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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245115/effects-of-grain-size-on-the-microstructures-and-mechanical-properties-of-304-austenitic-steel-processed-by-torsional-deformation
#1
Ji Gu, Lixin Zhang, Song Ni, Min Song
In this paper, two grain sized 304 austenitic steel rods (coarse-grained steel with an average grain size of ∼20μm and ultra-coarse-grained steel with an average grain size of ∼1mm) were treated by pre-torsional deformation. Gradient microstructures with "dislocations→stacking faults→nanotwins" along the radial direction were formed in the ultra-coarse-grained specimen, and this type of gradient microstructures is beneficial to the mechanical properties. The results also showed that grain size affects the onset of twinning...
December 11, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245024/early-onset-tobacco-use-and-suicide-related-behavior-a-prospective-study-from-adolescence-to-young-adulthood
#2
Tellervo Korhonen, Elina Sihvola, Antti Latvala, Danielle M Dick, Lea Pulkkinen, John Nurnberger, Richard J Rose, Jaakko Kaprio
BACKGROUND: Developmental relationships between tobacco use and suicide-related behaviors (SRB) remain unclear. Our objective was to investigate the longitudinal associations of tobacco use in adolescence and SRB in adulthood. METHODS: Using a prospective design, we examined whether tobacco use in adolescence is associated with SRB (intentional self-injury, suicide ideation) in young adulthood in a population-based sample of 1330 twins (626 males, 704 females). The baseline and follow-up data were collected by professionally administered semi-structured poly-diagnostic interviews at ages 14 and 22, respectively...
December 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242987/a-twin-study-of-cilioretinal-arteries-tilted-discs-and-situs-inversus
#3
Alex J Baneke, Katie M Williams, Omar A Mahroo, Moin Mohamed, Christopher J Hammond
PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence and heritability of cilioretinal arteries (CRAs), tilted discs (TDs) and situs inversus (SI). METHODS: Fundus photos from the Twins UK Adult Twin registry twin database were analyzed: 1812 individuals, 526 complete monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and 336 complete dizygotic (DZ) pairs. Images were assessed non-stereoscopically on a computer screen by the same ophthalmologist for presence of CRAs, TDs or SI. Prevalence figures, probandwise concordances and heritabilities were calculated...
December 14, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241912/radiofrequency-ablation-for-selective-reduction-in-complex-monochorionic-multiple-pregnancies-a-case-series
#4
Hong-Mei Wang, Hong-Yan Li, Xie-Tong Wang, Yan-Yun Wang, Lei Li, Bo Liang, Jing Wang, Jia Song
OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for selective fetal reduction in complex monochorionic multiple pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From July 2011 to January 2015, data on all cases treated with RFA were collected prospectively in our hospital. Indications, procedure details, cause of fetal demise and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. Sonography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed to detect fetal brain damage...
December 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240646/genetic-and-environmental-contributions-to-sleep-quality-and-low-back-pain-a-population-based-twin-study
#5
Marina B Pinheiro, Jose J Morosoli, Manuela L Ferreira, Juan J Madrid-Valero, Kathryn Refshauge, Paulo H Ferreira, Juan R Ordoñana
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which the co-occurrence of poor sleep quality and low back pain is due to the same genetic and/or environmental risk factors or due to a causal association. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index) and low back pain were collected in a population-based sample of adult twins (n=2,134) registered with the Murcia Twin Registry. Bivariate analysis and structural equation modelling were used...
December 13, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239485/comparison-of-umbilical-cord-occlusion-methods-radiofrequency-ablation-versus-laser-photocoagulation
#6
Mira Abdel-Sattar, Andrew H Chon, Arlyn Llanes, Lisa M Korst, Joseph G Ouzounian, Ramen H Chmait
OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes between two umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) methods: radiofrequency ablation (RFA) versus fetoscopic-guided laser photocoagulation. METHODS: Retrospective study of all monochorionic diamniotic multiple gestations that underwent UCO with RFA (preferred after 2014) or laser (preferred before 2014). In bivariate analysis, patients treated with RFA were compared to laser. Risk factors for intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD) and 30-day survival of the co-twin were identified, and multiple logistic models were fitted to examine whether the UCO method was associated with these outcomes...
December 14, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238796/sources-of-parent-offspring-resemblance-for-major-depression-in-a-national-swedish-extended-adoption-study
#7
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist
Importance: Twin studies have assessed sibling resemblance for major depression (MD) but cannot address sources of resemblance across generations. Objective: To clarify the relative importance of genetic and rearing effects on the parent-offspring resemblance for MD. Design: This Swedish population register-based study examined parents and children from the following 5 family types: intact (2 041 816 offspring), adoptive (14 104 offspring), not-lived-with (NLW) father (116 601 offspring), stepfather (67 826 offspring), and triparental (29 205 offspring)...
