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Industrial hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225703/facilitators-and-barriers-to-healthy-eating-in-a-worksite-cafeteria-a-qualitative-study-from-nepal
#1
Archana Shrestha, Prajjwal Pyakurel, Abha Shrestha, Rabin Gautam, Nisha Manandhar, Elizabeth Rhodes, Dipesh Tamrakar, Biraj Man Karmacharya, Vasanti Malik, Josiemer Mattei, Donna Spiegelman
Objective: Worksite interventions can serve as a potential platform for translating existing knowledge of diabetes prevention and facilitate healthy food choices. The study explored perceptions about healthy eating as well as potential facilitators and barriers to healthy eating among employees in a wire manufacturing factory in Nepal. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional exploratory qualitative study in a wire manufacturing industry in eastern Nepal...
2017: Heart Asia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224909/hygiene-hypothesis-in-asthma-development-is-hygiene-to-blame
#2
REVIEW
Erik van Tilburg Bernardes, Marie-Claire Arrieta
Industrialized countries have registered epidemic rates on allergic diseases, such as hay fever, asthma, eczema, and food allergies. The Hygiene Hypothesis was born from work made by Dr. David Strachan, who observed that younger siblings were less susceptible to eczema and asthma, and proposed that this was a result of increased transmission of infectious agents via unhygienic practices within a household. This initial hypothesis was then reframed as the old friends/microbiota hypothesis, implicating non-pathogenic commensal microorganisms as the source of immunomodulatory signals necessary to prevent immune-mediated chronic disorders...
December 7, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206638/work-related-asthma-in-a-sample-of-subjects-with-established-asthma
#3
Donatella Talini, Alessandro Ciberti, Dusca Bartoli, Paolo Del Guerra, Tonina Enza Iaia, Maria Lemmi, Andrea Innocenti, Francesco Di Pede, Manuela Latorre, Laura Carrozzi, Pierluigi Paggiaro
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of occupational exposure to irritants or sensitizers on the occurrence, recrudescence and worsening of asthma and to identify unrecognized cases of work related asthma (WRA) including Work-Exacerbated Asthma (WEA) and Occupational Asthma (OA), in a general asthma clinic population sample. SETTING, DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was a population-based cross sectional survey. 1289 asthmatic subjects (from 15 to 46 yrs old) living in a vast district of Tuscany (Italy) were identified from the Medical Reimbursement Register of the National Health System...
September 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201777/current-treatment-of-acute-and-chronic-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-role-of-antivirals
#4
REVIEW
Ananta Shrestha, Birendra P Gupta, Thupten K Lama
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection results in nearly 20 million new infections, resulting in 70,000 deaths globally each year. Previously thought as a disease limited to developing nations with poor sanitation and hygiene, it is increasingly recognized that even the most developed nations are not spared. A clear dichotomy in epidemiology of HEV is noted between developing and industrialized nations. The HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are common in Asia and Africa and are transmitted mainly by contaminated drinking water...
January 2017: Euroasian Journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200133/toluene-diisocyanate-exposure-exposure-assessment-and-development-of-cross-facility-similar-exposure-groups-among-toluene-diisocyanate-production-plants
#5
Paul J Middendorf, William Miller, Tim Feeley, Brent Doney
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize workplace toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposures using standardized industrial hygiene exposure assessment procedures for use in a prospective epidemiologic study of occupational asthma. METHODS: Over 2300 representative routine full shift time-weighted average (TWA) and short-term high potential exposure tasks (HPETs) air samples in groups across three TDI plants were collected over a nearly 7-year period...
December 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186812/biotechnological-applications-of-microbial-per-chlorate-reduction
#6
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
While the microbial degradation of a chloroxyanion-based herbicide was first observed nearly ninety years ago, only recently have researchers elucidated the underlying mechanisms of perchlorate and chlorate [collectively, (per)chlorate] respiration. Although the obvious application of these metabolisms lies in the bioremediation and attenuation of (per)chlorate in contaminated environments, a diversity of alternative and innovative biotechnological applications has been proposed based on the unique metabolic abilities of dissimilatory (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria (DPRB)...
November 24, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181694/infection-prevention-and-control-in-ultrasound-best-practice-recommendations-from-the-european-society-of-radiology-ultrasound-working-group
#7
Christiane M Nyhsen, Hilary Humphreys, Roland J Koerner, Nicolas Grenier, Adrian Brady, Paul Sidhu, Carlos Nicolau, Gerhard Mostbeck, Mirko D'Onofrio, Afshin Gangi, Michel Claudon
OBJECTIVES: The objective of these recommendations is to highlight the importance of infection prevention and control in ultrasound (US), including diagnostic and interventional settings. METHODS: Review of available publications and discussion within a multidisciplinary group consistent of radiologists and microbiologists, in consultation with European patient and industry representatives. RECOMMENDATIONS: Good basic hygiene standards are essential...
