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Global empathy

R M Gracia Gozalo, J M Ferrer Tarrés, A Ayora Ayora, M Alonso Herrero, A Amutio Kareaga, R Ferrer Roca
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a mindfulness training program on the levels of burnout, mindfulness, empathy and self-compassion among healthcare professionals in an Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with an intrasubject pre-post intervention design was carried out. SETTING: Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 32 subjects (physicians, nurses and nursing assistants) participated in the study...
March 12, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
J L Smith, P Bertone, K M Carpenter, R M Wain, M-C Hu, P C Amrhein, E V Nunes
Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based practice shown to be effective when working with people in treatment for substance use disorders. However, MI is a complex treatment modality optimized by training with feedback. Feedback, assessment and monitoring of treatment fidelity require measurement, which is typically done using audiotaped sessions. The gold standard for such measurement of MI skill has been an audiotaped interview, scored by a rater with a detailed structured instrument such as the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity 2...
April 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Joy Pritchard, Melissa Upjohn, Tamsin Hirson
PURPOSE: Brooke is a non-government organisation with working equine welfare programmes across Africa, Asia and Latin America. In 2014, staff from ten country programmes were asked to identify 'no-win' situations (subsequently reframed as 'hard-wins')-where improving equine welfare is proving difficult, expensive and/or marginal-in order to inform strategic decisions on how to approach, manage and mitigate for such situations. METHODS: The Delphi-type consultation process had three phases...
2018: PloS One
Richard A Jonas
In the opening plenary address of the 2017 7th World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery the author, who represented the World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery at the Congress and is currently the Society's president, described the history of the formation of the World Society. He listed accomplishments of the World Society including publication of the only journal devoted to congenital cardiac surgery, development of a global database, and convening several international conferences dating back to the inaugural conference in Washington, DC in 2007...
December 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Jenny Paananen
Using gestures simultaneously with speech prevents and solves problems of understanding in consultations where the doctor and the patient do not share the same cultural and linguistic background. Gestures illustrate what is being said, and highlight the essential information. As gestures are used globally, and can also be interpreted despite limited vocabulary, they make the speech easier to follow. In primary care consultations, the topics are easily expressed by gestures, as they are often related to physical matters such as body parts, symptoms, examinations and treatment...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
Samar S Ayache, Moussa A Chalah, Tania Kuempfel, Frank Padberg, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Ulrich Palm
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, causes frequent disability, mood disorders, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. As a part of the last, social cognition is frequently disturbed in MS patients. It comprises empathy and social perception of emotions from facial, bodily and vocal cues. Social cognitive deficits worsen affect decoding, interpersonal relationship, and quality of life. Despite the impact of these deficits on global functioning, only a small number of studies have investigated its correlations and overlaps with MS symptoms...
November 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Anthony Haffey, Loredana Canzano, Christopher P Taylor, Eugene McSorley
Humans generally prefer social over nonsocial stimuli from an early age. Reduced preference for social rewards has been observed in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). This preference has typically been noted in separate tasks that measure orienting toward and engaging with social stimuli. In this experiment, we used two eye-tracking tasks to index both of these aspects of social preference in in 77 typical adults. We used two measures, global effect and preferential looking time. The global effect task measures saccadic deviation toward a social stimulus (related to 'orienting'), while the preferential looking task records gaze duration bias toward social stimuli (relating to 'engaging')...
2017: PloS One
Subrata Chattopadhyay, Catherine Myser, Tiffany Moxham, Raymond De Vries
We identify the ways the policies of leading international bioethics journals limit the participation of researchers working in the resource-constrained settings of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the development of the field of bioethics. Lack of access to essential scholarly resources makes it extremely difficult, if not impossible, for many LMIC bioethicists to learn from, meaningfully engage in, and further contribute to the global bioethics discourse. Underrepresentation of LMIC perspectives in leading journals sustains the hegemony of Western bioethics, limits the presentation of diverse moral visions of life, health, and medicine, and undermines aspirations to create a truly "global" bioethics...
October 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Miro Jakovljevic
Psychiatry has increasingly devoted its attention to the role of religion and spirituality in mental health and illness. All religions offer explanations for meaning and purpose of life, involving rationales for the reality of human suffering and traumas related to natural disasters, war, civil violence, torture, etc. In many countries different religious organizations have funded and operated mental health services as well as supported better understanding, empathy and compassion among cultures. A rapprochement between psychiatry and religion has been predicated on their overlapping goals to promote individual and community resilience, growth, and well-being...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
Rachel N Pläschke, Edna C Cieslik, Veronika I Müller, Felix Hoffstaedter, Anna Plachti, Deepthi P Varikuti, Mareike Goosses, Anne Latz, Svenja Caspers, Christiane Jockwitz, Susanne Moebus, Oliver Gruber, Claudia R Eickhoff, Kathrin Reetz, Julia Heller, Martin Südmeyer, Christian Mathys, Julian Caspers, Christian Grefkes, Tobias Kalenscher, Robert Langner, Simon B Eickhoff
Previous whole-brain functional connectivity studies achieved successful classifications of patients and healthy controls but only offered limited specificity as to affected brain systems. Here, we examined whether the connectivity patterns of functional systems affected in schizophrenia (SCZ), Parkinson's disease (PD), or normal aging equally translate into high classification accuracies for these conditions. We compared classification performance between pre-defined networks for each group and, for any given network, between groups...
