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Antonella Sferra, Fabiana Fattori, Teresa Rizza, Elsabetta Flex, Emanuele Bellacchio, Alessandro Bruselles, Stefania Petrini, Serena Cecchetti, Massimo Teson, Fabrizia Restaldi, Andrea Ciolfi, Filippo M Santorelli, Ginevra Zanni, Sabina Barresi, Claudia Castiglioni, Marco Tartaglia, Enrico Bertini
Microtubules participate in fundamental cellular processes, including chromosomal segregation and cell division, migration, and intracellular trafficking. Their proper function is required for correct central nervous system development and operative preservation, and mutations in genes coding tubulins, the constituting units of microtubules, underlie a family of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as "tubulinopathies", characterized by a wide range of neuronal defects resulting from defective proliferation, migration, and function...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Sumona Chaudhury, Gloria K Mayondi, Paige L Williams, Jean Leidner, Roger Shapiro, Modiegi Diseko, Gbolahan Ajibola, Penny Holding, Vicki Tepper, Joseph Makhema, Chipo Petlo, George R Seage, Shahin Lockman, Betsy Kammerer
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data exist regarding the impact of in utero exposure to maternal combination antiretrovirals. We compared neurodevelopmental outcomes between HIV-exposed/uninfected (HEU) children exposed in utero to 3-drug combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy. DESIGN: Prospective study of child neurodevelopment, nested within two cohorts of HIV-infected mothers and their children in Botswana (one observational, one interventional)...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
S Maria O'Kane, L Kirsty Pourshahidi, Maria S Mulhern, J J Strain, Emer M Mackle, Duygu Koca, Lutz Schomburg, Sarah Hill, Jennifer O'Reilly, Diana Kmiotek, Christian Deitrich, Sarah C Bath, Alison J Yeates
Background: Recent evidence has highlighted the prevalence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in women of childbearing age and pregnant women, with important public health ramifications due to the role of iodine, which is required for thyroid hormone production, in neurodevelopment. Cow milk contributes the greatest amount to iodine intakes in several countries. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of increased cow milk consumption on iodine status, thyroid hormone concentrations, and selenium status...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Katherine M Satrom, Kathleen Ennis, Brian M Sweis, Tatyana M Matveeva, Jun Chen, Leif Hanson, Akhil Maheshwari, Raghavendra Rao
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is common in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGAN) and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, including abnormal neurodevelopment. Hippocampus-mediated cognitive deficits are common in this population, but the specific effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus are not known. METHODS: The objective of this study was to determine the acute and long-term effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus in neonatal rats using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of hyperglycemia...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Yuko Arita, Michael Kirk, Neha Gupta, Ramkumar Menon, Darios Getahun, Morgan R Peltier
OBJECTIVE: Tributyltin (TBT) is a persistent pollutant but its effects on placental function are poorly understood as are its possible interactions with infection. We hypothesized that TBT alters the production of sex hormones and biomarkers for inflammation and neurodevelopment in an infection-dependent manner. METHODS: Placental explant cultures were treated with 0-5000 nM TBT in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli. A conditioned medium was harvested and concentrations of steroids (progesterone, P4; testosterone, T and estradiol, E2) as well as biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp-130) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)], oxidative stress [8-iso-prostaglandin (8-IsoP)] and neurodevelopment [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] were quantified...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Susan Woskie, Pornpimol Kongtip, Wiroj Thanasanpaiboon, Napaporn Kiatdamrong, Nantha Charoonrungsirikul, Noppanun Nankongnab, Anu Surach, Akkarat Phamonphon
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether prenatal exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides from maternal agricultural use are associated with neonatal neurobehavioral effects. A pilot study conducted in three provinces in Thailand measured maternal urinary metabolites of OP pesticides in pregnant women at 7 months gestation and at birth. Within 3 days of birth, 82 newborns underwent neurobehavioral testing using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Comparison of the NBAS test results with maternal OP metabolite levels found the neonates NBAS Habituation cluster score increased with maternal dimethylphosphate (DMP) levels (p = 0...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Qinghai Peng, Shi Zeng, Qichang Zhou, Wen Deng, Tao Wang, Ya Tan, Yushan Liu
