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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531378/cognitive-ability-in-young-adulthood-and-risk-of-dementia-in-a-cohort-of-danish-men-brothers-and-twins
#1
Merete Osler, Gunhild T Christensen, Ellen Garde, Erik L Mortensen, Kaare Christensen
INTRODUCTION: We examined the association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and dementia in Danish men, brothers, and male twins. METHODS: In total, 666,986 men born between 1939 and 1959 were identified for dementia diagnosis in national registries from 1969 to 2016. The association between cognitive ability from draft board examination and dementia was examined using Cox regression. RESULTS: During a 44-year follow-up, 6416 (0...
May 19, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530673/genome-wide-association-meta-analysis-of-78-308-individuals-identifies-new-loci-and-genes-influencing-human-intelligence
#2
Suzanne Sniekers, Sven Stringer, Kyoko Watanabe, Philip R Jansen, Jonathan R I Coleman, Eva Krapohl, Erdogan Taskesen, Anke R Hammerschlag, Aysu Okbay, Delilah Zabaneh, Najaf Amin, Gerome Breen, David Cesarini, Christopher F Chabris, William G Iacono, M Arfan Ikram, Magnus Johannesson, Philipp Koellinger, James J Lee, Patrik K E Magnusson, Matt McGue, Mike B Miller, William E R Ollier, Antony Payton, Neil Pendleton, Robert Plomin, Cornelius A Rietveld, Henning Tiemeier, Cornelia M van Duijn, Danielle Posthuma
Intelligence is associated with important economic and health-related life outcomes. Despite intelligence having substantial heritability (0.54) and a confirmed polygenic nature, initial genetic studies were mostly underpowered. Here we report a meta-analysis for intelligence of 78,308 individuals. We identify 336 associated SNPs (METAL P < 5 × 10(-8)) in 18 genomic loci, of which 15 are new. Around half of the SNPs are located inside a gene, implicating 22 genes, of which 11 are new findings. Gene-based analyses identified an additional 30 genes (MAGMA P < 2...
May 22, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530468/genetic-susceptibility-contributing-to-periodontal-and-cardiovascular-disease
#3
G Aarabi, T Zeller, H Seedorf, D R Reissmann, G Heydecke, A S Schaefer, U Seedorf
Periodontal disease (PD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are common diseases characterized by an overaggressive inflammatory response to diverse stimuli. Whereas PD leads to destruction of the tooth-supporting structures, CAD is a chronic inflammatory condition ultimately causing myocardial infarction via narrowing and occluding of blood vessels. Classical twin studies led to the conclusion that both complex diseases have a similar degree of heritability and that a significant fraction of the genetic factors accounting for this heritability is shared...
June 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530449/a-new-elastic-slot-system-and-v-wire-mechanics
#4
Andrea Wichelhaus
OBJECTIVE: To biomechanically test a new elastic slot system and V-wire mechanics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Conventional twin and self-ligating brackets and the new elastodynamic bracket were biomechanically tested. The conventional brackets had a rectangular 0.022'' slot and the new elastodynamic bracket had a V-slot, a new slot geometry. Torque measurements were performed with 0.018'' × 0.025'' and 0.019'' × 0.025'' stainless steel (ss) archwires. A nickel-titanium V wire was used for the biomechanical measurements on the elastodynamic bracket...
May 22, 2017: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530086/-trial-of-labor-after-cesarean-in-twin-gestations-does-it-increase-maternal-or-neonatal-complications
#5
Hagit Diamant, Rania Okby, Majdi Imterat, Ruslan Sergienko, Eyal Sheiner
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the rate, success and pregnancy outcome following a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) in twin gestations. Study design: A retrospective study including all twin pregnancies with a single prior cesarean delivery between the years 2006 to 2011 was performed. Women with medical indications for cesarean delivery (CD) were excluded. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between women who delivered by CD to those who underwent TOLAC. Stratified analysis using a multiple logistic regression model was performed to control for confounders...
September 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529888/simultaneous-streptococcus-pneumoniae-empyema-in-fraternal-twins
#6
Alvaro E Galvis, Sana Kamboj, Craig Nakamura
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial cause of community acquired pneumonia. The current trend in Streptococcus pneumoniae infections has been the rise of multi-drug resistance in the last two decades. We present the case of a pair of 16-month old African-American fraternal twins who presented to the emergency room on the same day for symptoms consistent with pneumonia. Upon further examination, the twins showed remarkably similar symptoms, and cultures revealed penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in both twins...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529792/the-crystal-structure-of-c2h9n2-2-zn3-hpo3-4-a-three-dimensional-zincophosphite-framework-containing-16-membered-rings-templated-by-the-unsymmetrical-dimethyl-hydrazinium-cation
#7
Judita Katinaitė, William T A Harrison
The solution-mediated synthesis and crystal structure of 1,1-di-methyl-hydrazinium tetra-phoshonoatotrizincate, (C2H9N2)2[Zn3(HPO3)4], are described. The anionic [Zn3(HPO3)4](2-) framework is built up from alternating ZnO4 tetra-hedra and HPO3 pseudo-pyramids to generate a three-dimensional 4,3-net encapsulating the C2H9N2(+) cations. The organic cations, which are protonated at their central N atoms, occupy pores delineated by large 16-membered polyhedral rings and inter-act with the framework by way of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and possible C-H⋯O inter-actions...
