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Junko Funaki, Michiko Minami, Sachie Abe, Reiko Ueda, Wakako Eto, Kenji Kugino, Mutsuko Kugino, Keiko Abe, Kiyoshi Toko, Tomiko Asakura
: Raw egg white undergoes sol-gel transition by heat treatment, which changes it to an elastic gel. Here, protease treatment to render a new texture to heated egg white gel was applied. Protease-treated gels exhibited ductile flow without obvious rupture points. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that in protease-treated gels, protein aggregates were distributed more homogeneously compared with that observed in the untreated control, probably because ovalbumin was digested into small peptides as revealed by SDS-PAGE...
February 2017: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation
Qian Li, Hao Li, Gaojun Wang, Xiaochang Wang
A continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with a high feeding frequency (HFF) of once every 15min was employed in order to ease the loading shock frequently occurred in digester with a low feeding frequency. The effects of the organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature on the co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge was evaluated in a 302-day long-term experiment. Due to the high hydrolysis rate, the maximum CH4 yield in a thermophilic reactor was 407mL CH4/gVSadded, a value that was significantly higher than the 350mL CH4/gVSadded that occurred in a mesophilic reactor...
February 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Matthew D Alvin, Karen M Horton, Pamela T Johnson
Medical imaging procedures have become a national target in the campaign to reduce wasteful practices. At a minimum, radiology residency programs must integrate high-value curricula and train residents to practice in accordance with value-based principles and new healthcare policy. A greater portion of radiology resident education needs to be devoted to appropriateness education and consultancy training. Ideally, radiology training programs will instill in residents the importance of embracing the movement and leading the change...
February 23, 2017: Academic Radiology
Bin Guo, Bo Liu, Jian Yang, Shengen Zhang
Safe disposal of solid wastes containing heavy metals is a significant task for environment protection. Immobilization treatment is an effective technology to achieve this task. Cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments are two types of attractive immobilization treatments due to that the heavy metals could be encapsulated in their dense and durable wasteforms. This paper discusses the heavy metal immobilization mechanisms of these methods in detail. Physical encapsulation and chemical stabilization are two fundamental mechanisms that occur simultaneously during the immobilization processes...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
N Basavaiah, R D Mohite, P U Singare, A V R Reddy, R K Singhal, U Blaha
A study on vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility, carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting PAHs was performed in the reclaimed mudflat sediments adjacent to the Thane Creek of Mumbai. The 5-rings PAHs and ΣC-PAHs were more dominant at 120cm depth contributing 52.23% and 60.19% respectively to ∑PAHs. The average ratio values of LMW/HMW PAHs (0.58); Fla/(Fla+Pyr) (0.50); Ant/(Ant+Phe) (0.50); BaA/(Chry+BaA) (0.48); BaP/BghiP (2.06), Phe/Ant (1.03) and BaA/Chr (0.93) indicate that the PAH contamination might have raised due to inefficient combustion and pyrogenic emissions during the open burning of solid waste in the vicinity...
February 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Md Nurul Amin, Carolien Kroeze, Maryna Strokal
Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in many nutrient models. We quantify nutrient export by large rivers to coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, and the associated eutrophication potential in 2000 and 2050. Our new estimates for N and P inputs from human waste are one to two orders of magnitude higher than earlier model calculations...
February 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
A Grosser, E Neczaj, B R Singh, Å R Almås, H Brattebø, M Kacprzak
The feasibility of simultaneous treatment of multiple wastes via co-digestion was studied in semi-continuous mode at mesophilic conditions. The obtained results indicated that sewage sludge, organic fraction of municipal waste (OFMSW) and grease trap sludge (GTS) possess complementary properties that can be combined for successful anaerobic digestion. During the co-digestion period, methane yield and VS removal were significantly higher in comparison to digestion of sewage sludge alone. Addition of GTS to digesters treating sewage sludge resulted in increased VS removal and methane yield up to 13% (from 50 to 56...
February 23, 2017: Environmental Research
Pierre Echaubard, Tomas León, Kulwadee Suwanatrai, Jukkrid Chaiyos, Christina S Kim, Frank F Mallory, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Robert C Spear, Banchob Sripa
Transmissibility is a significant factor in parasite fitness. The rate and magnitude of parasite transmission affect prevalence and infection intensity in individual hosts and are influenced by environmental factors. In this context, the objectives of this study were: (i) to experimentally assess Opisthorchis viverrini miracidia survival and infectivity over time and across temperatures; and (ii) to combine these experimental results with environmental data to build a key component of a transmission model, identifying seasonal windows of transmission risk in hyper-endemic northeastern Thailand...
February 22, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
K C Horvath, E K Miller-Cushon
We investigated the interactive effects of common feeding management factors on the development of feeding and non-nutritive oral behaviors in preweaned calves through the weaning transition. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments that differed by milk-feeding method (teat or bucket) and ad libitum access to chopped timothy hay: control, milk provided by bucket and no access to hay (CON; n = 10); milk provided by bucket and access to hay (H; n = 10); milk provided via a teat and access to hay (TH; n = 10)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Rubia Zahid Gaur, Abid Ali Khan, Surindra Suthar
The duckweeds (DW) are considered as a major problem in tropical aquatic system as they grow very fast and produce enormous rich-biomass, which can be harvested for renewable energy operations. But complex lignocellulosic compounds limit their utility in process like anaerobic digestion. This batch study aimed to analyse characteristics (proximate, ultimate and physico-chemical) and possible utility of DW for anaerobic co-digestion with waste activated sludge (WAS) under mesophilic conditions for 35 d. Two sets of experiment were tested: substrate with and without thermal pre-treatment...