December 13, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238231/adverse-maternal-outcomes-and-birth-weight-discordance-in-twin-gestation-british-columbia-canadian-data
#8
Shayesteh Jahanfar, Kenneth Lim
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether twin pregnancies with birth weight discordance were associated with higher rates of maternal morbidities. Study design: A large retrospective population-based cohort study of twins born in British Columbia, Canada, from 2000 to 2010 was performed. Maternal morbidities and growth discordant were evaluated. Results: There were 6,328 twin deliveries during the study period. Pregnancies carrying growth-discordant twins had higher frequencies of hypertension disorders, preterm labor, and cesarean delivery compared with growth-concordant twins...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237662/advanced-abdominal-pregnancy-in-a-spontaneous-heterotopic-pregnancy
#9
Nuno Maciel, Ana Furtado Lima, Rosa Cruz, Carlos Ponte
Spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy is a potentially life-threatening condition rarely considered when a patient with an intrauterine pregnancy is asymptomatic or presents with complaints such as abdominal pain. An advanced abdominal pregnancy as the form of the ectopic component, outside the context of assisted reproduction, is an even more unusual and perilous diagnosis with very few cases reported in the literature. We report such a case in a 34-year-old multipara, with no known risk factors for ectopic pregnancy...
December 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235519/strengthening-face-centered-cubic-crystals-by-annealing-induced-nano-twins
#10
Barna Roy, Jayanta Das
Usually, cold working strengthen metals and alloys by introducing large population of dislocations, whereas annealing of cold worked metal recovers the structure, annihilates dislocations, forms new strain-free grains, and results loss of strength. Here, we report annealing-hardening at temperature well below stress relieving and recrystallization temperatures in contrast to the typical behavior. A large amount of structural defects, such as dislocations, grain boundaries, twins, and stacking faults, have been introduced in nanostructured α-brass by cryorolling...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235074/twin-screw-extrusion-of-sustained-release-oral-dosage-forms-and-medical-implants
#11
REVIEW
Xin Feng, Feng Zhang
Most of published reviews of twin-screw extrusion focused on its application for enhancing the bioavailability of amorphous solid dispersions while few of them focused on its use for manufacturing sustained-release oral dosage forms and medical implants, despite the considerable interest and success this process has garnered both in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry. Compared to conventional batch processing, twin-screw extrusion offers the advantages of continuous processing and the ability to prepare oral dosage forms and medical implants that have unique physicochemical and drug release attributes...
December 12, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234991/longitudinal-analysis-of-particulate-air-pollutants-and-adolescent-delinquent-behavior-in-southern-california
#12
Diana Younan, Catherine Tuvblad, Meredith Franklin, Fred Lurmann, Lianfa Li, Jun Wu, Kiros Berhane, Laura A Baker, Jiu-Chiuan Chen
Animal experiments and cross-sectional human studies have linked particulate matter (PM) with increased behavioral problems. We conducted a longitudinal study to examine whether the trajectories of delinquent behavior are affected by PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) exposures before and during adolescence. We used the parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist at age 9-18 with repeated measures every ~2-3 years (up to 4 behavioral assessments) on 682 children from the Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior Study conducted in a multi-ethnic cohort of twins born in 1990-1995...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234097/observation-of-deformation-twinning-and-martensitic-transformation-during-nanoindentation-of-a-transformation-induced-plasticity-steel
#13
Zhiping Xiong, Gilberto Casillas, Ahmed A Saleh, Shaogang Cui, Elena V Pereloma
For the first time, deformation twinning and martensitic transformation were observed in retained austenite in a low-alloyed transformation-induced plasticity steel using nanoindentation in conjunction with electron backscattering diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Dislocation glide, martensite formation and deformation twinning were correlated to pop-ins and deviation from linearity in the load-displacement curve. Deformation twinning was found to enhance the stability of retained austenite...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234009/childhood-behaviour-problems-show-the-greatest-gap-between-dna-based-and-twin-heritability
#14
Rosa Cheesman, Saskia Selzam, Angelica Ronald, Philip S Dale, Tom A McAdams, Thalia C Eley, Robert Plomin
For most complex traits, DNA-based heritability ('SNP heritability') is roughly half that of twin-based heritability. A previous report from the Twins Early Development Study suggested that this heritability gap is much greater for childhood behaviour problems than for other domains. If true, this finding is important because SNP heritability, not twin heritability, is the ceiling for genome-wide association studies. With twice the sample size as the previous report, we estimated SNP heritabilities (N up to 4653 unrelated individuals) and compared them with twin heritabilities from the same sample (N up to 4724 twin pairs) for diverse domains of childhood behaviour problems as rated by parents, teachers, and children themselves at ages 12 and 16...
