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Industrial hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708615/treatment-of-poultry-slaughterhouse-wastewater-using-a-static-granular-bed-reactor-sgbr-coupled-with-ultrafiltration-uf-membrane-system
#1
M Basitere, Z Rinquest, M Njoya, M S Sheldon, S K O Ntwampe
The South African poultry industry has grown exponentially in recent years due to an increased demand for their products. As a result, poultry plants consume large volumes of high quality water to ensure that hygienically safe poultry products are produced. Furthermore, poultry industries generate high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of a bench-scale mesophilic static granular bed reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system, as a post-treatment system, was investigated...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704227/mortality-among-hardmetal-production-workers-occupational-exposures
#2
Kathleen J Kennedy, Nurtan A Esmen, Jeanine M Buchanich, Sarah Zimmerman, Anne J Sleeuwenhoek, Gary M Marsh
OBJECTIVE: To generate quantitative exposure estimates for use in retrospective occupational cohort mortality studies of the hardmetal industry. METHODS: Job-exposure matrices (JEMs) were constructed for cobalt, tungsten, and nickel over the time period 1952 to 2014. The JEMs consisted of job class categories, based on job titles and processes performed, and exposure estimates calculated from available company industrial hygiene measurements. RESULTS: Exposure intervals of one-half order magnitude were established for all three agents...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690602/geography-ethnicity-or-subsistence-specific-variations-in-human-microbiome-composition-and-diversity
#3
REVIEW
Vinod K Gupta, Sandip Paul, Chitra Dutta
One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats-Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution-a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690397/pesticide-exposure-and-health-problems-among-female-horticulture-workers-in-tanzania
#4
REVIEW
Ezra Jonathan Mrema, Aiwerasia Vera Ngowi, Stephen Simon Kishinhi, Simon Henry Mamuya
Commercialization of horticulture farming, expansion of farms, and the practice of monoculture favor the proliferation of pests, which in turn increases the need for pesticides. Increased exposure to pesticides is associated with inadequate knowledge on the hazardous nature of pesticides, poor hygiene practices, lack of availability of washing facilities, and insufficient adherence to precautionary instructions on pesticide labels. Mitigating the risks posed by pesticides is considered a less compelling interest than alleviating poverty...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681657/fatal-poisoning-by-terbufos-following-occupational-exposure
#5
Yue Liang, Fang Tong, Lin Zhang, Wenhe Li, Weisheng Huang, Yiwu Zhou
CONTEXT: Terbufos (TBF) is a class Ia (extremely hazardous) organophosphate pesticide (OP) and its distribution in industrialized countries has been severely restricted. Thus, acute occupational poisoning is rather uncommon. However, it still occurs in rural areas of some developing countries, where the sale of TBF is not controlled and its use is thus not properly regulated. We report a case of a 43-year-old female farmer who died after applying TBF granules. CASE: The patient died within 3 h after applying 20 bags of 5% TBF granules (900 g per bag)...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673419/preservatives-in-personal-hygiene-and-cosmetic-products-topical-medications-and-household-cleaners-in-spain
#6
María Antonia Pastor-Nieto, Francisco Alcántara-Nicolás, Virginia Melgar-Molero, Raquel Pérez-Mesonero, Aránzazu Vergara-Sánchez, Adriana Martín-Fuentes, Patricia González-Muñoz, Ester de Eusebio-Murillo
INTRODUCTION: Preservatives are added to cosmetic, household cleaning, and other industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Unfortunately, exposure to these substances can cause sensitization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January and June 2015, we analyzed the ingredients of 2300 products commercially available in Spain to identify the frequency of a wide variety of preservatives in different product categories. We analyzed 1093 skin care and cosmetic products sold exclusively in pharmacies (dermocosmetics), 458 household cleaning and personal hygiene and cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 636 topical medications, and 113 cosmetic products sold in a herbal shop...
June 30, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667108/cleaning-and-disinfection-of-biofilms-composed-of-listeria-monocytogenes-and-background-microbiota-from-meat-processing-surfaces
#7
Annette Fagerlund, Trond Møretrø, Even Heir, Romain Briandet, Solveig Langsrud
Surfaces of food processing premises are exposed to regular cleaning and disinfection (C&D) regimes, using biocides that are highly effective against bacteria growing as planktonic cells. However, bacteria growing in surface associated communities (biofilms) are typically more tolerant towards C&D than their individual free cells counterparts, and survival of pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes may be affected by interspecies interactions within biofilms. In this study, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were the most frequently isolated genera surviving on conveyor belts subjected to C&D in meat processing plants...