November 27, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178768/a-global-approach-to-assess-the-economic-benefits-of-increased-consumption-of-sugar-free-chewing-gum
#8
Reinhard Rychlik, Fabian Kreimendahl, Cornelia Blaich, Hanny Calache, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Elizabeth Kay, Yan Si, David Zilberman, Stefan Zimmer
PURPOSE: To analyze the influence of increasing the average consumption of sugar-free gum (SFG) in 25 industrialized countries on dental expenditures due to caries by the national health care systems. It was assumed that large cost savings were possible, because the regular consumption of SFG significantly reduces the relative risk of caries and therefore, improves dental health, which reduces expenditures on dental treatments. METHODS: A budget impact analysis (BIA) was performed to model the decrease in the relative risk of caries and the subsequent cost savings for dental care...
April 2017: American Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162758/public-health-challenges-for-the-21st-century-convergence-of-demography-economics-environment-and-biology-nalanda-distinguished-lecture
#9
K M Venkat Narayan
The rapidly changing and interdependent world under the mega-force of globalization presents unique challenges and opportunities for public health. Focusing on the example of type 2 diabetes, I argue that an appreciation for the evolution of demographic and economic contexts is essential to appropriately address today's dynamic and complex health challenges. For the vast majority of the past 2000 years, India and China were the world's largest economies until the rise of western European nations in the 18th century and later the USA...
July 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157371/australian-horse-owners-and-their-biosecurity-practices-in-the-context-of-hendra-virus
#10
Anke K Wiethoelter, Nicole Schembri, Navneet K Dhand, Kate Sawford, Melanie R Taylor, Barbara Moloney, Therese Wright, Nina Kung, Hume E Field, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio
In recent years, outbreaks of exotic as well as newly emerging infectious diseases have highlighted the importance of biosecurity for the Australian horse industry. As the first potentially fatal zoonosis transmissible from horses to humans in Australia, Hendra virus has emphasised the need to incorporate sound hygiene and general biosecurity practices into day-to-day horse management. Recommended measures are widely publicised, but implementation is at the discretion of the individual owner. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine current levels of biosecurity of horse owners and to identify factors influencing the uptake of practices utilising data from an online survey...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154086/mechanical-characterization-of-in-vitro-formed-short-term-salivary-pellicle
#11
Yafeng Zhang, Jing Zheng, Jiaxin Yu, Hongtu He
Human saliva consists of approximately 98% water and a variety of electrolytes and proteins. Those proteins can be selectively adsorbed onto the enamel surface. The cuticular material formed on the enamel surface is termed acquired salivary pellicle (ASP), which is critical for the health of oral mucosa and teeth. The ASP is composed of a inner layer and a outer layer. The lubricating properties of ASP are closely associated with the inner layer. The aim of this research is to characterize the structural and mechanical properties of the inner layer of ASP...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136412/combining-lead-exposure-measurements-and-experts-judgment-through-a-bayesian-framework
#12
Dong-Hee Koh, Ju-Hyun Park, Sang-Gil Lee, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Sangjun Choi, Hyejung Jung, Dong-Uk Park
Objectives: CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) is a carcinogen-surveillance system employed in many countries. To develop Korean CAREX, the intensity of exposure to lead, as an example, was estimated across industries. Methods: Airborne-lead measurement records were extracted from the work-environment measurement database (WEMD), which is a nationwide workplace-monitoring database. Lead measurements were log-transformed; then, the log-transformed geometric means (LGMs) and log-transformed geometric standard deviations (LGSDs) were calculated for each industry...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131752/surfactants-and-their-role-in-wound-cleansing-and-biofilm-management
#13
S L Percival, D Mayer, M Malone, T Swanson, D Gibson, G Schultz
Surfactants are widely used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, foaming agents and dispersants in the cosmetics, hygiene, food and oil industries. Their use in a clinical setting is also common, particularly within the field of wound care. Many wound cleansers contain surfactants and subsequently there is available data that shows the growing potential of these wound cleansers in the enhancement of wound closure. The presence of microorganisms in wounds has been recognised as a significant factor that delay healing...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127996/highlights-in-immune-response-microbiome-and-precision-medicine-in-allergic-disease-and-asthma
#14
EDITORIAL
Milena Sokolowska, Cezmi A Akdis