May 2017: Chemosphere
Mianqiang Xue, Naoya Kojima, Takashi Machimura, Akihiro Tokai
Refrigerants provide society with great benefits while have the potential to cause adverse effects on the environment and human health. The present study estimated time-dependent flows and stocks and assessed the effects of refrigerants (R-22, R-410a, and R-32) in household air conditioners in Japan. It was found that stock of R-22 and R-410a peaked at 49,147t in 2000 and 55,994t in 2017, respectively. The largest flow of R-22 and R-410a to waste phase occurred at 3417t/yr. in 2005 and 4011t/yr. in 2023, respectively...
February 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Poonam Singh Nigam
This overview has focused on the options available for the utilisation of residual-biomass generated in distillery and brewery for the production of added-value products. Bio-processing approaches have been reviewed and discussed for the economical bioconversion and utilisation of this waste for the production of bioproducts, such as lactic acid, enzymes, xylitol and animal feed. Though this overview provides several options for the bioprocessing of this residual material, a more suitable one could be chosen according to the processing-facilities available and the amount of residue available in local area...
February 22, 2017: Waste Management
P Moñino, D Aguado, R Barat, E Jiménez, J B Giménez, A Seco, J Ferrer
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of treating the kitchen food waste (FW) jointly with urban wastewater (WW) in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by anaerobic membrane technology (AnMBR). The experience was carried out in six different periods in an AnMBR pilot-plant for a total of 536days, varying the SRT, HRT and the food waste penetration factor (PF) of food waste disposers. The results showed increased methane production of up to 190% at 70days SRT, 24h HRT and 80% PF, compared with WW treatment only...
February 22, 2017: Waste Management
Yujie Ben, Tong Li, Yi Wan, Zhaomin Dong, Jianying Hu
While the exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) for people living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) has been investigated, indirect exposure to MSWI-emitted PCDD/Fs via consumption of local foods has not been well assessed. In this study, the PCDD/F concentration in the local vegetables grown near a MSWI located in Shenzhen, South China, was determined to be 0.92 ± 0.59 pg/g wet weight (ww), significantly higher than that (0...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yiqing Yao, Shulin Chen, Gopi Krishna Kafle
Failure of methane yield is common for anaerobic digestion (AD) of "weak-acid/acid" wastes alone. In order to verify the importance of pH of materials on the process performance and the methane yield, the "weak-base" wastes-poplar wastes (PW) were used as substrate of solid-state AD (SS-AD). The results show that PW could be used for efficient methane yield after NaOH treatment, the total methane yield was 81.1 L/kg volatile solids (VS). PW also could be used for anaerobic co-digestion with high-pH cattle slurry (CM)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
R Yukesh Kannah, S Kavitha, J Rajesh Banu, Ick Tae Yeom, M Johnson
Physiochemical disintegration of waste activated biosolids (WAB) through thermochemical (TC) pretreatment requires high energy and cost for efficient energy generation. Therefore in the present study, an attempt has been made to enhance the biodegrdability and to minimize the operational cost of TC pretreatment by combining it with ozonation. A higher solubilization of about 30.4% was achieved at lesser energy input of about 141.02kJ/kgTS and a ozone dosage of about 0.0012mgO3/mgSS through this combined thermo chemo ozone (TCO3) pretreatment...
February 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Serena Santonicola, Alessandra De Felice, Luigi Cobellis, Nicola Passariello, Angela Peluso, Nicoletta Murru, Maria Carmela Ferrante, Raffaelina Mercogliano
The study compared the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) profile of human milk collected from Italian mothers and different brands of infant formula available on Italian market. Levels of 14 PAHs most frequently occurred in food, PAH markers listed by Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006, and carcinogenic PAHs classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. The average concentrations of total PAHs were 114...
February 20, 2017: Chemosphere
Nathan Martin, Melissa Lombard, Kirk R Jensen, Patrick Kelley, Tara Pratt, Nora Traviss
Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment...
February 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Mark H Yazer, Miguel Lozano, Mark Fung, Jose Kutner, Michael F Murphy, Torunn Oveland Apelseth, Ryszard Pogłód, Kathleen Selleng, Alan Tinmouth, Silvano Wendel, Vered Yahalom
BACKGROUND: Hospital transfusion committees (HTCs) can oversee all aspects of transfusion practice at a hospital. This survey sought to identify which quality variables were being reported at HTCs around the world. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A working party composed of members of the Biomedical Excellence for Safer Transfusion (BEST) collaborative developed a survey of quality variables that could be potentially presented at HTC meetings. The survey was electronically sent to all BEST members who were encouraged to complete it if they were active on an HTC and to send it to other colleagues with similar experience...
February 24, 2017: Transfusion
Anna Quaglietta, Maura Di Saverio, Giuseppe Lucisano, Patrizia Accorsi, Antonio Nicolucci
BACKGROUND: Despite the prophylactic use of platelet transfusion, hemorrhagic complications still represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies. Patient-related factors and characteristics of the transfused product can affect transfusion efficacy. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Platelet Efficacy Score (PEscore), based on patient and product characteristics, to predict the likelihood of a satisfactory platelet transfusion (absolute increment ≥10...
February 24, 2017: Transfusion
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