(+)) cells (SPCs) have been investigated in cell-based cardiac repair and pharmacological research, although improved cardiac function after injection has been variable and the mode of action remains unclear. Circadian (24-hr) rhythms are biorhythms regulated by molecular clocks that play an important role in (patho)physiology. Here, we describe (1) the presence of a molecular circadian clock in SPCs and (2) circadian rhythmicity in SPC function. We isolated SPCs from human fetal heart and found that these cells possess a molecular clock based on typical oscillations in core clock components BMAL1 and CRY1...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803602/short-and-long-term-therapeutic-efficacies-of-intravenous-transplantation-of-bone-marrow-stem-cells-on-cardiac-function-in-rats-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#10
Can Jiang, Dong Zheng, Yun-Lu Feng, Jun Guo, Hai-Rui Li, Ai-Dong Zhang
Objective To investigate the short- and long-term therapeutic efficacies of intravenous trans- plantation of bone marrow stem cells (MSCs) in rats with experimental myocardial infarction by meta- analysis. Methods Randomized controlled trials were systematically searched from PubMed, Science Citation Index (SCI), Chinese journal full-text database (CJFD) up to December 2014. While the experimental groups (MSCs groups) were injected MSCs intravenously, the control groups were injected Delubecco's minimum essential medium (DMEM) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS)...
September 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801517/effect-of-densely-ionizing-radiation-on-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#11
Erdene Baljinnyam, Sundararajan Venkatesh, Richard Gordan, Satvik Mareedu, Jianyi Zhang, Lai-Hua Xie, Edouard I Azzam, Carolyn K Suzuki, Diego Fraidenraich
The process of human cardiac development can be faithfully recapitulated in a culture dish with human pluripotent stem cells, where the impact of environmental stressors can be evaluated. The consequences of ionizing radiation exposure on human cardiac differentiation are largely unknown. In this study, human-induced pluripotent stem cell cultures (hiPSCs) were subjected to an external beam of 3.7 MeV α-particles at low mean absorbed doses of 0.5, 3, and 10 cGy. Subsequently, the hiPSCs were differentiated into beating cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-CMs)...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800128/adult-cardiac-stem-cells-are-multipotent-and-robustly-myogenic-c-kit-expression-is-necessary-but-not-sufficient-for-their-identification
#12
Carla Vicinanza, Iolanda Aquila, Mariangela Scalise, Francesca Cristiano, Fabiola Marino, Eleonora Cianflone, Teresa Mancuso, Pina Marotta, Walter Sacco, Fiona C Lewis, Liam Couch, Victoria Shone, Giulia Gritti, Annalaura Torella, Andrew J Smith, Cesare Mn Terracciano, Domenico Britti, Pierangelo Veltri, Ciro Indolfi, Bernardo Nadal-Ginard, Georgina M Ellison-Hughes, Daniele Torella
Multipotent adult resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) were first identified by the expression of c-kit, the stem cell factor receptor. However, in the adult myocardium c-kit alone cannot distinguish CSCs from other c-kit-expressing (c-kit(pos)) cells. The adult heart indeed contains a heterogeneous mixture of c-kit(pos) cells, mainly composed of mast and endothelial/progenitor cells. This heterogeneity of cardiac c-kit(pos) cells has generated confusion and controversy about the existence and role of CSCs in the adult heart...
August 11, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796841/single-cell-qpcr-reveals-that-additional-hand2-and-microrna-1-facilitate-the-early-reprogramming-progress-of-seven-factor-induced-human-myocytes
#13
Emre Bektik, Adrienne Dennis, Prateek Prasanna, Anant Madabhushi, Ji-Dong Fu
The direct reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocyte (CM)-like cells (iCMs) holds great promise in restoring heart function. We previously found that human fibroblasts could be reprogrammed toward CM-like cells by 7 reprogramming factors; however, iCM reprogramming in human fibroblasts is both more difficult and more time-intensive than that in mouse cells. In this study, we investigated if additional reprogramming factors could quantitatively and/or qualitatively improve 7-factor-mediated human iCM reprogramming by single-cell quantitative PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795648/human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-self-arrange-with-areas-of-different-subtypes-during-differentiation
#14
Maj Linea Vestergaard, Søren J Grubb, Karen Koefod Rasmussen, Zoe Anderson-Jenkins, Kristina Grunnet-Lauridsen, Kristine Calloe, Christian Clausen, Søren T Christensen, Kjeld Møllgård, Claus Yding Andersen
The derivation of functional cardiomyocytes (CMs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) represents a unique way of studying human cardiogenesis, including the development of CM subtypes. In this study, we investigated the development and organization of CMs derived from hESCs (hESC-CMs) and examined how the expression of CM subtypes correspond to human in vivo cardiogenesis. Beating clusters were used to determine cardiac differentiation, which was evaluated by the expression of cardiac genes GATA4 and TNNT2 and subcellular localization of GATA4 and NKX2...
