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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636179/discontinuation-and-non-publication-of-neurodegenerative-disease-trials-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#1
J D Stefaniak, T C H Lam, N E Sim, R Al-Shahi Salman, D P Breen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Trial discontinuation and non-publication represent major sources of research waste in clinical medicine. No previous studies have investigated non-dissemination bias in clinical trials of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for all randomized, interventional, phase II-IV trials that were registered between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2009 and included adults with Alzheimer's disease, motor neurone disease, multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636053/evidence-of-bad-recycling-practices-bfrs-in-children-s-toys-and-food-contact-articles
#2
A Guzzonato, F Puype, S J Harrad
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used intentionally in a wide range of plastics, but are now found in an even wider range of such materials (including children's toys and food contact articles) as a result of recycling practices that mix BFR-containing waste plastics with "virgin" materials. In this study Br was quantified in toy and food contact samples on the assumption that its concentration can be used as a metric for BFR contamination. Subsequently, compound specific determination of BFRs was performed to evaluate the validity of the aforementioned assumption, crucial to render rapid, inexpensive, in situ Br determination in non-laboratory environments (such as waste handling facilities) a viable option for sorting wastes according to their BFR content...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634793/arsenic-sorption-by-red-mud-modified-biochar-produced-from-rice-straw
#3
Chuan Wu, Liu Huang, Sheng-Guo Xue, Yu-Ying Huang, William Hartley, Meng-Qian Cui, Ming-Hung Wong
Red mud-modified biochar (RM-BC) has been produced to be utilized as a novel adsorbent to remove As because it can effectively combine the beneficial features of red mud (rich metal oxide composition and porous structure) and biochar (large surface area and porous structure properties). SEM-EDS and XRD analyses demonstrated that red mud had loaded successfully on the surface of biochar. With the increasing of pH in solution, arsenate (As(V)) adsorption on RM-BC decreased while arsenite (As(III)) increased. Arsenate adsorption kinetics process on RM-BC fitted the pseudo-second-order model, while that of As(III) favored the Elovich model...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634773/development-and-validation-of-a-fall-risk-assessment-index-for-dialysis-patients
#4
Kenichi Kono, Yusuke Nishida, Hiroki Yabe, Yoshihumi Moriyama, Toshihiko Mori, Ryota Shiraki, Takashi Sato
BACKGROUND: Dialysis patients often have low physical performance due to uremic sarcopenia, protein energy wasting (PEW), and incidence intradialytic hypotension (IDH), which are indicated as risk factors for falling. The objective of this study was to develop a symptom-encompassing evaluation form to predict falls with high sensitivity for dialysis patients. METHODS: A total of 251 patients who had been receiving maintenance hemodialysis therapy three times a week were enrolled in the study...
June 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634127/application-of-advanced-techniques-for-the-assessment-of-bio-stability-of-biowaste-derived-residues-a-minireview
#5
REVIEW
Fan Lü, Li-Ming Shao, Hua Zhang, Wen-Ding Fu, Shi-Jin Feng, Liang-Tong Zhan, Yun-Min Chen, Pin-Jing He
Bio-stability is a key feature for the utilization and final disposal of biowaste-derived residues, such as aerobic compost or vermicompost of food waste, bio-dried waste, anaerobic digestate or landfilled waste. The present paper reviews conventional methods and advanced techniques used for the assessment of bio-stability. The conventional methods are reclassified into two categories. Advanced techniques, including spectroscopic (fluorescent, ultraviolet-visible, infrared, Raman, nuclear magnetic resonance), thermogravimetric and thermochemolysis analysis, are emphasized for their application in bio-stability assessment in recent years...