May 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528874/animal-health-and-greenhouse-gas-intensity-the-paradox-of-periparturient-parasitism
#8
J G M Houdijk, B J Tolkamp, J A Rooke, M R Hutchings
Here we provide the first known direct measurements of pathogen challenge impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) production, yield and intensity. Twin-rearing ewes were ad libitum fed pelleted lucerne from day -32 to 36 (day 0 is parturition), and repeatedly infected with 10,000 Teladorsagia circumcincta infective larvae (n=16), or sham-dosed with water (n=16). A third group of 16 ewes were fed at 80% of uninfected ewes' feed intake during lactation. Methane emissions were measured in respiration chambers (day 30 to 36) whilst total tract apparent nutrient digestibility around day 28 informed calculated manure methane and nitrous oxide emissions estimates...
May 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528201/x-linked-carriers-of-chronic-granulomatous-disease-illness-lyonization-and-stability
#9
Beatriz E Marciano, Christa S Zerbe, E Liana Falcone, Li Ding, Suk See DeRavin, Janine Daub, Samantha Kreuzburg, Lynne Yockey, Sally Hunsberger, Ladan Foruraghi, Lisa A Barnhart, Kabir Matharu, Victoria Anderson, Dirk N Darnell, Cathleen Frein, Danielle L Fink, Karen P Lau, Debra A Long Priel, John I Gallin, Harry L Malech, Gulbu Uzel, Alexandra F Freeman, Douglas B Kuhns, Sergio D Rosenzweig, Steven M Holland
BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and aberrant inflammation. Mutations in CYBB cause X-linked CGD and account for 65%-70% of cases in western countries. OBJECTIVE: To understand the clinical manifestations associated with the X-linked CGD carrier state. METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive retrospective study of 162 affected females. We examined dihydrorhodamine oxidation (DHR) data for percent (%) X chromosome inactivation...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527483/single-fetal-death-in-monochorionic-twin-pregnancy-co-twin-prognosis-and-neonatal-outcome
#10
Emídio Vale-Fernandes, Joana Dias, Belandina Gil, Alexandra Cadilhe
The incidence of single fetal death in twin pregnancy varies from 0.5% - 6.8%, leaving the surviving fetus with increased morbi-mortality. The prognosis is worse in monochorionic pregnancies. In addressing these cases it should be noted referral to tertiary center with differentiated perinatal support, induction of fetal lung maturation and termination of pregnancy if there's loss of fetal well-being or possibility of maternal complications and suspected neurological sequelae in the surviving fetus. The risk of iatrogenic prematurity should always be weighed with the possible consequences arising from the fetus staying in a hostile uterine environment...
February 27, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526941/urinary-cadmium-and-cotinine-levels-and-hair-mercury-levels-in-czech-children-and-their-mothers-within-the-framework-of-the-cophes-democophes-projects
#11
Kateřina Forysová, Anna Pinkr-Grafnetterová, Marek Malý, Andrea Krsková, Jaroslav Mráz, Lucie Kašparová, Mája Čejchanová, Lenka Sochorová, Sylva Rödlová, Milena Černá
The COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin project was performed in 2011-2012 in 17 European countries to harmonize all steps of the human biomonitoring survey. Urinary cadmium, cotinine, phthalate metabolites, and hair mercury were measured in children (N = 120, 6-11 years) and their mothers of reproductive age, living in urban or rural areas. Cadmium in mothers' and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean (GM) concentration 0.227 and 0.109 μg/L, respectively; 95th percentile (P95) was 0.655 and 0.280 μg/L in mothers and children, respectively...
