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Tanya Khara, Martha Mwangome, Moses Ngari, Carmel Dolan
Children can be stunted and wasted at the same time. Having both deficits greatly elevates risk of mortality. The analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence and burden of children aged 6-59 months concurrently wasted and stunted. Data from demographic and health survey and Multi-indicator Cluster Surveys datasets from 84 countries were analysed. Overall prevalence for being wasted, stunted, concurrently wasted, and stunted among children 6 to 59 months was calculated. A pooled prevalence of concurrence was estimated and reported by gender, age, United Nations regions, and contextual categories...
September 25, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Caio T Inácio, Alberto M T Magalhães, Paulo O Souza, Phillip M Chalk, Segundo Urquiaga
Variations in the relative isotopic abundance of C and N (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were measured during the composting of different agricultural wastes using bench-scale bioreactors. Different mixtures of agricultural wastes (horse bedding manure + legume residues; dairy manure + jatropha mill cake; dairy manure + sugarcane residues; dairy manure alone) were used for aerobic-thermophilic composting. No significant differences were found between the δ(13)C values of the feedstock and the final compost, except for dairy manure + sugarcane residues (from initial ratio of -13...
September 25, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
John E Morley, Stefan D Anker
Precision (P4) medicine represents a new medical paradigm that focuses on Personalized, Predictive, Preventive and Participatory approaches. The P4 paradigm is particularly appropriate for moving the care of persons with myopenia forward. Muscular dystrophies are clearly a set of genetically different diseases where genomics are the basis of diagnosis, and genetic modulation via DNA, oligonucleotides and clustered regularly interspaced short palendronic repeats hold great potential for a cure. The utility of personalized genomics for sarcopenia coupled with utilizing a predictive approach for the diagnosis with early preventive strategies is a key to improving sarcopenic outcomes...
September 24, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Yahya Jani, William Hogland
At the southeastern part of Sweden, old art and crystal waste glass has been identified as a hazardous waste due to high weight concentrations of Pb (32.398%), Cd (0.085%), and As (1.976%). The reduction-melting technique was used to investigate the extraction of these trace elements from powder waste glass of particle size < 1 mm. Following a factorial design technique, the experimental results of the reduction-melting method showed that 99.9% of Pb, 100% of Cd, and 99% of As could be extracted. For a batch of 10 g powder waste glass, the found experimental and theoretical optimum operating conditions were 1100 °C of melting temperature, 5 g of Na2CO3, 2 g of carbon, and 120 min of melting time...
September 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michael Ackah
Crude or primitive recycling practices are often adopted in material resource recovery from E-waste in developing nations. Significant human health and environmental impacts may occur because of such practices. Literature on metal(loid)s pollution during E-waste processing is fragmented. Here, I review the health and environmental impacts of E-waste recycling operations and transport pathways of metal(loid)s, dispersed during operations. This paper is organised into five sections. Section 1 relates to the background of global E-waste generation and legal/illegal trade, citing specific cases from Ghana and other developing nations...
September 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S Porselvam, N Soundara Vishal, S V Srinivasan
Intestine waste generated from slaughterhouse (IWS) is difficult to degrade in anaerobic process due to the presence of high protein and lipid contents. However, anaerobic co-digestion helps to increase the degradation of IWS by the addition of carbon-rich food waste (FW). To increase the biogas yield, thermo-alkali pretreatment may be more viable method for the anaerobic digestion of protein and lipid rich wastes. In the present study, Thermo-alkali pretreatment of intestine waste from slaughterhouse and food waste alone and mixing of IWS and FW with different ratios (1:1-1:3) on VS basis have been studied...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Fasil Tiruneh, Ahmad Awan, Abiot Didana, Saumil Doshi
Ritonavir is commonly used in low doses to boost plasma levels of protease inhibitors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. It is also a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450. We present a 50-year-old African American male with past medical history of HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which also included ritonavir and long standing asthma that has been treated with inhaled fluticasone, who presented with back pain. He had central obesity, prominent abdominal striae and wasted extremities on physical examination...
