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Neocortical epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159066/six-adult-patients-with-septo-optic-dysplasia-and-drug-resistant-epilepsy-clinical-findings-and-course
#1
Mashael AlKhateeb, Richard McLachlan, Jorge Burneo, David Diosy, Seyed Mirsattari
Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a rare disorder associated with optic nerve hypoplasia, pituitary abnormalities and agenesis/dysgenesis of midline brain structures including the septum pellucidum and corpus callosum. Though sometimes associated with drug-resistant epilepsy, this association has not been well studied. We report six SOD patients with associated malformation of cortical development (MCD) and drug-resistant epilepsy who underwent video-EEG telemetry at our centre between 1998 and 2016 for drug-resistant epilepsy...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154812/under-stressful-conditions-activation-of-the-ionotropic-p2x7-receptor-differentially-regulates-gaba-and-glutamate-release-from-nerve-terminals-of-the-rat-cerebral-cortex
#2
Aurora R Barros-Barbosa, Ângela Oliveira, M Graça Lobo, J Miguel Cordeiro, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) are the main inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS), respectively. Fine tuning regulation of extracellular levels of these amino acids is essential for normal brain activity. Recently, we showed that neocortical nerve terminals from patients with epilepsy express higher amounts of the non-desensitizing ionotropic P2X7 receptor. Once activated by ATP released from neuronal cells, the P2X7 receptor unbalances GABAergic vs...
November 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143800/hungry-neurons-metabolic-insights-on-seizure-dynamics
#3
REVIEW
Paolo Bazzigaluppi, Azin Ebrahim Amini, Iliya Weisspapir, Bojana Stefanovic, Peter L Carlen
Epilepsy afflicts up to 1.6% of the population and the mechanisms underlying the appearance of seizures are still not understood. In past years, many efforts have been spent trying to understand the mechanisms underlying the excessive and synchronous firing of neurons. Traditionally, attention was pointed towards synaptic (dys)function and extracellular ionic species (dys)regulation. Recently, novel clinical and preclinical studies explored the role of brain metabolism (i.e., glucose utilization) of seizures pathophysiology revealing (in most cases) reduced metabolism in the inter-ictal period and increased metabolism in the seconds preceding and during the appearance of seizures...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070752/a-surgical-case-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-associated-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-and-traumatic-neocortical-lesion
#4
Yu Kitazawa, Kazutaka Jin, Masaki Iwasaki, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Fumiaki Tanaka, Nobukazu Nakasato
A 26-year-old right-handed woman, with a history of left temporal lobe contusion caused by a fall at the age of 9 months, started to have complex partial seizures with oral automatism at the age of 7 years. The seizures occurred once or twice a month despite combination therapy with several antiepileptic agents. Her history and imaging studies suggested the diagnosis of epilepsy arising from traumatic neocortical temporal lesion. Comprehensive assessment including long-term video EEG monitoring, MRI, FDG-PET, MEG, and neuropsychological evaluation was performed at the age of 26 years...
