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Polycystic ovary disease

Chiara Sartori, Pietro Lazzeroni, Silvia Merli, Viviana Dora Patianna, Francesca Viaroli, Francesca Cirillo, Sergio Amarri, Maria Elisabeth Street
Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Neeraj Garg, Mala Dharmalingam, Vinay Prabhu, N S Murthy
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine problem, which is now recognized as not only a reproductive but also a metabolic disorder with long-term effects on women's health, it has a prevalence of 5-10% in India. Among PCOS, it has been reported to have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disorders. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between an increase in the carotid intimo-medial wall thickness (CIMT) and cardiovascular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to compare the CIMT of PCOS with normal women...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sourav RoyChoudhury, Biswa Prasanna Mishra, Tila Khan, Ratna Chattopadhayay, Indrani Lodh, Chaitali Datta Ray, Gunja Bose, Himadri S Sarkar, Sudha Srivastava, Mamata V Joshi, Baidyanath Chakravarty, Koel Chaudhury
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most commonly occurring metabolic and endocrinological disorders affecting women of reproductive age. Metabolomics is an emerging field that holds promise in understanding disease pathophysiology. Recently, a few metabolomics based studies have been attempted in PCOS patients; however, none of them have included patients from the Indian population. The main objective of this study was to investigate the serum metabolomic profile of Indian women with PCOS and compare them with controls...
September 15, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Stefano Palomba, Antonio Simone Laganà, Francesco Orio
A growing body of research is currently focused on the role of inositol isomers and in particular myo-inositol (MYO-INS) and D-chiroinositol (DCI) in the treatment of insulin resistance states. Both isomers have been shown to exert insulin-mimetic action and to lower postprandial glucose. Further, insulin resistance-related diseases were associated to derangements in inositol metabolism. Thus, the aim of this review is to provide current evidence on the potential benefits of inositol isomers (MYO-INS and DCI) in the treatment of disease associated to insulin resistance such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), gestational diabetes, and metabolic syndrome...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Gurkan Bozdag, Sezcan Mumusoglu, Dila Zengin, Erdem Karabulut, Bulent Okan Yildiz
STUDY QUESTION: What is the reported overall prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to the criteria of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Rotterdam or the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AE-PCOS Society)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The reported overall prevalence of PCOS (95% CI) according to diagnostic criteria of the NIH, Rotterdam and the AE-PCOS Society is 6% (5-8%, n = 18 trials), 10% (8-13%, n = 15 trials) and 10% (7-13%, n = 10 trials), respectively...
September 22, 2016: Human Reproduction
Zelija Velija-Asimi, Azra Burekovic, Tanja Dujic, Amela Dizdarevic-Bostandzic, Sabina Semiz
Our aim was to determine the incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This prospective, observational study included 148 women with PCOS, without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CVD present at baseline. In the fasting blood samples, we measured lipids, glucose, and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), steroids, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and parathyroid hormone...
September 20, 2016: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Sreenithya Ravindran, Vinitha Kuruvilla, Kerry Wilbur, Shankar Munusamy
Metformin, a well-known anti-diabetic agent, is very effective in lowering blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes with minimal side-effects. Metformin is also being recommended in the treatment of obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome. Metformin elicits its therapeutic effects mainly via activation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) pathway. Renal cells under hyperglycemic or proteinuric conditions exhibit inactivation of cell defense mechanisms such as AMPK and autophagy, and activation of pathologic pathways such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), oxidative stress, and hypoxia...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Soudabeh Tirgar-Tabari, Majid Sharbatdaran, Sara Manafi-Afkham, Mohammad Montazeri
BACKGROUND: Hirsutism is one of the most important diseases that lead women to refer to dermatology clinic. Hyperprolactinemia is one of the causes of hirsutism. The aim of this study was to determine prolactin (PRL) levels in hirsute women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, hirsute patients were evaluated. For all of the patients, 2 or 3 days after mense starting, hormone level tests were performed, and 200 patients that had not polycystic ovary syndrome enrolled to the study...
July 2016: International Journal of Trichology
Roba M Talaat, Yasmin A Mohamed, Ehab H Mohamad, Marwa Elsharkawy, Adel A Guirgis
Cytokines play critical roles in the pathogenesis of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). This work was designed to study the implication of IL10 gene polymorphisms (- 1082 G/A and - 819 C/T) on the susceptibility of Egyptian women to have PCOS. Rotterdam consensus criteria were used to diagnose PCOS patients. Genotyping was performed by single-stranded polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) in 61 PCOS patients and 80 healthy controls, and IL-10 serum levels were measured using Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 2016: Meta Gene
Lisa Lindheim, Mina Bashir, Julia Münzker, Christian Trummer, Verena Zachhuber, Thomas R Pieber, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrine condition of unclear etiology characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo/amenorrhoea, and polycystic ovarian morphology. PCOS is often complicated by infertility, overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation. The gut microbiome is known to contribute to several of these conditions. Recently, an association between stool and saliva microbiome community profiles was shown, making saliva a possible convenient, non-invasive sample type for detecting gut microbiome changes in systemic disease...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dorte Glintborg, Marianne Andersen
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine condition in premenopausal women. The syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses and polycystic ovaries when other etiologies are excluded. Obesity, insulin resistance and low vitamin D levels are present in more than 50% patients with PCOS, these factors along with hyperandrogenism could have adverse effects on long term health. Hyperinflammation and impaired epithelial function were reported to a larger extent in women with PCOS and could particularly be associated with hyperandrogenism, obesity and insulin resistance...