June 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634057/evaluation-of-the-biotechnological-potential-of-a-novel-purified-protease-bs1-from-bacillus-safensis-s406-on-the-chitin-extraction-and-detergent-formulation
#6
Samiha Mhamdi, Intidhar Bkhairia, Rim Nasri, Tahar Mechichi, Moncef Nasri, Alya Sellami Kamoun
The aim of this study is the production of High-Added Value enzyme for Industrial Uses. An extracellular alkaline stable protease BS1 was purified from a newly bacterium, Bacillus safensis S406, isolated from the Sfax Solar Saltern. BS1 was purified by a process involving sulfate d'ammonium sulfate precipitation, sephadex G-75, Mono-Q anion-exchange chromatography and ultrafiltation. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 24kDa and appeared as a single band on native-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature values of its proteolytic activity were pH 11...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634051/revisiting-interdialytic-weight-gain-and-mortality-association-with-serum-albumin-interactions-the-japanese-dialysis-outcomes-and-practice-pattern-study
#7
Noriaki Kurita, Yasuaki Hayashino, Shin Yamazaki, Tadao Akizawa, Takashi Akiba, Akira Saito, Shunichi Fukuhara
BACKGROUND: The dialysis practice guideline in Japan sets a limit on the allowed interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) <6%. However, the effects of relative gain of fluid volume to body weight may differ in presence of morbid conditions. Here, we examined whether or not the associations between IDWG and mortality differ by serum albumin (sAlb), a nutritional and illness marker. DESIGN: The study type used was prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Patients who participated in the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Pattern Study (phase 1-4 [1999-2011]) and received thrice-weekly hemodialysis...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633912/life-cycle-assessment-and-life-cycle-costs-for-pre-disaster-waste-management-systems
#8
Yohei Wakabayashi, Tsai Peii, Tomohiro Tabata, Takashi Saeki
This study develops a method of environmental and economic evaluation of an integrated disaster waste management system that considers the spatial scale of removal, transport, and treatment of disaster waste. A case study was conducted on combustibles, which is a type of disaster waste derived from dwellings, in Mie Prefecture, Japan. First, we calculated the quantity and the spatial distribution of disaster waste derived from dwellings and tsunami debris produced as a result of a large-scale earthquake. The quantity of disaster waste was estimated as 7,178,000t with functioning flood-preventing facilities and 11,956,000t without functioning flood prevention facilities...
June 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633911/fate-of-metals-and-emissions-of-organic-pollutants-from-torrefaction-of-waste-wood-msw-and-rdf
#9
Mar Edo, Nils Skoglund, Qiuju Gao, Per-Erik Persson, Stina Jansson
Torrefaction of municipal solid waste (MSW), refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and demolition and construction wood (DC) was performed at 220°C and a residence time of 90min in a bench-scale reactor. The levels of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) contained in emission from the torrefaction process were evaluated. In addition, main ash-forming elements and trace metals in the raw feedstock and char were determined. The use of MSW in fuel blends with DC resulted in lower PCDD and PCDF emissions after torrefaction, compared with the RDF blends...
June 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633861/optimization-of-magnetic-field-assisted-ultrasonication-for-the-disintegration-of-waste-activated-sludge-using-box-behnken-design-with-response-surface-methodology
#10
Su Guan, Feng Deng, Si-Qi Huang, Shu-Yang Liu, Le-Xian Ai, Pu-Ying She
This study investigated for the first time the feasibility of using a magnetic field for sludge disintegration. Approximately 41.01% disintegration degree (DD) was reached after 30min at 180mT magnetic field intensity upon separate magnetic field treatment. Protein and polysaccharide contents significantly increased. This test was optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with response surface methodology (RSM) to fit the multiple equation of the DD. The maximum DD was 43.75% and the protein and polysaccharide contents increased to 56...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633860/influencing-factors-and-kinetics-analysis-on-the-leaching-of-iron-from-boron-carbide-waste-scrap-with-ultrasound-assisted-method
#11
REVIEW
Xin Li, Pengfei Xing, Xinghong Du, Shuaibo Gao, Chen Chen
In this paper, the ultrasound-assisted leaching of iron from boron carbide waste-scrap was investigated and the optimization of different influencing factors had also been performed. The factors investigated were acid concentration, liquid-solid ratio, leaching temperature, ultrasonic power and frequency. The leaching of iron with conventional method at various temperatures was also performed. The results show the maximum iron leaching ratios are 87.4%, 94.5% for 80min-leaching with conventional method and 50min-leaching with ultrasound assistance, respectively...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633517/biomethanation-of-sewage-sludge-with-food-waste-leachate-via-co-digestion
#12
Jingyeong Shin, Young Beom Kim, Jong Hun Jeon, Sangki Choi, In Kyu Park, Young Mo Kim
Anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) and food waste leachate (FWL) were performed by assessing methane production and characterizing microbial communities. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge (WAS) alone produced the lowest methane production (281 mL-CH4), but an approximately 80% increase in methane production was achieved via co-digestion of WAS and FWL (506 mL-CH4). There were less differences in the diversity of bacterial communities in anaerobic digesters, while archaeal (ARC) and bacterial (BAC) amounts reflected AD's performance...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633456/feeding-during-dialysis-risks-and-uncertainties
#13
Rajiv Agarwal, Panagiotis Georgianos
Allowing dialysis patients to eat during the treatment is controversial. It is, therefore, no surprise that practices and policies with respect to intradialytic food consumption vary considerably from unit to unit and from country to country. Those who defend the position of feeding during dialysis reason that intradialytic meals offer a supervised and effective therapy for protein-energy wasting. Those who take the opposite view argue that intradialytic food intake should be avoided for the following three reasons...