To observe Doppler changes in the three main cerebral arteries in fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHDs). The pulsatility index (PI) values of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) were prospectively compared in 78 CHD fetuses and 78 normal control fetuses. Correlations between the cerebral artery PIs and the neurodevelopment scores (psychomotor development index [PDI] and mental development index [MDI]) were assessed. The MCA-PI was decreased significantly in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS)...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julia F Litzky, Maya A Deyssenroth, Todd M Everson, Barry M Lester, Luca Lambertini, Jia Chen, Carmen J Marsit
BACKGROUND: Depression and/or anxiety during pregnancy have been associated with impaired fetal growth and neurodevelopmental. Because placental imprinted genes play a central role in fetal development and respond to environmental stressors, we hypothesized that imprinted gene expression would be affected by prenatal depression and anxiety. METHODS: Placental gene expression was compared between mothers with prenatal depression and/or anxiety/obsessive compulsive disorder/panic and control mothers without psychiatric history (n=458) in the Rhode Island Child Health Study...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Kylie D Rock, Heather B Patisaul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders on the rise, it is imperative to identify and understand the mechanisms by which environmental contaminants can impact the developing brain and heighten risk. Here, we report on recent findings regarding novel mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity and highlight chemicals of concern, beyond traditionally defined neurotoxicants. RECENT FINDINGS: The perinatal window represents a critical and extremely vulnerable period of time during which chemical insult can alter the morphological and functional trajectory of the developing brain...
March 13, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
David S Sharlin, Lily Ng, François Verrey, Theo J Visser, Ye Liu, Rafal T Olszewski, Michael Hoa, Heike Heuer, Douglas Forrest
Transmembrane proteins that mediate the cellular uptake or efflux of thyroid hormone potentially provide a key level of control over neurodevelopment. In humans, defects in one such protein, solute carrier SLC16A2 (MCT8) are associated with psychomotor retardation. Other proteins that transport the active form of thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) or its precursor thyroxine (T4) have been identified in vitro but the wider significance of such transporters in vivo is unclear. The development of the auditory system requires thyroid hormone and the cochlea is a primary target tissue...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
David O Warner, Yu Shi, Randall P Flick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Anesthesiology
Mònica Guxens, Małgorzata J Lubczyńska, Ryan L Muetzel, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Gerard Hoek, Aad van der Lugt, Frank C Verhulst, Tonya White, Bert Brunekreef, Henning Tiemeier, Hanan El Marroun
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure during fetal life has been related to impaired child neurodevelopment, but it is unclear if brain structural alterations underlie this association. The authors assessed whether air pollution exposure during fetal life alters brain morphology and whether these alterations mediate the association between air pollution exposure during fetal life and cognitive function in school-age children. METHODS: We used data from a population-based birth cohort set up in Rotterdam, The Netherlands (2002-2006)...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Rachel M Burke, Paulina A Rebolledo, Anna M Aceituno, Rita Revollo, Volga Iñiguez, Mitchel Klein, Carolyn Drews-Botsch, Juan S Leon, Parminder S Suchdev
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide, with potentially severe consequences on child neurodevelopment. Though exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is recommended for 6 months, breast milk has low iron content. This study aimed to estimate the effect of the length of EBF on iron status at 6 - 8 months of age among a cohort of Bolivian infants. METHODS: Mother-infant pairs were recruited from 2 hospitals in El Alto, Bolivia, and followed from one through 6 - 8 months of age...
