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Neocortical epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730171/small-intraneuronal-acidification-via-short-chain-monocarboxylates-first-evidence-of-an-inhibitory-action-on-over-excited-human-neocortical-neurons
#1
Udo Bonnet, Dieter Bingmann, Erwin-Josef Speckmann, Martin Wiemann
AIMS: In cortical mammalian neurons, small fluctuations of intracellular pH (pHi) play a crucial role for inter- and intracellular signaling as well as for cellular and synaptic plasticity. Yet, there have been no respective data about humans. Thus, we investigated the interrelation of pHi and excitability of human cortical neurons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intracellular electrophysiological and pH-recordings were made in neurons in slices taken from brain tissue resected from the middle temporal gyrus of two male children (26 months and 35 months old) who suffered from pharmacotherapy-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy...
May 3, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679388/somatic-slc35a2-variants-in-the-brain-are-associated-with-intractable-neocortical-epilepsy
#2
Melodie R Winawer, Nicole G Griffin, Jorge Samanamud, Evan H Baugh, Dinesh Rathakrishnan, Senthilmurugan Ramalingam, David Zagzag, Catherine A Schevon, Patricia Dugan, Manu Hegde, Sameer A Sheth, Guy M McKhann, Werner K Doyle, Gerald A Grant, Brenda E Porter, Mohamad A Mikati, Carrie R Muh, Colin D Malone, Ann Marie R Bergin, Jurriaan M Peters, Danielle K McBrian, Alison M Pack, Cigdem I Akman, Christopher M LaCoursiere, Katherine M Keever, Joseph R Madsen, Edward Yang, Hart G W Lidov, Catherine Shain, Andrew S Allen, Peter Canoll, Peter B Crino, Annapurna H Poduri, Erin L Heinzen
OBJECTIVE Somatic variants are a recognized cause of epilepsy-associated focal malformations of cortical development (MCD). We hypothesized that somatic variants may underlie a wider range of focal epilepsy, including non-lesional focal epilepsy (NLFE). Through genetic analysis of brain tissue, we evaluated the role of somatic variation in focal epilepsy with and without MCD. METHODS We identified somatic variants through high-depth exome and ultra-high-depth candidate gene sequencing of DNA from epilepsy surgery specimens and leukocytes from 18 individuals with NLFE and 38 with focal MCD...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628910/the-sub-regional-functional-organization-of-neocortical-irritative-epileptic-networks-in-pediatric-epilepsy
#3
Radek Janca, Pavel Krsek, Petr Jezdik, Roman Cmejla, Martin Tomasek, Vladimir Komarek, Petr Marusic, Premysl Jiruska
Between seizures, irritative network generates frequent brief synchronous activity, which manifests on the EEG as interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). Recent insights into the mechanism of IEDs at the microscopic level have demonstrated a high variance in the recruitment of neuronal populations generating IEDs and a high variability in the trajectories through which IEDs propagate across the brain. These phenomena represent one of the major constraints for precise characterization of network organization and for the utilization of IEDs during presurgical evaluations...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554343/stereoelectroencephalography-guided-laser-ablations-in-patients-with-neocortical-pharmacoresistant-focal-epilepsy-concept-and-operative-technique
#4
Louis Ross, Ahsan M Naduvil, Juan C Bulacio, Imad M Najm, Jorge A Gonzalez-Martinez
BACKGROUND: Laser ablation surgery has had encouraging results in the treatment of multiple intracranial diseases including primary and metastatic brain tumors, radiation necrosis, and epilepsy. The use of the stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) method in combination with laser thermocoagulation therapy with the goal of modulating epileptic networks in patients with neocortical nonlesional phamacoresistant epilepsy has not been previously described. OBJECTIVE: To describe the novel methodological and conceptual aspects related to SEEG-guided laser ablations in patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative pharmacoresistant neocortical focal epilepsy...