September 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Miao Cheng, Masaharu Kato, Chia-Huei Tseng
Interpersonal motor synchrony during walking or dancing is universally observed across cultures, and this joint movement was modulated by physical and social parameters. However, human interactions are greatly shaped by our unique traits, and self-related factors are surprisingly little studied in the context of interpersonal motor synchrony. In this study, we investigated two such factors known to be highly associated with motor coordination: gender and autistic traits. We employed a real-world task extending our understanding beyond laboratory tasks...
2017: PloS One
Johannes Bruder
In this chapter, I reflect on contemporary entanglements between artificial intelligence and the neurosciences by tracing the development of Google's recent DeepMind algorithms back to their roots in neuroscientific studies of episodic memory and imagination. Google promotes a new form of "infrastructural intelligence," which excels by constantly reassessing its cognitive architecture in exchange with a cloud of data that surrounds it, and exhibits putatively human capacities such as intuition. I argue that such (re)alignments of biological and artificial intelligence have been enabled by a paradigmatic infrastructuralization of the brain in contemporary neuroscience...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Meharban Singh
Intolerance and grouse against doctors is a global phenomenon but India seems to lead the world in violence against doctors. According to World Health Organization, about 8-38% healthcare workers suffer physical violence at some point in their careers. Many more are verbally abused or threatened. Public is almost behaving like health sector terrorists. The spate of increasing attacks on doctors by damaging their property and causing physical injury is not acceptable by any civilized society. The public is becoming increasingly intolerant to a large number of social issues because of poor governance and vote bank politics...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
M C Martín Contero, R Secades Villa, J J López Goñi, J Tirapu Ustarroz
BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with schizophrenia present empathy deficits that have been related to their poor psychosocial functioning. The objectives were: 1) analyse the relation between empathy, social cognition and quality of life in subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders; 2) eva¬luate these variables according to the severity of the features. METHODS: Forty-one patients, divided into two groups according to the level of severity, were included...
July 28, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
Nele Schmidt, Laura Paschen, Günther Deuschl, Karsten Witt
BACKGROUND: Empathy describes the ability to infer and share emotional experiences of other people and is a central component of normal social functioning. Impaired empathy might be a non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To examine empathic abilities and their relationship to clinical and cognitive functioning in PD patients. METHODS: Empathy was measured in 75 non-demented PD patients and 34 age-matched healthy controls using a German version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Paola Ferri, Sergio Rovesti, Nunzio Panzera, Luigi Marcheselli, Alessia Bari, Rosaria Di Lorenzo
BACKGROUND AND AIM: An empathic approach is fundamental for therapeutic relationship between nurse and patient. According to some researchers, female nursing students show higher empathic attitude in comparison with males, but both show a decline in empathy level as their studies progress. This preliminary study evaluated the self-reported emotional empathy level among undergraduate students at first and second year of nursing 3-year course. METHOD: To assess empathy level, the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) was administered to all students enrolled in the 2015/16 academic year (N=142), at the beginning of first year (T0) and at mid-point of second year (T1) of nursing course...
July 18, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Laura J C Kranenburg, Sam T H Reerds, Martine Cools, Julie Alderson, Miriam Muscarella, Ellie Magrite, Martijn Kuiper, Shereen Abdelgaffar, Antonio Balsamo, Raja Brauner, Jean Pierre Chanoine, Asma Deeb, Patricia Fechner, Alina German, Paul Martin Holterhus, Anders Juul, Berenice B Mendonca, Kristen Neville, Anna Nordenstrom, Wilma Oostdijk, Rodolfo A Rey, Meilan M Rutter, Nalini Shah, Xiaoping Luo, Kalinka Grijpink, Stenvert L S Drop
BACKGROUND: Information sharing in chronic conditions such as disorders of/differences in sex development (DSD) is essential for a comprehensive understanding by parents and patients. We report on a qualitative analysis of communication skills of fellows undergoing training in paediatric endocrinology. Guidelines are created for the assessment of communication between health professionals and individuals with DSD and their parents. METHODS: Paediatric endocrinology fellows worldwide were invited to study two interactive online cases (www...
2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Brian T Pace, Aaron Dembe, Christina S Soma, Scott A Baldwin, David C Atkins, Zac E Imel
Motivational interviewing (MI) theory proposes a process whereby a set of therapist behaviors has direct effects on client outcomes and indirect effects through in-session processes (e.g., client change talk). Despite clear empirical support for the efficacy of MI across settings, the results of studies evaluating proposed links between MI process and outcome have been less clear. In the present study, we used a series of multivariate meta-analyses to test whether there are differential relationships between specific MI-consistent and MI-inconsistent therapist behaviors, MI therapist global ratings, client change language, and clinical outcomes...
August 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Luis Oceja, Eric Stocks, Tamara Ambrona, Belén López-Pérez, Pilar Carrera
Previous research on the one-among-others effect has shown that inducing empathic concern towards a victim presented alongside with a small number of other victims enhances (a) the perception of this set of victims as separate and different individuals (instead of as a group), and (b) the preference to help them individually (rather than collectively). We propose that inducing a local (vs. global) perceptual scope increases (vs. lessens) these two outcomes. In this work, participants first reported their perception of an ad that showed a victim depicted as one-among-others and, afterwards, were unexpectedly asked to indicate their preference for giving the victims either "individualized", "collective", or "equal" assistance...
June 5, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Trevor N Simper, Jeff D Breckon, Karen Kilner
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of a motivational interviewing (MI) training programme on trainee nutritionists. METHODS: A repeated measures design was applied to assess clinician behaviours in a 'helping' conversation. Participants were 32 nutrition students, assessed at baseline and one-month follow-up. RESULTS: The training significantly reduced the use of closed questions and MI non-adherent behaviours (MINA) (P for both=<0.001)...
May 13, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
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