May 19, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524787/cerebral-hemorrhage-in-monozygotic-twins-with-hereditary-hemorrhagic-telangiectasia-case-report-and-hemorrhagic-risk-evaluation
#12
Abbas Rattani, Michael C Dewan, Vickie Hannig, Robert P Naftel, John C Wellons, Lori C Jordan
The authors present a case of monozygotic twins with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) who experienced cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) hemorrhage at a very young age. The clinical variables influencing HHT-related AVM rupture are discussed, and questions surrounding the timing of screening and intervention are explored. This is only the second known case of monozygotic HHT twins published in the medical literature, and the youngest pair of first-degree relatives to experience AVM-related cerebral hemorrhage...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524230/the-etiology-of-autistic-traits-in-preschoolers-a-population-based-twin-study
#13
Eveline L de Zeeuw, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Rosa A Hoekstra, Meike Bartels, Dorret I Boomsma
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are highly heritable, but the exact etiological mechanisms underlying the condition are still unclear. METHODS: Using a multiple rater twin design in a large sample of general population preschool twins, this study aimed to (a) estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to autistic traits, controlling for the possible effects of rater bias, (b) to explore possible sex differences in etiology and (c) to investigate the discordance in autistic traits in monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523554/alzheimer-s-disease-and-histone-code-alterations
#14
Pritika Narayan, Mike Dragunow
Substantial progress has been made in identifying Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk-associated variants using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The majority of these risk variants reside in noncoding regions of the genome making their functional evaluation difficult; however, they also infer the presence of unconventional regulatory regions that may reside at these locations. We know from these studies that rare familial cases of AD account for less than 5% of all AD cases and autosomal dominant mutations in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 account for less than 10% of the genetic basis of these familial cases [1]...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523550/histone-posttranslational-modifications-in-schizophrenia
#15
Elizabeth A Thomas
Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with high heritability; however, family and twin studies have indicated that environmental factors also play important roles in the etiology of disease. Environmental triggers exert their influence on behavior via epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic modifications, such as histone acetylation and methylation, as well as DNA methylation, can induce lasting changes in gene expression and have therefore been implicated in promoting the behavioral and neuronal behaviors that characterize this disorder...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523545/anxiety-and-epigenetics
#16
Andrew A Bartlett, Rumani Singh, Richard G Hunter
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent psychiatric disorders often comorbid with depression and substance abuse. Twin studies have shown that anxiety disorders are moderately heritable. Yet, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have failed to identify gene(s) significantly associated with diagnosis suggesting a strong role for environmental factors and the epigenome. A number of anxiety disorder subtypes are considered "stress related." A large focus of research has been on the epigenetic and anxiety-like behavioral consequences of stress...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523227/parental-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-genotype-child-prosociality-and-their-interaction-as-predictors-of-parents-warmth
#17
Reut Avinun, Ariel Knafo-Noam
BACKGROUND: Parental warmth has been associated with various child behaviors, from effortful control to callous-unemotional traits. Factors that have been shown to affect parental warmth include heritability and child behavior. However, there is limited knowledge about which specific genes are involved, how they interact with child behavior, how they affect differential parenting, and how they affect fathers. We examined what affects paternal and maternal warmth by focusing on the child's prosocial behavior and parents' genotype, specifically a Valine to Methionine substitution at codon 66 in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521627/disseminated-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-osteomyelitis-in-twin-sisters-related-to-stat1-gene-deficiency
#18
Sabah Boudjemaa, Linda Dainese, Sébastien Héritier, Caroline Masserot, Samia Hachemane, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Aurore Coulomb, Jacinta Bustamante
Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease is a rare syndrome characterized by severe clinical infections usually caused by weakly virulent mycobacterial species such as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccines and environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria or more virulent mycobacteria as mycobacterium tuberculosis. Since 1996, 9 genes including 7 autosomal ( STAT1, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, IL12B, IL12RB1, ISG15, and IRF8) and 2 X-linked genes ( NEMO and CYBB) have been identified. Allelic heterogeneity leaded to recognize about 18 genetic diseases with variable clinical phenotypes, but sharing a same physiological mechanism represented by a defect in human IL-12-dependant-INF-γ-mediated immunity...
June 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521251/the-protective-effect-of-character-maturity-in-child-aggressive-antisocial-behavior
#19
Nóra Kerekes, Örjan Falk, Sven Brändström, Henrik Anckarsäter, Maria Råstam, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Childhood aggressive antisocial behavior (CD) is one of the strongest predictors of mental health problems and criminal behavior in adulthood. The aims of this study were to describe personality profiles in children with CD, and to determine the strength of association between defined neurodevelopmental symptoms, dimensions of character maturity and CD. METHODS: A sample of 1886 children with a close to equal distribution of age (9 or 12) and gender, enriched for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems were selected from the nationwide Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden...
April 29, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517010/suppression-of-near-band-edge-emission-in-specially-engineered-zno-twin-nanorods
#20
Avanendra Singh, Kartik Senapati, Biswarup Satpati, Pratap K Sahoo
We report the synthesis of a unique zinc oxide nanorod structure in which an amorphous ZnO layer is sandwiched between two identical crystalline segments of ZnO. A simple hydrothermal reaction method was used for this purpose, which allowed us to tune the amorphous and crystalline sections of the nanorods via reaction temperature. A systematic study of the morphology and dimensions of the nanorods grown under various conditions was performed using a combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy...
May 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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