March 14, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547789/neocortical-electrical-stimulation-for-epilepsy-closed-loop-versus-open-loop
#5
REVIEW
Albena Vassileva, Dorien van Blooijs, Frans Leijten, Geertjan Huiskamp
The aim of this review is to evaluate whether open-loop or closed-loop neocortical electrical stimulation should be the preferred approach to manage seizures in intractable epilepsy. Twenty cases of open-loop neocortical stimulation with an implanted device have been reported, in 5 case studies. Closed-loop stimulation with an implanted device has been investigated in a larger number of patients in the RNS System clinical trials. With 230 patients enrolled at the start of the Long-term Treatment Trial, 115 remained at the last reported follow-up...
March 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538625/protein-instability-haploinsufficiency-and-cortical-hyper-excitability-underlie-stxbp1-encephalopathy
#6
Jovana Kovacevic, Gregoire Maroteaux, Desiree Schut, Maarten Loos, Mohit Dubey, Julika Pitsch, Esther Remmelink, Bastijn Koopmans, James Crowley, L Niels Cornelisse, Patrick F Sullivan, Susanne Schoch, Ruud F Toonen, Oliver Stiedl, Matthijs Verhage
De novo heterozygous mutations in STXBP1/Munc18-1 cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathies (EIEE4, OMIM #612164) characterized by infantile epilepsy, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and can include autistic features. We characterized the cellular deficits for an allelic series of seven STXBP1 mutations and developed four mouse models that recapitulate the abnormal EEG activity and cognitive aspects of human STXBP1-encephalopathy. Disease-causing STXBP1 variants supported synaptic transmission to a variable extent on a null background, but had no effect when overexpressed on a heterozygous background...
May 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513147/postoperative-seizure-outcome-guided-machine-learning-for-interictal-electrocorticography-in-neocortical-epilepsy
#7
Seong-Cheol Park, Chun Kee Chung
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to introduce a new machine learning guided by outcome of resective epilepsy surgery defined as the presence/absence of seizures to improve data mining for interictal pathologic activities in neocortical epilepsy. METHODS: Electrocorticographies for 39 patients with medically intractable neocortical epilepsy were analyzed. We separately analyzed 38 frequencies from 0.9 to 800 Hz including both high-frequency activities and low-frequency activities to select bands related to seizure outcome...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414561/a-modern-epilepsy-surgery-treatment-algorithm-incorporating-traditional-and-emerging-technologies
#8
REVIEW
Dario J Englot
Epilepsy surgery has seen numerous technological advances in both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in recent years. This has increased the number of patients who may be candidates for intervention and potential improvement in quality of life. However, the expansion of the field also necessitates a broader understanding of how to incorporate both traditional and emerging technologies into the care provided at comprehensive epilepsy centers. This review summarizes both old and new surgical procedures in epilepsy using an example algorithm...
March 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408225/partial-trkb-receptor-activation-suppresses-cortical-epileptogenesis-through-actions-on-parvalbumin-interneurons
#9
Feng Gu, Isabel Parada, Tao Yang, Frank M Longo, David A Prince
Post-traumatic epilepsy is one of the most common and difficult to treat forms of acquired epilepsy worldwide. Currently, there is no effective way to prevent post-traumatic epileptogenesis. It is known that abnormalities of interneurons, particularly parvalbumin-containing interneurons, play a critical role in epileptogenesis following traumatic brain injury. Thus, enhancing the function of existing parvalbumin interneurons might provide a logical therapeutic approach to prevention of post-traumatic epilepsy...