June 30, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665836/mortality-among-hardmetal-production-workers-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-the-austrian-hardmetal-industry
#8
Peter Wallner, Michael Kundi, Hanns Moshammer, Sarah D Zimmerman, Jeanine M Buchanich, Gary M Marsh
OBJECTIVE: This study retrospectively investigates causes of death among workers of a hardmetal plant in Austria. METHODS: A retrospective cohort was formed of 1965 workers still employed in or after 1970. Follow-up was until end of 2014 based on national databases. Cobalt exposure was assessed through industrial hygiene data and urine analyses. Cox proportional hazards models were calculated for selected causes of death. RESULTS: During 45,598 years of observation in total 177 deaths were observed...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641054/behavioural-interventions-to-reduce-nickel-exposure-in-a-nickel-processing-plant
#9
Krassi Rumchev, Helen Brown, Amanda Wheeler, Gavin Pereira, Jeff Spickett
Nickel is a widely used material in many industries. Although, there is enough evidence that occupational exposure to nickel may cause respiratory illnesses, allergies and even cancer, it is not possible to stop the use of nickel in occupational settings. Nickel exposure, however, can be controlled and reduced significantly in workplaces. The main objective of this study was to assess if educational intervention of hygiene behaviour could reduce nickel exposure among Indonesian nickel smelter workers. Participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (n = 99)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638424/application-of-fuzzy-delphi-in-the-selection-of-copd-risk-factors-among-steel-industry-workers
#10
Rahmat Dapari, Halim Ismail, Rosnah Ismail, Noor Hassim Ismail
BACKGROUND: The Delphi method has been widely applied in many study areas to systematically gather experts' input on particular topic. Recently, it has become increasingly well known in health related research. This paper applied the Fuzzy Delphi method to enhance the validation of a questionnaire pertaining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk factors among metal industry workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A detailed, predefined list of possible risk factors for COPD among metal industry workers was created through a comprehensive and exhaustive review of literature from 1995 to 2015...
2017: Tanaffos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622341/hygienic-and-grooming-behaviors-in-african-and-european-honeybees-new-damage-categories-in-varroa-destructor
#11
Beatrice T Nganso, Ayuka T Fombong, Abdullahi A Yusuf, Christian W W Pirk, Charles Stuhl, Baldwyn Torto
Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic pest of honeybees, and a threat to the survival of the apiculture industry. Several studies have shown that unlike European honeybees, African honeybee populations appear to be minimally affected when attacked by this mite. However, little is known about the underlying drivers contributing to survival of African honeybee populations against the mite. We hypothesized that resistant behavioral defenses are responsible for the survival of African honeybees against the ectoparasite...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621585/inactivation-of-nonpathogenic-escherichia-coli-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-salmonella-enterica-typhimurium-and-listeria-monocytogenes-in-ice-using-a-uvc-light-emitting-diode
#12
Suguru Murashita, Shuso Kawamura, Shigenobu Koseki
Ice, widely used in the food industry, is a potential cause of food poisoning resulting from microbial contamination. Direct microbial inactivation of ice is necessary because microorganisms may have been present in the source water used to make it and/or may have been introduced due to poor hygiene during production or handling of the ice. Nonthermal and nondestructive microbial inactivation technologies are needed to control microorganisms in ice. We evaluated the applicability of a UVC light-emitting diode (UVC-LED) for microbial inactivation in ice...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609175/center-for-the-polyurethanes-industry-summary-of-unpublished-industrial-hygiene-studies-related-to-the-evaluation-of-emissions-of-spray-polyurethane-foam-insulation
#13
Richard D Wood
Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation is used as thermal insulation for residential and commercial buildings. It has many advantages over other forms insulation; however, concerns have been raised related to chemical emissions during and after application. The American Chemistry Council's (ACC's) Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) has gathered previously unpublished industrial hygiene air sampling studies submitted by member companies that were completed during an eight year period from 2007 to 2014...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604175/meat-safety-an-evaluation-of-portuguese-butcher-shops
#14
Ana Santos, Margarida Fonseca Cardoso, José M Correia da Costa, Eduarda Gomes-Neves
Butcher shops are end points in the meat chain, and they can have a determinant role in cross-contamination control. This study aims to determine whether Portuguese butcher shops comply with European and Portuguese law regarding the sale of fresh meat and meat products. Butcher shops (n = 73) were assessed for meat handler and facility hygiene and for maintenance of the premises. Handlers (n = 88) were given a questionnaire composed of questions about knowledge and practice, including hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and good practice in food industry, to assess their knowledge of and compliance with food safety practices...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603959/characterization-of-complex-polymer-self-assemblies-and-large-aggregates-by-multidetector-thermal-field-flow-fractionation
#15
Upenyu L Muza, Guilaume Greyling, Harald Pasch
Micelles prepared from amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) have found numerous applications in pharmaceutical, electronics, environmental, cosmetics, and hygiene industries. These micelles, whether in the pure or mixed micelle form, often exist as multiple morphologies (spherical, cylindrical, worm, or vesicular) in equilibrium with each other. However, none of the current column-based fractionation techniques or any microscopic technique are capable of a successful separation, identification, and quantitation of these complex self-assemblies with regards to morphology, size, molar mass, and chemical composition in one experiment...