Several recent key findings in immunology of allergic diseases that have led to a need of reassessment of our current thinking are reviewed in this issue of the journal. Recently developed strong evidence on the role of hygiene hypothesis in protection from allergic disease and its immune mechanisms is reviewed by Ober et al. The authors pointed out immunologic mechanisms of lower prevalence of asthma and allergic sensitization observed among Amish children living on traditional farms with higher endotoxin levels as compared to Hutterite children living on industrialized farms...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127641/technical-hygiene-economic-and-life-cycle-assessment-of-full-scale-moving-bed-biofilm-reactors-for-wastewater-treatment-in-india
#15
Anju Singh, Sheetal Jaisingh Kamble, Megha Sawant, Yogita Chakravarthy, Absar Kazmi, Enrique Aymerich, Markus Starkl, Makarand Ghangrekar, Ligy Philip
Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a highly effective biological treatment process applied to treat both urban and industrial wastewaters in developing countries. The present study investigated the technical performance of ten full-scale MBBR systems located across India. The biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solid, pathogens, and nutrient removal efficiencies were low as compared to the values claimed in literature. Plant 1 was considered for evaluation of environmental impacts using life cycle assessment approach...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123505/staphylococcus-aureus-in-some-brazilian-dairy-industries-changes-of-contamination-and-diversity
#16
Karen K Dittmann, Luíza T Chaul, Sarah H I Lee, Carlos H Corassin, Carlos A Fernandes de Oliveira, Elaine C Pereira De Martinis, Virgínia F Alves, Lone Gram, Virginie Oxaran
Staphylococcus aureus, a major food-poisoning pathogen, is a common contaminant in dairy industries worldwide, including in Brazil. We determined the occurrence of S. aureus in five dairies in Brazil over 8 months. Of 421 samples, 31 (7.4%) were positive for S. aureus and prevalence varied from 0 to 63.3% between dairies. Sixty-six isolates from the 31 samples were typed by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing to determine if these isolates were persistent or continuously reintroduced. Seven known sequence types (STs), ST1, ST5, ST30, ST97, ST126, ST188 and ST398, and four new ST were identified, ST3531, ST3540, ST3562 and ST3534...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122606/foodborne-cryptosporidiosis
#17
REVIEW
Una Ryan, Nawal Hijjawi, Lihua Xiao
Foodborne illness, the majority of which is caused by enteric infectious agents, costs global economies billions of dollars each year. The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is particularly suited to foodborne transmission and is responsible for >8 million cases of foodborne illness annually. Procedures have been developed for sensitive detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts on fresh produce and molecular diagnostic assays have been widely used in case linkages and infection source tracking, especially during outbreak investigations...
November 7, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113033/association-between-lameness-and-indicators-of-dairy-cow-welfare-based-on-locomotion-scoring-body-and-hock-condition-leg-hygiene-and-lying-behavior
#18
REVIEW
Mohammed B Sadiq, Siti Z Ramanoon, Wan Mastura Shaik Mossadeq, Rozaihan Mansor, Sharifah Salmah Syed-Hussain
Dairy cow welfare is an important consideration for optimal production in the dairy industry. Lameness affects the welfare of dairy herds by limiting productivity. Whilst the application of LS systems helps in identifying lame cows, the technique meets with certain constraints, ranging from the detection of mild gait changes to on-farm practical applications. Recent studies have shown that certain animal-based measures considered in welfare assessment, such as body condition, hock condition and leg hygiene, are associated with lameness in dairy cows...
November 5, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108680/human-metabolism-and-excretion-kinetics-of-the-fragrance-7-hydroxycitronellal-after-a-single-oral-or-dermal-dosage
#19
Markus Stoeckelhuber, Dusan Krnac, Nikola Pluym, Max Scherer, Oliver Peschel, Edgar Leibold, Gerhard Scherer
7-Hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-1-octanal, also known as 7-hydroxycitronellal (7-HC, CAS No. 107-75-5) is a synthetic fragrance widely used in cosmetic and hygiene products. Due to its large scope, 7-HC was selected for the development of a biomonitoring method suitable for the general population within the frame of the cooperation project between the German Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMUB) and the German Chemical Industry Association (VCI). In a human study with 5 healthy subjects who received single dermal and oral doses 7-HC, suitable metabolites and their urinary excretion kinetics was investigated...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068485/is-the-hygiene-hypothesis-relevant-for-the-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
M Wendel-Haga, E G Celius
The hygiene hypothesis, suggesting that low exposure to pathogens early in life can increase the risk for immune-mediated diseases, has been proposed as an explanation for the increase in incidence of allergy and autoimmune diseases in industrialized countries during the last decades. Several aspects of the hygiene hypothesis have been related to MS. Already in 1966, the risk of MS was suggested to be higher in individuals with high hygienic standard during childhood. Further, an episode of infectious mononucleosis is an independent risk factor for MS and can be regarded as an indicator of low exposure to pathogens early in life, as infection with Epstein-Barr virus often is asymptomatic when it occurs in young children...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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