May 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401729/follow-up-of-peripheral-il-1%C3%AE-and-il-6-and-relation-with-apoptotic-death-in-drug-resistant-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-submitted-to-surgery
#10
Lourdes Lorigados Pedre, Lilia M Morales Chacón, Nancy Pavón Fuentes, María de Los A Robinson Agramonte, Teresa Serrano Sánchez, Rachel M Cruz-Xenes, Mei-Li Díaz Hung, Bárbara Estupiñán Díaz, Margarita M Báez Martín, Sandra Orozco-Suárez
Increasing amounts of evidence support the role of inflammation in epilepsy. This study was done to evaluate serum follow-up of IL-1β and IL-6 levels, as well as their concentration in the neocortex, and the relationship of central inflammation with NF-κB and annexin V in drug-resistant temporal lobe epileptic (DRTLE) patients submitted to surgical treatment. Peripheral and central levels of IL-1β and IL-6were measured by ELISA in 10 DRTLE patients. The sera from patients were taken before surgery, and 12 and 24 months after surgical treatment...
February 5, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383717/topographic-principles-of-cortical-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-signal-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Sophie Adler, Seok-Jun Hong, Min Liu, Torsten Baldeweg, J Helen Cross, Andrea Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt, Neda Bernasconi
OBJECTIVE: In drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), relative to the large number of whole-brain morphological studies, neocortical T2 changes have not been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the anatomical principles that govern the distribution of neocortical T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity and uncover its topographic principles. METHODS: Using a surface-based sampling scheme, we mapped neocortical FLAIR intensity of 61 TLE patients relative to 38 healthy controls imaged at 3 T...
March 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331082/mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-and-2-in-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Delia M Talos, Leah M Jacobs, Sarah Gourmaud, Carlos A Coto, Hongyu Sun, Kuei-Cheng Lim, Timothy H Lucas, Kathryn A Davis, Maria Martinez-Lage, Frances E Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic epilepsy syndrome defined by seizures and progressive neurological disabilities, including cognitive impairments, anxiety, and depression. Here, human TLE specimens were investigated focusing on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) and complex 2 (mTORC2) activities in the brain, given that both pathways may represent unique targets for treatment. METHODS: Surgically resected hippocampal and temporal lobe samples from therapy-resistant TLE patients were analyzed by western blotting to quantify the expression of established mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity markers and upstream or downstream signaling pathways involving the two complexes...
February 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285118/anti-epileptic-effect-of-ifenprodil-on-neocortical-pyramidal-neurons-in-patients-with-malformations-of-cortical-development
#13
Xiongfei Wang, Xun He, Tianfu Li, Yousheng Shu, Songtao Qi, Guoming Luan
Ifenprodil has been demonstrated to reduce spontaneous action potentials observed by local field potential in animal models. To investigate whether ifenprodil exerts an anti-epileptic effect on neuronal levels in humans, whole-cell patch clamp recordings were used to study the electrophysiological membrane properties of neocortical pyramidal neurons in human brain tissues. Electrophysiological membrane properties and spontaneous spikes of neocortical pyramidal neurons were investigated by using whole-cell patch clamp recordings, prior to and following the application of ifenprodil...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278548/the-current-place-of-epilepsy-surgery
#14
Jerome Engel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Three randomized controlled trials demonstrate that surgical treatment is safe and effective for drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), yet fewer than 1% of patients are referred for surgery. This is a review of recent trends in surgical referral for DRE, and advances in the field. Reasons for continued underutilization are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent series indicate no increase in surgical referral for DRE over the past two decades. One study suggests that decreased referrals to major epilepsy centers can be accounted for by increased referrals to low-volume nonacademic hospitals where results are poorer, and complication rates higher...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205292/brain-regions-and-epileptogenicity-influence-epileptic-interictal-spike-production-and-propagation-during-nrem-sleep-in-comparison-with-wakefulness
#15
Isabelle Lambert, Nicolas Roehri, Bernard Giusiano, Romain Carron, Fabrice Wendling, Christian Benar, Fabrice Bartolomei
OBJECTIVE: Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is known to be a brain state associated with an activation of interictal epileptic activity. The goal of this work was to quantify topographic changes occurring during NREM sleep in comparison with wakefulness. METHOD: We studied intracerebral recordings of 20 patients who underwent stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) during presurgical evaluation for pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. We measured the number of interictal spikes (IS) and quantified the co-occurrence of IS between brain regions during 1 hour of NREM sleep and 1 hour of wakefulness...