July 17, 2017: Curēus
R Zachary Thompson, Brian Gardner, Thomas Carter, Aric Schadler, Joye Allen, Abby Bailey
OBJECTIVES: To compare time to administration of oral antibiotics in the pediatric emergency department (ED) when antibiotics are stored in the pediatric ED versus when they were dispensed by central pharmacy services within an academic medical center. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients who received a one-time dose of oral antibiotics within the pediatric ED and were subsequently discharged home. Two 3-month time periods were compared to determine the metrics of providing oral antibiotics before and after these medications were stocked in the pediatric ED automated dispensing cabinet (ADC)...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Yukichika Kawata, Satoko Kubota
Substantial food loss and waste occur worldwide; approximately one third of produced food is lost or wasted annually, which worsens problems such as starvation and environmental degradation. This study examines the possibility of selling reprocessed meat products made from raw meat near its sell-by date, using Japanese fried chicken as an example. If reprocessed products are accepted by consumers, this will significantly contribute to reducing food waste in grocery stores. Because reprocessing does not require a reduction in current meat consumption, selling reprocessed foods is a more feasible and realistic way to reduce food waste compared to other initiatives, such as "Meat Free Monday...
September 21, 2017: Appetite
M Bogacka, K Pikoń, M Landrat
Rapid growth of the volume of waste from PV cells is expected in the following years. The problem of its utilization seems to be the most important issue for future waste management systems. The environmental impacts of the PV recycling scenario are presented in the manuscript. The analysis is based on the LCA approach and the average data available in specialized databases for silicon standard PV cell is used. The functional unit includes parameters like: efficiency, composition, surface area. The discussion on the environmental impact change due to the location of the PV production and waste processing plants is presented in the manuscript...
September 21, 2017: Waste Management
Francesca Girotto, Maria Cristina Lavagnolo, Alberto Pivato, Raffaello Cossu
The problem of fossil fuels dependency is being addressed through sustainable bio-fuels and bio-products production worldwide. At the base of this bio-based economy there is the efficient use of biomass as non-virgin feedstock. Through acidogenic fermentation, organic waste can be valorised in order to obtain several precursors to be used for bio-plastic production. Some investigations have been done but there is still a lack of knowledge that must be filled before moving to effective full scale plants. Acidogenic fermentation batch tests were performed using food waste (FW) and cheese whey (CW) as substrates...
September 21, 2017: Waste Management
Ersel Yilmaz, Małgorzata Wzorek, Selin Akçay
This paper concerns the process of production and properties of pellets based on biomass wastes. Co-pelletization was performed for sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant and other biomass material such as animal and olive wastes. The aim of the present study was to identify the key factors affecting on the sewage sludge and agricultural residues co-pelletization processes conditions. The impact of raw material type, pellet length, moisture content and particle size on the physical properties was investigated...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Laura Gaggero, Maurizio Ferretti
The SHS technique was experimented in chrysotile breakdown. By means of two reactions such as Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Fe2O3 + 3 Mg and 2Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Fe3O4 + 4 Mg the chrysotile was completely converted into forsterite-rich olivine. Different mixtures of hematite + Mg and magnetite + Mg were tested with chrysotile to establish the maximum chrysotile amount in order to allow the reaction. In comparison with conventional thermal treatments, the SHS process is characterized by a fast reaction, needs low activation energy and the apparatus is simple...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Ryan M Carr, Elisa Enriquez-Hesles, Rachel Lo Olson, Aminah Jatoi, Jason Doles, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico
Cancer patients are commonly affected by cachexia, a wasting process involving muscle and fat. Specifically, loss of the muscle compartment has been associated with poor prognosis and suboptimal response to therapy. Nutritional support has been ineffective in treating this process leading to investigations into the underlying molecular processes governing muscle catabolism. In this commentary, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of cancer-associated muscle metabolism and the epigenetic processes responsible for the muscle wasting phenotype...