September 6, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Agata Mierzwicka, Marek Bolanowski
Among new peptides responsible for the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders and carbohydrate metabolism, adipokines are of great importance. Adipokines are substances of hormonal character, secreted by adipose tissue. Apart from the well-known adipokines, adropin and preptin are relatively newly discovered, hence their function is not fully understood. They are peptides not secreted by adipose tissue but their role in the metabolic regulations seems to be significant. Preptin is a 34-amino acid peptide, a derivative of proinsulin growth factor II (pro-IGF-II), secreted by pancreatic β cells, considered to be a physiological enhancer of insulin secretion...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Ching-Hui Chen, Hung-Yen Chin, Huang-Hui Chen, Heng-Yu Chang, Wei-Min Liu
OBJECTIVE: To review and evaluate the potential adverse effects of these oral contraceptives (OCP) to overweight women. CASE REPORT: A 19-year-old college student, with a body mass index (BMI) of 35.2 kg/m(2), who received 2 months of OCP containing cyproterone and ethinyl estradiol for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-related menstrual problems was complicated with a thromboembolism-related life-threatened disease. After intensive care, including the use of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation system, thrombolytic treatment, anticoagulant, and inferior vena filter, she recovered well without significant sequelae...
August 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Fatma Beyazit, Nafiye Yilmaz, Osman Balci, Magdi Adam, Selen Taflan Yaman
Objective Ischemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation have been reported to be important contributors to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is a novel marker generated under ischemic and oxidative conditions and may reflect disease activity in distinct disease states. Therefore, we investigated whether the serum IMA levels are affected in infertile PCOS patients. Methods Forty-six patients with infertile PCOS, 30 patients with unexplained infertility, and 31 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls were included in this cross-sectional study...
2016: Internal Medicine
Francesco Orio, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Cinar Nese, Stefano Palomba, Silvia Savastano, Domenico Tafuri, Giorgio Colarieti, Giovanbattista La Sala, Annamaria Colao, Bulent O Yildiz
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women and is characterized by two of the following three features: oligoovulation or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, or polycystic ovaries. SUMMARY: It has been demonstrated that PCOS includes a complex number of systemic symptoms in addition to symptoms related to the reproductive apparatus. It has been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease...
August 12, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Aleksandra Zofia Rutkowska, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, heterogeneous, and multifactorial endocrine disorder in premenopausal women. The pathophysiology of this endocrinopathy is still unclear; however, the heterogeneity of its features within ethnic races, geographic location, and families suggests that environment and lifestyle are of prime importance. This work is mainly focused on the possible role of the most common and studied environmental toxins for this syndrome in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Plasticizers, such as bisphenol A (BPA) or phthalates, which belong to the categories of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), affect humans' health in everyday, industrialized life; therefore special attention should be paid to such exposure...
September 15, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Elzette Pretorius, Wiebke Arlt, Karl-Heinz Storbeck
The abundant adrenal C19 steroid 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione (11OHA4) has been written off as a dead-end product of adrenal steroidogenesis. However, recent evidence has demonstrated that 11OHA4 is the precursor to the potent androgenic 11-oxygenated steroids, 11-ketotestosterone and 11-ketodihydrotestosterone, that bind and activate the human androgen receptor similarly to testosterone and DHT. The significance of this discovery becomes apparent when considering androgen dependent diseases such as castration resistant prostate cancer and diseases associated with androgen excess, e...
August 9, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Mojgan Tansaz, Maryam Bahmani
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age with metabolic and gynecological complications. Despite the high prevalence of this disease, many challenges remain regarding its diagnosis and treatment. According to many studies, lifestyle modification especially diet is the first line of the treatment in PCOS patients. The aim of this article was to study the principles of nutrition for PCOS patients in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) in comparison with modern medicine...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Błażej Szydło, Paweł Kiczmer, Elżbieta Świętochowska, Zofia Ostrowska
For the past few years adipokines have been a center of appreciation and interest. They are biologically active molecules causing pleiotropic effects. They assist in angiogenesis, adipose tissue metabolism and inflammation, and modulate tissue sensitivity for insulin. Adipokines are produced in adipose tissue, so an abnormal quantity of this tissue leads to impaired levels of these factors. Because of their different concentrations in various conditions, it would be plausible to use them as markers for individual conditions, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, gastric cancer, lung cancer or colon cancer...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Stefano Palomba, Antonio Simone Laganà, Francesco Orio
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome characterized by reproductive and metabolic implications. Lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, are considered first-line treatment for women affected by PCOS. Pharmacologic treatments target the hormonal and metabolic dysregulations associated to the disease such as insulin resistance, anovulation, hirsutism and menstrual irregularities. OBJECTIVE: To focus on the role of inositol isoforms, as well as Mediterranean and ketogenic diets, as possible therapeutic strategies in PCOS women...
July 20, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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