December 12, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233618/nutritional-impact-on-gene-expression-and-competence-of-oocytes-used-to-support-embryo-development-and-livebirth-by-cloning-procedures-in-goats
#15
C C L Fernandes, L H Aguiar, C E M Calderón, A M Silva, J P M Alves, R Rossetto, L R Bertolini, M Bertolini, D Rondina
Changes in the nutritional plan have been shown to affect oocyte quality, crucial to oocyte donors animals used in cloning. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of diets with increasing nutritional levels (maintenance diet=M; 1.3M; 1.6M; 1.9M) fed to goats for four weeks on follicular fluid composition, gene expression and oocyte competence used to cloning in goats. Donor females were superovulated for the retrieval of matured oocytes and physical measurements reported. After four weeks, groups receiving diets above maintenance increased thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue and body weight, with higher values in 1...
October 19, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230998/-research-progress-on-the-detection-method-of-dna-methylation-and-its-application-in-forensic-science
#16
REVIEW
Y C Nie, L J Yu, H Guan, Y Zhao, H B Rong, B W Jiang, T Zhang
As an important part of epigenetic marker, DNA methylation involves in the gene regulation and attracts a wide spread attention in biological auxology, geratology and oncology fields. In forensic science, because of the relative stable, heritable, abundant, and age-related characteristics, DNA methylation is considered to be a useful complement to the classic genetic markers for age-prediction, tissue-identification, and monozygotic twins' discrimination. Various methods for DNA methylation detection have been validated based on methylation sensitive restriction endonuclease, bisulfite modification and methylation-CpG binding protein...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230691/beta-blocker-use-in-pregnancy-and-risk-of-specific-congenital-anomalies-a-european-case-malformed-control-study
#17
Jorieke E H Bergman, L Renée Lutke, Rijk O B Gans, Marie-Claude Addor, Ingeborg Barisic, Clara Cavero-Carbonell, Ester Garne, Miriam Gatt, Kari Klungsoyr, Nathalie Lelong, Catherine Lynch, Olatz Mokoroa, Vera Nelen, Amanda J Neville, Anna Pierini, Hanitra Randrianaivo, Anke Rissmann, David Tucker, Awi Wiesel, Helen Dolk, Maria Loane, Marian K Bakker
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of chronic hypertension is increasing in pregnant women. Beta-blockers are among the most prevalent anti-hypertensive agents used in early pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether first-trimester use of beta-blockers increases the risk of specific congenital anomalies in offspring. METHODS: A population-based case-malformed control study was conducted in 117,122 registrations of congenital anomalies from 17 European Concerted Action on Congenital Anomalies and Twins (EUROCAT) registries participating in EUROmediCAT with data for all or part of the period between 1995 and 2013...
December 11, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230478/testicular-cancer-in-monozygotic-twin-brothers-with-urticaria-pigmentosa
#18
Tatiana Péčová, Karolína Vorčáková, Markéta Žaliová, Tatiana Burjanivová, Bibiana Malicherová, Lukáš Plank, Jan Trka, Klaudia Péčová, Katarína Adamicová, Martin Péč, Juraj Pec
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230453/an-organoferroelasticity-driven-by-molecular-conformational-change
#19
Sajjad Husain Mir, Yuichi Takasaki, Satoshi Takamizawa
A single crystal of adipic acid shows twinning ferroelasticity by the reversible molecular conformational change. The flexible nature of components in molecular solids raises the efficiency of energy dissipation using organoferroelasticity.
December 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229860/autocatalytic-surface-reduction-and-its-role-in-controlling-seed-mediated-growth-of-colloidal-metal-nanocrystals
#20
Tung-Han Yang, Shan Zhou, Kyle D Gilroy, Legna Figueroa-Cosme, Yi-Hsien Lee, Jenn-Ming Wu, Younan Xia
The growth of colloidal metal nanocrystals typically involves an autocatalytic process, in which the salt precursor adsorbs onto the surface of a growing nanocrystal, followed by chemical reduction to atoms for their incorporation into the nanocrystal. Despite its universal role in the synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals, it is still poorly understood and controlled in terms of kinetics. Through the use of well-defined nanocrystals as seeds, including those with different types of facets, sizes, and internal twin structure, here we quantitatively analyze the kinetics of autocatalytic surface reduction in an effort to control the evolution of nanocrystals into predictable shapes...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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