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Neocortical epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803766/different-neural-routes-to-autobiographical-memory-recall-in-healthy-people-and-individuals-with-left-medial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Cornelia McCormick, Morris Moscovitch, Taufik A Valiante, Melanie Cohn, Mary Pat McAndrews
Individuals with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) are poor at recalling vivid details from autobiographical memories (AM), instead retrieving gist-like schematic memories. Recent research has suggested that this impoverished recall in comparison to controls may reflect (1) differential engagement of anterior vs posterior regions of the hippocampus (HC) and/or (2) differences between the engagement of the HC vs the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here we examined these hypotheses by comparing connectivity amongst hippocampal regions and between vmPFC and other brain regions during construction (retrieval of a particular event) vs elaboration (retrieval of perceptual detail) phases of AM recall in 12 individuals with left mTLE and 12 matched controls...
August 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766041/the-role-of-the-basal-ganglia-in-the-control-of-seizure
#2
REVIEW
J Vuong, Annaelle Devergnas
Epilepsy is a network disorder and each type of seizure involves distinct cortical and subcortical network, differently implicated in the control and propagation of the ictal activity. The role of the basal ganglia has been revealed in several cases of focal and generalized seizures. Here, we review the data that show the implication of the basal ganglia in absence, temporal lobe, and neocortical seizures in animal models (rodent, cat, and non-human primate) and in human. Based on these results and the advancement of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease, basal ganglia neuromodulation has been tested with some success that can be equally seen as promising or disappointing...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749594/seizure-activity-per-se-does-not-induce-tissue-damage-markers-in-human-neocortical-focal-epilepsy
#3
Laura Rossini, Rita Garbelli, Vadym Gnatkovsky, Giuseppe Didato, Flavio Villani, Roberto Spreafico, Francesco Deleo, Giorgio Lo Russo, Giovanni Tringali, Francesca Gozzo, Laura Tassi, Marco de Curtis
Objective The contribute of recurring seizures to the progression of epileptogenesis is debated. Seizure-induced brain damage is not conclusively demonstrated both in humans and in animal models of epilepsy. We evaluated the expression of brain injury biomarkers on post-surgical brain tissue obtained from 20 patients with frequent seizures and a long history of drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Methods The expression patterns of specific glial, neuronal and inflammatory molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in the core of type II focal cortical dysplasias (FCD-II), at the FCD boundary (perilesion) and in the adjacent normal-appearing area included in the epileptogenic region...
July 27, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725554/successful-surgical-management-of-new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus-norse-presenting-with-gelastic-seizures-in-a-3%C3%A2-year-old-girl
#4
Ahmad Marashly, Sean Lew, Jennifer Koop
Gelastic seizures (GS) are typically associated with hypothalamic hamartomas and present during childhood. However it is now known that GS can be found in focal epilepsies arising from other regions in the brain, including mesial and neocortical frontal, temporal and parietal regions. GS have rarely been described as the presenting manifestation of New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus (NORSE). In this article we describe a previously healthy 3-year-old who presented with an explosive onset of GS that were refractory to multiple anti-seizure medications...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681378/update-on-the-mechanisms-and-roles-of-high-frequency-oscillations-in-seizures-and-epileptic-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Premysl Jiruska, Catalina Alvarado-Rojas, Catherine A Schevon, Richard Staba, William Stacey, Fabrice Wendling, Massimo Avoli
High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are a type of brain activity that is recorded from brain regions capable of generating seizures. Because of the close association of HFOs with epileptogenic tissue and ictogenesis, understanding their cellular and network mechanisms could provide valuable information about the organization of epileptogenic networks and how seizures emerge from the abnormal activity of these networks. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in the field of HFOs and provide a critical evaluation of new observations within the context of already established knowledge...