September 25, 2017: Epigenomics
Jiao Chen, Shaoyu Lü, Zhe Zhang, Xuxia Zhao, Xinming Li, Piao Ning, Mingzhu Liu
Fertilizer plays an important role in maintaining soil fertility, increasing yields and improving harvest quality. However, a significant portion of fertilizers are lost, increasing agricultural cost, wasting energy and polluting the environment, which are challenges for the sustainability of modern agriculture. To meet the demands of improving yields without compromising the environment, environmentally friendly fertilizers (EFFs) have been developed. EFFs are fertilizers that can reduce environmental pollution from nutrient loss by retarding, or even controlling, the release of nutrients into soil...
September 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Mirko Cucina, Chiara Tacconi, Anna Ricci, Daniela Pezzolla, Simone Sordi, Claudia Zadra, Giovanni Gigliotti
Industrial fermentations for the production of pharmaceuticals generate large volumes of wastewater that can be biologically treated to recover plant nutrients through the application of pharmaceutical-derived wastes to the soil. Nevertheless, benefits and risks associated with their recovery are still unexplored. Thus, the aim of the present work was to characterize three potential organic residues (sludge, anaerobic digestate and compost) derived from the wastewater generated by the daptomycin production process...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ángeles Godoy-Durán, Emilio Galdeano-Gómez, Juan C Pérez-Mesa, Laura Piedra-Muñoz
Eco-efficiency is currently receiving ever increasing interest as an indicator of sustainability, as it links environmental and economic performances in productive activities. In agriculture these indicators and their determinants prove relevant due to the close ties in this activity between the use of often limited natural resources and the provision of basic goods for society. The present paper analyzes eco-efficiency at micro-level, focusing on small-scale family farms as the principal decision-making units (DMUs) of horticulture in southeast Spain, which represents over 30% of fresh vegetables produced in the country...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Miriam Gonçalves Miguel, Rodrigo Paiva Barreto, Sueli Yoshinaga Pereira
The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM-Caldas), in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, nowadays in decommissioning stage, was the first uranium extraction mine in Brazil. Several negative environmental impacts in the area have occurred, because of mining, treatment and beneficiation processes. Waste rock pile 4 (WRP-4) generates acid mine drainage (AMD), which is discharged in the Nestor Figueiredo retention pond (NFP). However, leakage of acid water by the NFP dam foundation has been constantly observed. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate a typical tropical soil, in order to use it as mineral liner for the NFP to minimize the leakage of acid water through the dam foundation and to retain predominant chemical species...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Brit Salbu, Valery Kashparov, Ole Christian Lind, Rafael Garcia-Tenorio, Mathew P Johansen, David P Child, Per Roos, Carlos Sancho
A series of different nuclear sources associated with the nuclear weapon and fuel cycles have contributed to the release of radioactive particles to the environment. Following nuclear weapon tests, safety tests, conventional destruction of weapons, reactor explosions and fires, a major fraction of released refractory radionuclides such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) were present as entities ranging from sub microns to fragments. Furthermore, radioactive particles and colloids have been released from reprocessing facilities and civil reactors, from radioactive waste dumped at sea, and from NORM sites...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Aleš Vaněk, Zuzana Grösslová, Martin Mihaljevič, Vojtěch Ettler, Jakub Trubač, Vladislav Chrastný, Vít Penížek, Leslaw Teper, Jerzy Cabala, Andreas Voegelin, Tereza Zádorová, Vendula Oborná, Ondřej Drábek, Ondřej Holubík, Jakub Houška, Lenka Pavlů, Christopher Ash
Thallium (Tl) concentration and isotope data have been recorded for contaminated soils and a set of industrial wastes that were produced within different stages of Zn ore mining and metallurgical processing of Zn-rich materials. Despite large differences in Tl levels of the waste materials (1-500mgkg(-1)), generally small changes in ε(205)Tl values have been observed. However, isotopically lighter Tl was recorded in fly ash (ε(205)Tl∼-4.1) than in slag (ε(205)Tl∼-3.3), implying partial isotope fractionation during material processing...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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