October 26, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060344/low-latency-vlsi-architecture-for-neural-cross-frequency-coupling-analysis
#5
Gerard O'Leary, Taufik A Valiante, Roman Genov
Growing evidence suggests that cross-frequency coupling (CFC) is a key mechanism in neuronal computation, communication, and learning in the brain. Abnormal CFC has been implicated in pathological brain states such as epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. A reduction in excessive coupling has been shown in effective neuromodulation treatments, suggesting that CFC may be a useful feedback measure in closed-loop neural stimulation devices. However, processing latency limits the responsiveness of such systems. A VLSI architecture is presented which implements three selectable measures of CFC to enable the application specific trade-off between low-latency and high-accuracy processing...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050390/involvement-of-fast-spiking-cells-in-ictal-sequences-during-spontaneous-seizures-in-rats-with-chronic-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Adam R Neumann, Robrecht Raedt, Hendrik W Steenland, Mathieu Sprengers, Katarzyna Bzymek, Zaneta Navratilova, Lilia Mesina, Jeanne Xie, Valerie Lapointe, Fabian Kloosterman, Kristl Vonck, Paul A J M Boon, Ivan Soltesz, Bruce L McNaughton, Artur Luczak
See Lenck-Santini (doi:10.1093/awx205) for a scientific commentary on this article. Epileptic seizures represent altered neuronal network dynamics, but the temporal evolution and cellular substrates of the neuronal activity patterns associated with spontaneous seizures are not fully understood. We used simultaneous recordings from multiple neurons in the hippocampus and neocortex of rats with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy to demonstrate that subsets of cells discharge in a highly stereotypical sequential pattern during ictal events, and that these stereotypical patterns were reproducible across consecutive seizures...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042148/histopathology-of-3%C3%A2-tesla-mri-negative-temporal-lobe-epilepsies
#7
Evangelos Kogias, Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller, Jan-Helge Klingler, Barbara Schmeiser, Horst Urbach, Soroush Doostkam
INTRODUCTION: Histopathology of MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE) shows heterogeneous findings. The use of either 1.5 or 3 Tesla MRI for the selection of MRI-negative cases and use of older classification systems instead of the current ILAE classification system may account for this heterogeneity. We focus on histopathology of 3 Tesla MRI-negative TLE according to ILAE criteria and investigate potential correlation to seizure outcome 1 year postoperatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty specimens (9 neocortical, 11 hippocampal) from eleven 3 Tesla MRI-negative patients with TLE were examined in two steps...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024712/brief-activation-of-gabaergic-interneurons-initiates-the-transition-to-ictal-events-through-post-inhibitory-rebound-excitation
#8
Michael Chang, Joshua A Dian, Suzie Dufour, Lihua Wang, Homeira Moradi Chameh, Meera Ramani, Liang Zhang, Peter L Carlen, Thilo Womelsdorf, Taufik A Valiante
Activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors have been associated with the onset of epileptiform events. To investigate if a causal relationship exists between GABAA receptor activation and ictal event onset, we activated inhibitory GABAergic networks in the superficial layer (2/3) of the somatosensory cortex during hyperexcitable conditions using optogenetic techniques in mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in all GABAergic interneurons. We found that a brief 30ms light pulse reliably triggered either an interictal-like event (IIE) or ictal-like ("ictal") event in the in vitro cortical 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) slice model...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981586/gabapentin-prevents-progressive-increases-in-excitatory-connectivity-and-epileptogenesis-following-neocortical-trauma
#9
D K Takahashi, Sha Jin, D A Prince
Neocortical injury initiates a cascade of events, some of which result in maladaptive epileptogenic reorganization of surviving neural circuits. Research focused on molecular and organizational changes that occur following trauma may reveal processes that underlie human post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), a common and unfortunate consequence of traumatic brain injury. The latency between injury and development of PTE provides an opportunity for prophylactic intervention, once the key underlying mechanisms are understood...
June 26, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954894/enhanced-interlaminar-excitation-or-reduced-superficial-layer-inhibition-in-neocortex-generates-different-spike-and-wave-like-electrographic-events-in-vitro
#10
Stephen P Hall, Roger D Traub, Natalie E Adams, Mark O Cunningham, Ian Schofield, Alistair J Jenkins, Miles A Whittington
Acute In vitro models have revealed a great deal of information about mechanisms underlying many types of epileptiform activity. However, few examples exist that shed light on spike and wave (SpW) patterns of pathological activity. SpW are seen in many epilepsy syndromes, both generalised and focal, and manifest across the entire age spectrum. They are heterogeneous in terms of their severity, symptom burden and apparent anatomical origin (thalamic, neocortical or both), but any relationship between this heterogeneity and underlying pathology remains elusive...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950219/increase-in-gray-matter-volume-and-white-matter-fractional-anisotropy-in-the-motor-pathways-of-patients-with-secondarily-generalized-neocortical-seizures
#11
Yue-Loong Hsin, Tomor Harnod, Cheng-Siu Chang, Syu-Jyun Peng
PURPOSE: Convulsive motor activity is a clinical manifestation of secondarily generalized seizures evolving from different focal regions. The way in which the motor seizures present themselves is not very different from most of the generalized seizures in and between epilepsy patients. This might point towards the involvement of motor-related cortices and corticospinal pathway for wide spread propagation of epileptic activity. Our aim was to identify changes in the cerebral structures and to correlate clinical variables with structural changes particularly in the motor-related cortices and pathway of patients with generalized convulsions from different seizure foci...