August 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646743/analysis-of-ictal-magnetoencephalography-using-gradient-magnetic-field-topography-gmft-in-patients-with-neocortical-epilepsy
#6
Hiroshi Shirozu, Akira Hashizume, Hiroshi Masuda, Yosuke Ito, Yoko Nakayama, Takefumi Higashijima, Masafumi Fukuda, Shigeki Kameyama
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate the usefulness of gradient magnetic-field topography (GMFT) for analysis of ictal magnetoencephalography (MEG) in patients with neocortical epilepsy. METHODS: We identified 13 patients presenting with an ictal event during preoperative MEG. We applied equivalent current dipole (ECD) estimation and GMFT to detect and localize the ictal MEG onset, and compared these methods with the ictal onset zone (IOZ) derived from chronic intracranial electroencephalography...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637636/epilepsy-after-cerebral-infection-review-of-the-literature-and-the-potential-for-surgery
#7
Georgia Ramantani, Hans Holthausen
The risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of cerebral infection survivors is 7-8% in developed countries, rising to considerably higher rates in resource-poor countries. The main risk factors for epilepsy after cerebral infection, besides acute seizures, are infection-associated brain lesions and status epilepticus during the acute phase. Despite the high prevalence of pharmacoresistant epilepsies after cerebral infections, especially in patients with MRI-identifiable lesions, only a small minority undergoes epilepsy surgery...
June 1, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630376/functional-connectivity-disturbances-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Dario J Englot, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Peter E Konrad, Monica L Jacobs, John C Gore, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Victoria L Morgan
OBJECTIVE: Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) disturb brain networks and lead to connectivity disturbances. We previously hypothesised that recurrent seizures in TLE may lead to abnormal connections involving subcortical activating structures including the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), contributing to neocortical dysfunction and neurocognitive impairments. However, no studies of ARAS connectivity have been previously reported in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI recordings in 27 patients with TLE (67% right sided) and 27 matched controls to examine functional connectivity (partial correlation) between eight brainstem ARAS structures and 105 cortical/subcortical regions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626979/electro-clinical-criteria-and-surgical-outcome-is-there-a-difference-between-mesial-and-lesional-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
M Wassenaar, F S S Leijten, G-J de Haan, S G Uijl, J W Sander
OBJECTIVES: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy syndrome (MTLE) with specific electrophysiological and clinical characteristics and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) on MRI is considered the prototype of a syndrome with good surgical prognosis. Ictal onset zones in MTLE have been found to extend outside the hippocampus and neocortical seizures often involve mesial structures. It can, thus, be questioned whether MTLE with HS is different from lesional temporal epilepsies with respect to electro-clinical characteristics and surgical prognosis...
June 18, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601605/rapid-focal-cooling-attenuates-cortical-seizures-in-a-primate-epilepsy-model
#10
Guoping Ren, Jiaqing Yan, Guoxian Tao, Yunmeng Gan, Donghong Li, Xi Yan, Yongjuan Fu, Leiming Wang, Weimin Wang, Zhiming Zhang, Feng Yue, Xiaofeng Yang
Rapid focal cooling is an attractive nondestructive strategy to control and possibly prevent focal seizures. However, the temperature threshold necessary to abort seizures in primates is still unknown. Here, we explored this issue in a primate epilepsy model and observed the effect of rapid cooling on different electroencephalogram frequency bands, aiming at providing necessary experimental data for future clinical translational studies and exploring the mechanism of focal cooling in terminating seizures. We induced focal neocortical seizures using microinjection of 4-aminopyridine into premotor cortex in five anesthetized cynomolgus monkeys...