June 19, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633401/biomedical-text-mining-for-research-rigor-and-integrity-tasks-challenges-directions
#14
Halil Kilicoglu
An estimated quarter of a trillion US dollars is invested in the biomedical research enterprise annually. There is growing alarm that a significant portion of this investment is wasted because of problems in reproducibility of research findings and in the rigor and integrity of research conduct and reporting. Recent years have seen a flurry of activities focusing on standardization and guideline development to enhance the reproducibility and rigor of biomedical research. Research activity is primarily communicated via textual artifacts, ranging from grant applications to journal publications...
June 13, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633000/nutrition-support-for-critically-ill-patients-with-cancer
#15
Kristen Lach, Sarah J Peterson
Oncology patients often experience the classic signs of malnutrition-weight loss as well as fat and muscle wasting, which have been associated with poor tolerance to treatment and increased morbidity and mortality. Nutrition status may be an important factor in determining tolerance to treatment and outcomes associated with it. Thus, identification of those with preexisting malnutrition or who are at risk for developing malnutrition is crucial not only at time of cancer diagnosis but also throughout the treatment course so that nutrition interventions may be implemented to prevent development or worsening of malnutrition in this high-risk population...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631898/mass-spectrometry-based-protein-analytics-to-unravel-the-tissue-pathophysiology-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#16
Stephanie J Carr, René P Zahedi, Hanns Lochmüller, Andreas Roos
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic muscle wasting condition with limited treatment options available and is caused by the lack of Dystrophin. However, pathophysiology of different tissues is variable showing different histological and molecular signatures. Recently, a number of studies have employed gel-free proteomic approaches to unveil the molecular pathophysiology in terms of tissue-specific proteome changes in dystrophin-deficiency. We analysed studies in models of dystrophin-deficiency and patients both from the published literature...
June 20, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631415/highlights-from-the-9th-cachexia-conference
#17
Nicole Ebner, Stephan von Haehling
This article highlights updates of pathways as well as pre-clinical and clinical studies into the field of wasting disorders that were presented at the 9th Cachexia Conference held in Berlin, Germany, December 2016. This year, some interesting results from clinical trials and different new therapeutic targets were shown. This article presents the biological and clinical significance of different markers and new diagnostic tools and cut-offs of detecting skeletal muscle wasting. Effective treatments of cachexia and wasting disorders are urgently needed in order to improve the patients' quality of life and their survival...
June 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631029/syngas-biorefinery-and-syngas-utilization
#18
Sashini De Tissera, Michael Köpke, Sean D Simpson, Christopher Humphreys, Nigel P Minton, Peter Dürre
Autotrophic acetogenic bacteria are able to capture carbon (CO or CO2) through gas fermentation, allowing them to grow on a spectrum of waste gases from industry (e.g., steel manufacture and oil refining, coal, and natural gas) and to produce ethanol. They can also consume syn(thesis) gas (CO and H2) made from the gasification of renewable/sustainable resources, such as biomass and domestic/agricultural waste. Acetogenic gas fermentation can, therefore, produce ethanol in any geographic region without competing for food or land...
June 20, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630973/consort-statement-for-randomized-trials-of-nonpharmacologic-treatments-a-2017-update-and-a-consort-extension-for-nonpharmacologic-trial-abstracts
#19
Isabelle Boutron, Douglas G Altman, David Moher, Kenneth F Schulz, Philippe Ravaud
Incomplete and inadequate reporting is an avoidable waste that reduces the usefulness of research. The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement is an evidence-based reporting guideline that aims to improve research transparency and reduce waste. In 2008, the CONSORT Group developed an extension to the original statement that addressed methodological issues specific to trials of nonpharmacologic treatments (NPTs), such as surgery, rehabilitation, or psychotherapy. This article describes an update of that extension and presents an extension for reporting abstracts of NPT trials...
June 20, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630908/biofuel-by-isomerizing-metathesis-of-rapeseed-oil-esters-with-bio-ethylene-for-use-in-contemporary-diesel-engines
#20
Kai F Pfister, Sabrina Baader, Mathias Baader, Silvia Berndt, Lukas J Goossen
Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) and (bio)ethylene are converted into biofuel with an evenly rising boiling point curve, which fulfills the strict boiling specifications prescribed by the fuel standard EN 590 for modern (petro)diesel engines. Catalyzed by a Pd/Ru system, RME undergoes isomerizing metathesis in a stream of ethylene gas, leading to a defined olefin, monoester, and diester blend. This innovative refining concept requires negligible energy input (60°C) and no solvents and does not produce waste...
June 2017: Science Advances
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