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"Sun screen"

Marina Sysoltseva, Richard Winterhalter, Angela S Wochnik, Christina Scheu, Hermann Fromme
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to determine the size, shape and aggregation of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) particles which are used in sun lotion as UV-blocker. METHODS: Overall, six sunscreens from various suppliers and two reference substances were analysed by electron microscopy (EM) techniques in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Because of a high fat content in sun lotion it was impossible to visualize the TiO2 -particles without previous EM sample preparation...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Lucian Copolovici, Astrid Kannaste, Steffen Noe, James D Blande, Santtu Mikkonen, Tero Klemola, Juha Tapio Pulkkinen, Annele Virtanen, Ari Laaksonen, Jorma Joutsensaari, Ülo Niinemets, Jarmo Kalevi Holopainen
In addition to climate warming, greater herbivore pressure is anticipated to enhance the emissions of climate-relevant biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from boreal and subarctic forests and promote the formation of secondary aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. We evaluated the effects of Epirrita autumnata, an outbreaking geometrid moth, feeding and larval density on herbivore-induced VOC emissions from mountain birch in laboratory experiments, and assessed the impact of these emissions on SOA formation via ozonolysis in chamber experiments...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Olga E Shapovalova, David Levy, David Avnir, Vladimir V Vinogradov
Most enzymes are highly sensitive to UV-light in all of its ranges and their activity can irreversibly drop even after a short time of exposure. Here we report a solution of this problem by using sol-gel matrices as effective protectors against this route of enzyme inactivation and denaturation. The concept presented here utilizes several modes of action: First, the entrapment within the rigid ceramic sol-gel matrix, inhibits denaturation motions, and the hydration shell around the entrapped protein provides extra protection...
October 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Kevin J Flynn, Darren R Clark, Glen Wheeler
Coccolithophorids are enigmatic plankton that produce calcium carbonate coccoliths, which over geological time have buried atmospheric CO2 into limestone, changing both the atmosphere and geology of the Earth. However, the role of coccoliths for the proliferation of these organisms remains unclear; suggestions include roles in anti-predation, enhanced photosynthesis and sun-screening. Here we test the hypothesis that calcification stabilizes the pH of the seawater proximate to the organisms, providing a level of acidification countering the detrimental basification that occurs during net photosynthesis...
June 29, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Amir Hatamie, Azam Khan, Mohsen Golabi, Anthony P F Turner, Valerio Beni, Wing Cheung Mak, Azar Sadollahkhani, Hatim Alnoor, Behrooz Zargar, Sumaira Bano, Omer Nur, Magnus Willander
Recently, one-dimensional nanostructures with different morphologies (such as nanowires, nanorods (NRs), and nanotubes) have become the focus of intensive research, because of their unique properties with potential applications. Among them, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials has been found to be highly attractive, because of the remarkable potential for applications in many different areas such as solar cells, sensors, piezoelectric devices, photodiode devices, sun screens, antireflection coatings, and photocatalysis...
October 6, 2015: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
R P Rastogi, D Madamwar, A Incharoensakdi
AIMS: To investigate the occurrence of UV sunscreening biomolecules and their role in photoprotection in cyanobacterial biofilms growing in brightly lit habitats with high UV fluxes. METHODS AND RESULTS: High performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array and mass spectrometry revealed the presence of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) shinorine (λ(max) 334 nm, m/z 333), porphyra-334 (λ(max) 334 nm, m/z 347), mycosporine-glycine (λ(max) 310 nm, m/z 246) and palythinol (λ(max) 332 nm, m/z 303)...
September 2015: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Anita Tarbuk, Ana Marija Grancarić, Mirna Situm
The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75 percent of all deaths associated with skin cancer. In Croatia only, more than 20,000 new cases of skin cancer has been diagnosed in 2008 of which melanoma 286 new cases and 118 yearly deaths in men, and 275 new cases and 79 deaths in women population...
December 2014: Collegium Antropologicum
Azila Abdul Karim, Azrina Azlan, Amin Ismail, Puziah Hashim, Siti Salwa Abd Gani, Badrul Hisyam Zainudin, Nur Azilah Abdullah
BACKGROUND: Cocoa pod is an outer part of cocoa fruits being discarded during cocoa bean processing. Authors found out that data on its usage in literature as cosmetic materials was not recorded in vast. In this study, cocoa pod extract was investigated for its potential as a cosmetic ingredient. METHODS: Cocoa pod extract (CPE) composition was accomplished using UHPLC. The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)...
2014: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Reza Enayatifard, Masoumeh Khalili, Mahdieh Ghaffarloo, Majid Saeedi, Jamshid Yazdani Charati
Long exposure of UV radiation increases risk of skin diseases such as cancer and photoallergic reactions. UV-B (280-320 nm) radiation is mainly responsible for inducing the skin problems. Skin protection is a suitable method against ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Various synthetic agents have been used as photo protective but because of their potential toxicity in humans, they have limited usage. Natural substances have been recently considered as potential sunscreen resources due to their absorption in the UV region and their antioxidant activity...
2014: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Deborah Tamura, John J DiGiovanna, Sikandar G Khan, Kenneth H Kraemer
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair with ultraviolet (UV) radiation sensitivity and a 10 000-fold increased risk of skin cancer. Symptoms include: freckle-like pigmentation in sun-exposed skin before age 2 years, severe burns after minimal sun exposure (50% of patients) and damage to exposed surfaces of the eyes with loss of vision and ocular cancer. About 25% of patients develop a progressive neurodegeneration. The combination of an inherited inability to repair UV-induced DNA damage and environmental exposure to UV must occur for cutaneous and ocular symptoms to develop...