September 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591482/hypothalamic-hamartoma-epileptogenesis-beyond-the-lesion
#11
REVIEW
Julia Scholly, Anke Maren Staack, Philippe Kahane, Didier Scavarda, Jean Régis, Edouard Hirsch, Fabrice Bartolomei
The discovery of intrinsic epileptogenicity of the hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) marked a new area in understanding the associated clinical syndrome, often manifesting as progressive epileptic encephalopathy. However, therapeutic procedures targeting the HH proved to be inefficient to cure seizures in up to 50% of cases, whereas in cases with partial improvement, the electroclinical patterns of persisting seizures suggest an involvement of distant cortical regions. The concept of kindling-like secondary epileptogenesis has been suggested as a possible underlying mechanism...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591477/reduced-glucose-metabolism-in-neocortical-network-nodes-remote-from-hypothalamic-hamartomas-reflects-cognitive-impairment
#12
Kathrin Wagner, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Horst Urbach, Michael Trippel, Timo S Spehl, Franziska Buschmann, Birgitta Metternich, Isabell Ofer, Philipp T Meyer, Lars Frings
The clinical appearance of patients with hypothalamic hamartomas is very heterogeneous, and interindividual variability of intellectual abilities is not completely understood. We retrospectively investigated cerebral dysfunction as indicated by reduced regional glucose metabolism in 29 patients (age range 7-49 years) with epilepsy due to hypothalamic hamartomas. Brain metabolism assessed by [(18) F]FDG-PET was compared between patients with and without cognitive impairment controlled for unevenly distributed hamartoma lateralization seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583883/preferential-susceptibility-of-limbic-cortices-to-microstructural-damage-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-quantitative-t1-mapping-study
#13
Boris C Bernhardt, Fatemeh Fadaie, Reinder Vos De Wael, Seok-Jun Hong, Min Liu, Marie C Guiot, David A Rudko, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi
The majority of MRI studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have utilized morphometry to map widespread cortical alterations. Morphological markers, such as cortical thickness or grey matter density, reflect combinations of biological events largely driven by overall cortical geometry rather than intracortical tissue properties. Because of its sensitivity to intracortical myelin, quantitative measurement of longitudinal relaxation time (qT1) provides and an in vivo proxy for cortical microstructure. Here, we mapped the regional distribution of qT1 in a consecutive cohort of 24 TLE patients and 20 healthy controls...
June 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572790/photolysis-of-caged-gaba-rapidly-terminates-seizures-in-vivo-concentration-and-light-intensity-dependence
#14
Dan Wang, Zhixin Yu, Jiaqing Yan, Fenqin Xue, Guoping Ren, Chenxi Jiang, Weimin Wang, Yueshan Piao, Xiaofeng Yang
The therapy of focal epilepsy remains unsatisfactory for as many as 25% of patients. The photolysis of caged-γ-aminobutyric acid (caged-GABA) represents a novel and alternative option for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Our previous experimental results have demonstrated that the use of blue light produced by light-emitting diode to uncage ruthenium-bipyridine-triphenylphosphine-c-GABA (RuBi-GABA) can rapidly terminate paroxysmal seizure activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, the optimal concentration of RuBi-GABA, and the intensity of illumination to abort seizures, remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529877/the-dynamics-of-functional-connectivity-in-neocortical-focal-epilepsy
#15
Mangor Pedersen, Amir Omidvarnia, Evan K Curwood, Jennifer M Walz, Genevieve Rayner, Graeme D Jackson
Focal epilepsy is characterised by paroxysmal events, reflecting changes in underlying local brain networks. To capture brain network activity at the maximal temporal resolution of the acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we have previously developed a novel analysis framework called Dynamic Regional Phase Synchrony (DRePS). DRePS measures instantaneous mean phase coherence within neighbourhoods of brain voxels. We use it here to examine how the dynamics of the functional connections of regional brain networks are altered in neocortical focal epilepsy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450153/epidural-focal-brain-cooling-abolishes-neocortical-seizures-in-cats-and-non-human-primates
#16
Takao Inoue, Masami Fujii, Hiroyuki Kida, Toshitaka Yamakawa, Yuichi Maruta, Tatsuji Tokiwa, Yeting He, Sadahiro Nomura, Yuji Owada, Takeshi Yamakawa, Michiyasu Suzuki
Focal brain cooling (FBC) is under investigation in preclinical trials of intractable epilepsy (IE), including status epilepticus (SE). This method has been studied in rodents as a possible treatment for epileptic disorders, but more evidence from large animal studies is required. To provide evidence that FBC is a safe and effective therapy for IE, we investigated if FBC using a titanium cooling plate can reduce or terminate focal neocortical seizures without having a significant impact on brain tissue. Two cats and two macaque monkeys were chronically implanted with an epidural FBC device over the somatosensory and motor cortex...