January 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186594/resection-of-temporal-neocortex-during-multiple-hippocampal-transections-for-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-does-not-affect-seizure-or-memory-outcome
#16
Fady Girgis, Madeline E Greil, Philip S Fastenau, Jennifer Sweet, Hans Lüders, Jonathan P Miller
BACKGROUND: Multiple hippocampal transection (MHT) is a surgical treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with improved postoperative neuropsychological outcomes compared with lobectomy. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether resection of the amygdala and anterior temporal neocortex during MHT affects postoperative seizure/memory outcome. METHODS: Seventeen patients with normal magnetic resonance imaging and stereo-electroencephalogram-proven drug-resistant dominant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were treated with MHT...
December 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178354/hyperexcitability-of-the-network-contributes-to-synchronization-processes-in-the-human-epileptic-neocortex
#17
Kinga Tóth, Katharina T Hofer, Ágnes Kandrács, László Entz, Attila Bagó, Loránd Erőss, Zsófia Jordán, Gábor Nagy, András Sólyom, Dániel Fabó, István Ulbert, Lucia Wittner
KEY POINTS: Hyperexcitability and hypersynchrony of neuronal networks are thought to be linked to the generation of epileptic activity in both humans and animal models. Here we show that human epileptic postoperative neocortical tissue is able to generate two different types of synchronies in vitro. Epileptiform bursts occurred only in slices derived from epileptic patients and were hypersynchronous events characterized by high levels of excitability. Spontaneous population activity emerged in both epileptic and non-epileptic tissue, with a significantly lower degree of excitability and synchrony, and could not be linked to epilepsy...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175574/surgical-management-and-long-term-seizure-outcome-after-surgery-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-associated-with-cerebral-cavernous-malformations
#18
Peng-Fan Yang, Jia-Sheng Pei, Yan-Zeng Jia, Qiao Lin, Hui Xiao, Ting-Ting Zhang, Zhong-Hui Zhong
OBJECTIVE: Operative strategies for cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM)-associated temporal lobe epilepsy and timing of surgical intervention continue to be debated. This study aimed to establish an algorithm to evaluate the efficacy of surgical intervention strategies, to maximize positive surgical outcomes and minimize postsurgical neurologic deficits. METHODS: 47 patients having undergone operation for CCM-associated temporal lobe epilepsy were retrospectively reviewed...
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163052/the-thymus-neocortex-hypothesis-of-the-brain-a-cell-basis-for-recognition-and-instruction-of-self
#19
Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Florence Faure
The recognition of internal and external sources of stimuli, the self from non-self, seems to be an intrinsic property to the adequate functioning of the immune system and the nervous system, both complex network systems that have evolved to safeguard the self biological identity of the organism. The mammalian brain development relies on dynamic and adaptive processes that are now well described. However, the rules dictating this highly constrained developmental process remain elusive. Here we hypothesize that there is a cellular basis for brain selfhood, based on the analogy of the global mechanisms that drive the self/non-self recognition and instruction by the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159066/six-adult-patients-with-septo-optic-dysplasia-and-drug-resistant-epilepsy-clinical-findings-and-course
#20
Mashael AlKhateeb, Richard McLachlan, Jorge Burneo, David Diosy, Seyed Mirsattari
Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a rare disorder associated with optic nerve hypoplasia, pituitary abnormalities and agenesis/dysgenesis of midline brain structures including the septum pellucidum and corpus callosum. Though sometimes associated with drug-resistant epilepsy, this association has not been well studied. We report six SOD patients with associated malformation of cortical development (MCD) and drug-resistant epilepsy who underwent video-EEG telemetry at our centre between 1998 and 2016 for drug-resistant epilepsy...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
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