March 12, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
M Luciana, J M Bjork, B J Nagel, D M Barch, R Gonzalez, S J Nixon, M T Banich
Adolescence is characterized by numerous social, hormonal and physical changes, as well as a marked increase in risk-taking behaviors. Dual systems models attribute adolescent risk-taking to tensions between developing capacities for cognitive control and motivational strivings, which may peak at this time. A comprehensive understanding of neurocognitive development during the adolescent period is necessary to permit the distinction between premorbid vulnerabilities and consequences of behaviors such as substance use...
February 21, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Johanna R Rochester, Ashley L Bolden, Carol F Kwiatkowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased in prevalence in the past decade. Studies attempting to identify a specific genetic component have not been able to account for much of the heritability of ADHD, indicating there may be gene-environment interactions underlying the disorder, including early exposure to environmental chemicals. Based on several relevant studies, we chose to examine bisphenol A (BPA) as a possible contributor to ADHD in humans. BPA is a widespread environmental chemical that has been shown to disrupt neurodevelopment in rodents and humans...
March 3, 2018: Environment International
Matthew J Brookes, Madeleine J Groom, Lucrezia Liuzzi, Ryan M Hill, Helen J F Smith, Paul M Briley, Emma L Hall, Benjamin A E Hunt, Lauren E Gascoyne, Margot J Taylor, Peter F Liddle, Peter G Morris, Mark W Woolrich, Elizabeth B Liddle
Network connectivity is an integral feature of human brain function, and characterising its maturational trajectory is a critical step towards understanding healthy and atypical neurodevelopment. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate both stationary (i.e. time averaged) and rapidly modulating (dynamic) electrophysiological connectivity, in participants aged from mid-childhood to early adulthood (youngest participant 9 years old; oldest participant 25 years old). Stationary functional connectivity (measured via inter-regional coordination of neural oscillations) increased with age in the alpha and beta frequency bands, particularly in bilateral parietal and temporo-parietal connections...
March 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Maria Fuller, Anthony H Futerman
Cholesterol, sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids are critical constituents of the brain, subserving neuronal membrane architecture and providing a platform for biochemical processes essential for proper neurodevelopment and function. When lysosomal defects arise in a lipid metabolic pathway, it is therefore easy to imagine that neurological decline will transpire, however for deficits in non-lipid pathways, this becomes harder to envisage. Here we suggest the working hypothesis that neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders might manifest as primary and/or secondary disorders of lipid metabolism...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tu-Hsueh Yeh, Han-Fang Liu, Yu-Wen Li, Chin-Song Lu, Hung-Yu Shih, Ching-Chi Chiu, Sheng-Jia Lin, Yin-Cheng Huang, Yi-Chuan Cheng
Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in the C9orf72 gene are a common genetic cause of familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, the function of C9orf72 in neural development and the pathogenic mechanism underlying neurodegeneration are unknown. We found that disrupting C9orf72 expression by using C9orf72 constructs that lack the complete DENN domain result in reduced GTPase activity in zebrafish embryos, demonstrating the indispensability of the complete DENN domain...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Katelyn Cahill-Rowley, Jessica Rose
Temporal-spatial reach parameters are revealing of upper-limb function in children with motor impairments, but have not been quantified in a toddler population. This work quantitatively characterizes temporal-spatial reach in typically-developing (TD) and very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm toddlers, who are at increased risk of motor impairment. 47 children born VLBW (<1500 g birth-weight; ≤32 weeks gestation) and 22 TD children completed a reaching assessment at 18-22 months of age, adjusted for prematurity...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
A Fernandez-Jaen, D Martin Fernandez-Mayoralas, A L Fernandez-Perrone, A Jimenez, J Albert, S Lopez-Martin, B Calleja-Perez, P Tirado, S Lopez-Arribas
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders. Other neurodevelopmental disorders may appear as a comorbidity or mimicking ADHD itself. DEVELOPMENT: This study reviews the high prevalence of other neurodevelopmental disorders (specific learning difficulties, communication disorders, etc.) in patients with ADHD. Moreover, the possible differential diagnoses include the same neurodevelopmental disorders that can occur as a comorbidity...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
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