April 24, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441637/subtle-pathological-changes-in-neocortical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Juan G Ochoa, Diana Hentgarden, Audrey Paulzak, Melissa Ogden, Richard Pryson, Markus Lamle, Walter G Rusyniak
This was a prospective observational study to correlate the clinical symptoms, electrophysiology, imaging, and surgical pathology of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) without hippocampal sclerosis. We selected consecutive patients with TLE and normal MRI undergoing temporal lobe resection between April and September 2015. Clinical features, imaging, and functional data were reviewed. Intracranial monitoring and language mapping were performed when it was required according to our team recommendation...
June 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412559/interictal-ripples-nested-in-epileptiform-discharge-help-to-identify-the-epileptogenic-zone-in-neocortical-epilepsy
#18
Shuang Wang, Norman K So, Bo Jin, Irene Z Wang, Juan C Bulacio, Rei Enatsu, Shenyi Dai, Zhong Chen, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Imad M Najm
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the subtype of interictal ripples that help delineate the epileptogenic zone in neocortical epilepsy. METHODS: Totally 25 patients with focal neocortical epilepsy who had invasive electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation and subsequent surgery were included. They were followed up for at least 2years. Interictal ripples (80-250Hz) and fast ripples (250-500Hz) during slow-wave sleep were identified. Neocortical ripples were defined as type I ripples when they were superimposed on epileptiform discharges, and as type II ripples when they occurred independently...
June 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387951/brain-responsive-neurostimulation-in-patients-with-medically-intractable-seizures-arising-from-eloquent-and-other-neocortical-areas
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Barbara C Jobst, Ritu Kapur, Gregory L Barkley, Carl W Bazil, Michel J Berg, Gregory K Bergey, Jane G Boggs, Sydney S Cash, Andrew J Cole, Michael S Duchowny, Robert B Duckrow, Jonathan C Edwards, Stephan Eisenschenk, A James Fessler, Nathan B Fountain, Eric B Geller, Alica M Goldman, Robert R Goodman, Robert E Gross, Ryder P Gwinn, Christianne Heck, Aamr A Herekar, Lawrence J Hirsch, David King-Stephens, Douglas R Labar, W R Marsh, Kimford J Meador, Ian Miller, Eli M Mizrahi, Anthony M Murro, Dileep R Nair, Katherine H Noe, Piotr W Olejniczak, Yong D Park, Paul Rutecki, Vicenta Salanova, Raj D Sheth, Christopher Skidmore, Michael C Smith, David C Spencer, Shraddha Srinivasan, William Tatum, Paul Van Ness, David G Vossler, Robert E Wharen, Gregory A Worrell, Daniel Yoshor, Richard S Zimmerman, Tara L Skarpaas, Martha J Morrell
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the seizure-reduction response and safety of brain-responsive stimulation in adults with medically intractable partial-onset seizures of neocortical origin. METHODS: Patients with partial seizures of neocortical origin were identified from prospective clinical trials of a brain-responsive neurostimulator (RNS System, NeuroPace). The seizure reduction over years 2-6 postimplantation was calculated by assessing the seizure frequency compared to a preimplantation baseline...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380659/tailoring-epilepsy-surgery-with-fast-ripples-in-the-intraoperative-electrocorticogram
#20
Maryse A van 't Klooster, Nicole E C van Klink, Willemiek J E M Zweiphenning, Frans S S Leijten, Rina Zelmann, Cyrille H Ferrier, Peter C van Rijen, Willem M Otte, Kees P J Braun, Geertjan J M Huiskamp, Maeike Zijlmans
OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) can be used to delineate the resection area in epilepsy surgery. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs; 80-500 Hz) seem better biomarkers for epileptogenic tissue than spikes. We studied how HFOs and spikes in combined pre- and postresection ECoG predict surgical outcome in different tailoring approaches. METHODS: We, retrospectively, marked HFOs, divided into fast ripples (FRs; 250-500 Hz) and ripples (80-250 Hz), and spikes in pre- and postresection ECoG sampled at 2,048 Hz in people with refractory focal epilepsy...
May 2017: Annals of Neurology
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