August 10, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794400/tbx18-positive-cells-differentiated-from-murine-es-cells-serve-as-proepicardial-progenitors-to-give-rise-to-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-fibroblasts
#15
Nobuhito Ikeda, Natsumi Nakazawa, Yasutaka Kurata, Hisako Yaura, Fikri Taufiq, Hiroyuki Minato, Akio Yoshida, Haruaki Ninomiya, Yuji Nakayama, Masanari Kuwabara, Yasuaki Shirayoshi, Ichiro Hisatome
Proepicardium (PE) cells generate cardiac fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells that form coronary arteries. T-box18 (Tbx18) is a well-known marker of PE cells and epicardium. We examined whether Tbx18-positive cells differentiated from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells serve as PE progenitors to give rise to vascular SMCs and fibroblasts. To collect Tbx18-positive cells, we established Tbx18-EGFP knock-in mouse ES cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We harvested the Tbx18-EGFP-positive cells on day 8, 10 and 14 after the initiation of differentiation; Tbx18 mRNA was enriched on day 8 to 14 and Snai2 mRNA was enriched on day 8 and 10, indicating successful collection of Tbx18-positive cells...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794185/id-genes-are-essential-for-early-heart-formation
#16
Thomas J Cunningham, Michael S Yu, Wesley L McKeithan, Sean Spiering, Florent Carrette, Chun-Teng Huang, Paul J Bushway, Matthew Tierney, Sonia Albini, Mauro Giacca, Miguel Mano, Pier Lorenzo Puri, Alessandra Sacco, Pilar Ruiz-Lozano, Jean-Francois Riou, Muriel Umbhauer, Gregg Duester, Mark Mercola, Alexandre R Colas
Deciphering the fundamental mechanisms controlling cardiac specification is critical for our understanding of how heart formation is initiated during embryonic development and for applying stem cell biology to regenerative medicine and disease modeling. Using systematic and unbiased functional screening approaches, we discovered that the Id family of helix-loop-helix proteins is both necessary and sufficient to direct cardiac mesoderm formation in frog embryos and human embryonic stem cells. Mechanistically, Id proteins specify cardiac cell fate by repressing two inhibitors of cardiogenic mesoderm formation-Tcf3 and Foxa2-and activating inducers Evx1, Grrp1, and Mesp1...
August 9, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793247/downregulation-of-lgr5-expression-inhibits-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-and-potentiates-endothelial-differentiation-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Rajneesh Jha, Monalisa Singh, Qingling Wu, Cinsley Gentillon, Marcela K Preininger, Chunhui Xu
Understanding molecules involved in differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells is important in advancing hPSCs for cell therapy and drug testing. Here, we report that LGR5, a leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor, plays a critical role in hPSC differentiation into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. LGR5 expression was transiently upregulated during the early stage of cardiomyocyte differentiation, and knockdown of LGR5 resulted in reduced expression of cardiomyocyte-associated markers and poor cardiac differentiation...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791052/inhibition-of-histone-methyltransferase-histone-deacetylase-and-%C3%AE-catenin-synergistically-enhance-the-cardiac-potential-of-bone-marrow-cells
#18
Jinpu Yang, Keerat Kaur, John G Edwards, Carol A Eisenberg, Leonard M Eisenberg
Previously, we reported that treatment with the G9a histone methyltransferase inhibitor BIX01294 causes bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to exhibit a cardiocompetent phenotype, as indicated by the induction of the precardiac markers Mesp1 and brachyury. Here, we report that combining the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) with BIX01294 synergistically enhances MSC cardiogenesis. Although TSA by itself had no effect on cardiac gene expression, coaddition of TSA to MSC cultures enhanced BIX01294-induced levels of Mesp1 and brachyury expression 5...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782514/exosomes-as-agents-of-change-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#19
REVIEW
A J Poe, A A Knowlton
Exosomes have an evolving role in paracrine and autocrine signaling, which is enhanced because these lipid vesicles are quite stable and can deliver miRNA, DNA, protein and other molecules to cells throughout the body. Most cell types release exosomes, and exosomes are found in all biological fluids, making them accessible biomarkers. Significantly, exosomes can carry a biologically potent cargo, which can alter the phenotype of recipient cells. In the cardiovascular system exosomes have been primarily studied for their role in mediating the beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells after myocardial injury...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781130/cardiac-function-improvement-and-bone-marrow-response-outcome-analysis-of-the-randomized-perfect-phase-iii-clinical-trial-of-intramyocardial-cd133-application-after-myocardial-infarction
#20
Gustav Steinhoff, Julia Nesteruk, Markus Wolfien, Günther Kundt, Jochen Börgermann, Robert David, Jens Garbade, Jana Große, Axel Haverich, Holger Hennig, Alexander Kaminski, Joachim Lotz, Friedrich-Wilhelm Mohr, Paula Müller, Robert Oostendorp, Ulrike Ruch, Samir Sarikouch, Anna Skorska, Christof Stamm, Gudrun Tiedemann, Florian Mathias Wagner, Olaf Wolkenhauer
OBJECTIVE: The phase III clinical trial PERFECT was designed to assess clinical safety and efficacy of intramyocardial CD133(+) bone marrow stem cell treatment combined with CABG for induction of cardiac repair. DESIGN: Multicentre, double-blinded, randomised placebo controlled trial. SETTING: The study was conducted across six centres in Germany October 2009 through March 2016 and stopped due slow recruitment after positive interim analysis in March 2015...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
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