September 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948998/bimodal-coupling-of-ripples-and-slower-oscillations-during-sleep-in-patients-with-focal-epilepsy
#12
Inkyung Song, Iren Orosz, Inna Chervoneva, Zachary J Waldman, Itzhak Fried, Chengyuan Wu, Ashwini Sharan, Noriko Salamon, Richard Gorniak, Sandra Dewar, Anatol Bragin, Jerome Engel, Michael R Sperling, Richard Staba, Shennan A Weiss
OBJECTIVE: Differentiating pathologic and physiologic high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) is challenging. In patients with focal epilepsy, HFOs occur during the transitional periods between the up and down state of slow waves. The preferred phase angles of this form of phase-event amplitude coupling are bimodally distributed, and the ripples (80-150 Hz) that occur during the up-down transition more often occur in the seizure-onset zone (SOZ). We investigated if bimodal ripple coupling was also evident for faster sleep oscillations, and could identify the SOZ...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947761/human-cerebrospinal-fluid-promotes-long-term-neuronal-viability-and-network-function-in-human-neocortical-organotypic-brain-slice-cultures
#13
Niklas Schwarz, Ulrike B S Hedrich, Hannah Schwarz, Harshad P A, Nele Dammeier, Eva Auffenberg, Francesco Bedogni, Jürgen B Honegger, Holger Lerche, Thomas V Wuttke, Henner Koch
Pathophysiological investigation of CNS-related diseases, such as epilepsy or neurodegenerative disorders, largely relies on histological studies on human post mortem tissue, tissue obtained by biopsy or resective surgery and on studies using disease models including animal models, heterologous expression systems or cell culture based approaches. However, in general it remains elusive to what extent results obtained in model systems can be directly translated to the human brain, calling for strategies allowing validation or even primary investigation in live human CNS tissue...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946181/localization-of-musicogenic-epilepsy-to-heschl-s-gyrus-and-superior-temporal-plane-case-report
#14
Yasunori Nagahama, Christopher K Kovach, Michael Ciliberto, Charuta Joshi, Ariane E Rhone, Adam Vesole, Phillip E Gander, Kirill V Nourski, Hiroyuki Oya, Matthew A Howard, Hiroto Kawasaki, Brian J Dlouhy
Musicogenic epilepsy (ME) is an extremely rare form of the disorder that is provoked by listening to or playing music, and it has been localized to the temporal lobe. The number of reported cases of ME in which intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) has been used for seizure focus localization is extremely small, especially with coverage of the superior temporal plane (STP) and specifically, Heschl's gyrus (HG). The authors describe the case of a 17-year-old boy with a history of medically intractable ME who underwent iEEG monitoring that involved significant frontotemporal coverage as well as coverage of the STP with an HG depth electrode anteriorly and a planum temporale depth electrode posteriorly...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923948/cross-scale-effects-of-neural-interactions-during-human-neocortical-seizure-activity
#15
Tahra L Eissa, Koen Dijkstra, Christoph Brune, Ronald G Emerson, Michel J A M van Putten, Robert R Goodman, Guy M McKhann, Catherine A Schevon, Wim van Drongelen, Stephan A van Gils
Small-scale neuronal networks may impose widespread effects on large network dynamics. To unravel this relationship, we analyzed eight multiscale recordings of spontaneous seizures from four patients with epilepsy. During seizures, multiunit spike activity organizes into a submillimeter-sized wavefront, and this activity correlates significantly with low-frequency rhythms from electrocorticographic recordings across a 10-cm-sized neocortical network. Notably, this correlation effect is specific to the ictal wavefront and is absent interictally or from action potential activity outside the wavefront territory...