April 2014: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
M K Taneja, Vivek Taneja
A prospective study to observe the prevalence of deficiency of vitamin D in out patients of otolaryngology clinic at Indian Institute of ear diseases, Muzaffarnagar. The patients attending outpatient of otolaryngology clinic with various complaints and not responding to conventional treatment were advised for assessment of vitamin D [25 (OH)D] level in blood. The age, sex, occupation, colour of skin, chief complaints, obesity, provisional diagnosis, and incidence of sun exposure was noted in all cases. A total of 86 patients were examined, maximum patients were in the age group of 7-15 years...
January 2013: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Eşref Demir, Hakan Akça, Bülent Kaya, Durmuş Burgucu, Onur Tokgün, Fatma Turna, Sezgin Aksakal, Gerard Vales, Amadeu Creus, Ricard Marcos
The in vitro genotoxic and the soft agar anchorage independent cell transformation ability of zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and its bulky forms have been evaluated in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and in mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cells, either alone or in combination with UVB-light. The comet assay, with and without the use of FPG and Endo III enzymes, the micronucleus assay and the soft-agar colony assay were used. For the comet assay a statistically significant induction of DNA damage, with and without the enzymes, were observed up of 100μg/mL...
January 15, 2014: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Weixuan Lin, Xingquan Sun, Jie Ma
A method of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established for the simultaneous determination of eleven ultraviolet absorbents in sunscreening cosmetics. The cosmetic sample was extracted by methanol-ethanol-water (80: 10: 10, v/v/v). The extract was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography on an Eclipse XDB-C18 chromatographic column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid. The analyte was detected by MS/ MS with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode...
May 2013: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Jarmo K Holopainen, James D Blande
Herbivore induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are specific volatile organic compounds (VOC) that a plant produces in response to herbivory. Some HIPVs are only produced after damage, while others are also produced by intact plants, but in lower quantities. Among the known functions of HIPVs are within plant volatile signaling to activate systemic plant defenses, the priming and activation of defenses in neighboring plants and the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. When released into the atmosphere a plant's control over the produced compounds ends...
2013: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jeannine D Rinderknecht, Simone M Goldinger, Sima Rozati, Jivko Kamarashev, Katrin Kerl, Lars E French, Reinhard Dummer, Benedetta Belloni
PURPOSE: Vemurafenib is a potent inhibitor of V600 mutant BRAF with significant impact on progression-free and overall survival in advanced melanoma. Cutaneous side effects are frequent. This single-center observational study investigates clinical and histological features of these class-specific cutaneous adverse reactions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were all treated with Vemurafenib 960 mg b.i.d. within local ethic committees approved clinical trials. All skin reactions were collected and documented prospectively...
2013: PloS One
According to the annual figures, skin cancer is the fastest growing type of cancer: one child in every hundred is currently at risk of developing a melanoma, the most malignant form of skin cancer. Surveys show that people are changing their behaviour when it comes to dealing with the sun. But only in small steps. That's why the Cancer League launches a sun protection campaign every year. Simple rules for protection from the sun: - Between 11.00 a.m. and 3.00 p.m. (summer time), people should remain in the shade...
June 1, 1999: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Hanne Frederiksen, Lise Aksglaede, Kaspar Sorensen, Ole Nielsen, Katharina M Main, Niels E Skakkebaek, Anders Juul, Anna-Maria Andersson
Bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), dichoro- and phenyl phenols are industrial chemicals present in numerous consumer products such as polycarbonate plastics, preservatives in personal care products, sun screens, pesticides and fungicides, respectively, and they are all suspected endocrine disrupters. In this study the urinary excretion of eight phenols in Danish children recruited from the general population were investigated. One 24h urine and two consecutive first morning samples were collected from each of 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents (6-21 years)...
November 2013: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Carla Raquel Fontana, Daniel Bonini, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato
INTRODUCTION: Laser hair removal is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to traditional methods such as shaving, waxing, among other methods. Semiconductor diode lasers are considered the most efficient light sources available and are especially well suited for clinical applications including hair reduction. The effectiveness of laser hair reduction depends on many variables, including the skin type of the patient. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A patient with Fitzpatrick Skin Type IV was submitted to laser hair removal of the arms with a high-power diode laser system with long pulses with a wavelength of 800 nm, a fluence of 40 J/cm(2) and a pulse width of 20 ms...
April 2013: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
N Amr, A Hamid, M Sheta, H Elsedfy
Over the last decade there had been growing evidence of high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency especially among adolescents. Inadequate sun exposure is considered a precipitating factor. Females who remain fully covered seem to be at greatest risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the vitamin D status in adolescent females in Egypt. Seventy five healthy adolescent girls aged 14-17 years were recruited during the summer months. Anthropometric measures, calcium and vitamin D intake, sun exposure index, use of topical sun screen, and socioeconomic standard were all determined...
September 2012: Georgian Medical News
H V Gangadharappa, N Vishal Gupta, Sarat Chandra Prasad M, H G Shivakumar
Microsponge is a microscopic sphere capable of absorbing skin secretions, therefore reducing the oiliness of the skin. Microsponge having particle size of 10-25 microns in diameter, have wide range of entrapment of various ingredients in a single microsponges system and release them at desired rates. Conventional topical preparations have various disadvantages due to irritancy, odour, greasiness and patient compliance. In many topical dosage forms fail to reach the systemic circulation in sufficient amounts in few cases...
August 2013: Current Drug Delivery
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