June 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602193/rapid-extraction-and-assay-of-uranium-from-environmental-surface-samples
#16
Christopher A Barrett, Wilaiwan Chouyyok, Robert J Speakman, Khris B Olsen, Raymond Shane Addleman
Environmental sampling to detect trace nuclear signatures is key component of international nuclear treaty enforcement. Herein, we explored rapid chemical extraction methods coordinated with measurement systems to provide faster, simpler assay of low level uranium from environmental samples. A key problem with the existing analytical method for processing environmental surface samples is the requirement for complete digestion of sample and sampling material. This is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process that limits laboratory throughput, elevates analytical costs, and increases background levels...
October 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598345/microbiological-quality-of-ice-and-ice-machines-used-in-food-establishments
#17
Hamparsun Hampikyan, Enver Baris Bingol, Omer Cetin, Hilal Colak
The ice used in the food industry has to be safe and the water used in ice production should have the quality of drinking water. The consumption of contaminated ice directly or indirectly may be a vehicle for transmission of pathogenic bacteria to humans producing outbreaks of gastrointestinal diseases. The objective of this study was to monitor the microbiological quality of ice, the water used in producing ice and the hygienic conditions of ice making machines in various food enterprises. Escherichia coli was detected in seven (6...
June 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566577/biofilms-and-oxidizing-biocides-evaluation-of-disinfection-and-removal-effects-by-using-established-microbial-systems
#18
Mariko Tachikawa
 The formation of bacterial biofilms and their disinfection and removal have been important subjects in the maintenance of water quality in areas such as public spas, swimming pools, food processing lines, industrial water systems, and in the hygienic control of medical devices, hospital procedures, etc. Presented here is an outline of biofilm formation, as well as studies on the disinfection and removal of biofilms by oxidizing biocides using established biofilms. These studies using established biofilms may increase the understanding of the variable response of biofilms to planktonic bacteria, and the unique aspects of oxidizing biocides in the disinfection and removal of biofilms...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553640/resource-estimations-in-contingency-planning-for-foot-and-mouth-disease
#19
Anette Boklund, Sten Mortensen, Maren H Johansen, Tariq Halasa
Preparedness planning for a veterinary crisis is important to be fast and effective in the eradication of disease. For countries with a large export of animals and animal products, each extra day in an epidemic will cost millions of Euros due to the closure of export markets. This is important for the Danish husbandry industry, especially the swine industry, which had an export of €4.4 billion in 2012. The purposes of this project were to (1) develop an iterative tool with the aim of estimating the resources needed during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Denmark, (2) identify areas, which can delay the control of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528784/keeping-the-voice-fit-in-the-group-fitness-industry-a-qualitative-study-to-determine-what-instructors-want-in-a-voice-education-program
#20
Patrick J Aiken, Anna F Rumbach
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide a descriptive summary of (1) group fitness instructors' (GFIs') experiences of occupational voice use and education, and (2) the content and mode of delivery desired by GFIs in an education and training program. STUDY DESIGN: This is a qualitative inductive approach using a semi-structured interview. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight GFIs recruited via self-selection sampling...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
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