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917017/physiological-ripples-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-100%C3%A2-hz-in-spike-free-scalp-eegs-of-children-with-and-without-epilepsy
#16
Anne H Mooij, Renee C M A Raijmann, Floor E Jansen, Kees P J Braun, Maeike Zijlmans
Pathological high frequency oscillations (HFOs, >80 Hz) are considered new biomarkers for epilepsy. They have mostly been recorded invasively, but pathological ripples (80-250 Hz) can also be found in scalp EEGs with frequent epileptiform spikes. Physiological HFOs also exist. They have been recorded invasively in hippocampus and neocortex. There are no reports of spontaneously occurring physiological HFOs recorded with scalp EEG. We aimed to study ripples in spike-free scalp EEGs. We included 23 children (6 with, 17 without epilepsy) who had an EEG without interictal epileptiform spikes recorded during sleep...
November 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832554/contribution-of-intrinsic-lactate-to-maintenance-of-seizure-activity-in-neocortical-slices-from-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-in-rat-entorhinal-cortex
#17
Eskedar Ayele Angamo, Rizwan ul Haq, Jörg Rösner, Siegrun Gabriel, Zoltán Gerevich, Uwe Heinemann, Richard Kovács
Neuronal lactate uptake supports energy metabolism associated with synaptic signaling and recovery of extracellular ion gradients following neuronal activation. Altered expression of the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) hampers lactate removal into the bloodstream. The resulting increase in parenchymal lactate levels might exert both, anti- and pro-ictogen effects, by causing acidosis and by supplementing energy metabolism, respectively. Hence, we assessed the contribution of lactate to the maintenance of transmembrane potassium gradients, synaptic signaling and pathological network activity in chronic epileptic human tissue...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814872/microrna-expression-profiles-in-chronic-epilepsy-rats-and-neuroprotection-from-seizures-by-targeting-mir-344a
#18
Xixia Liu, Yuhan Liao, Xiuxiu Wang, Donghua Zou, Chun Luo, Chongdong Jian, Yuan Wu
MicroRNA (miRNA) is believed to play a crucial role in the cause and treatment of epilepsy by controlling gene expression. However, it is still unclear how miRNA profiles change after multiple prolonged seizures and aggravation of brain injury in chronic epilepsy (CE). To investigate the role of miRNA in epilepsy, we utilized the CE rat models with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and miRNA profiles in the hippocampus. miRNA profiles were characterized using miRNA microarray analysis and were compared with the rats in the sham group, which received 0...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803766/different-neural-routes-to-autobiographical-memory-recall-in-healthy-people-and-individuals-with-left-medial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
Cornelia McCormick, Morris Moscovitch, Taufik A Valiante, Melanie Cohn, Mary Pat McAndrews
Individuals with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) are poor at recalling vivid details from autobiographical memories (AM), instead retrieving gist-like schematic memories. Recent research has suggested that this impoverished recall in comparison to controls may reflect (1) differential engagement of anterior vs posterior regions of the hippocampus (HC) and/or (2) differences between the engagement of the HC vs the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here we examined these hypotheses by comparing connectivity amongst hippocampal regions and between vmPFC and other brain regions during construction (retrieval of a particular event) vs elaboration (retrieval of perceptual detail) phases of AM recall in 12 individuals with left mTLE and 12 matched controls...
August 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766041/the-role-of-the-basal-ganglia-in-the-control-of-seizure
#20
REVIEW
J Vuong, Annaelle Devergnas
Epilepsy is a network disorder and each type of seizure involves distinct cortical and subcortical network, differently implicated in the control and propagation of the ictal activity. The role of the basal ganglia has been revealed in several cases of focal and generalized seizures. Here, we review the data that show the implication of the basal ganglia in absence, temporal lobe, and neocortical seizures in animal models (rodent, cat, and non-human primate) and in human. Based on these results and the advancement of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease, basal ganglia neuromodulation has been tested with some success that can be equally seen as promising or disappointing...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
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