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Global empathy

Leslie C Morey
The DSM-5 presents an Alternative Model for Personality Disorder (AMPD) recommending the assessment of impairments in core personality functions as well as clinically relevant personality traits. Although a self-report assessment instrument has been provided corresponding to the trait model proposed in the AMPD, no comparable instrument provides a direct assessment of the specific indicators of core personality functions described in that model. The goal of this paper is to provide preliminary reliability and validity data for a measure that directly corresponds to core personality pathology as operationalized in the AMPD...
February 27, 2017: Psychological Assessment
Kavitha Ramchandran, Joshua Fronk, Judy Passaglia, Kelly Bugos, Manuela Kogon, Lori Klein, Ellen Brown, Sandy Chan, Lynn Hutton, Grace Lyo, Kimberly Frost Sickler
123 Background: Primary palliative care (PC) is critical to improve access to PC from the point of diagnosis. Still, barriers exist to providing primary PC worldwide, including a lack of awareness, time, and training. Interactive online learning experiences can help overcome these. This project describes a massive open online course (MOOC)--Palliative Care Always--designed to build primary PC skills in a global audience. METHODS: A team of PC providers and online instructional experts developed 12 modules that included: patient scenes, brief lectures, empathy exercises, and Google Hangout discussions...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Felipe Ribeiro Cabral Fagundes, Caique de Melo do Espírito Santo, Francine Mendonça de Luna Teixeira, Thaís Vanelli Tonini, Cristina Maria Nunes Cabral
BACKGROUND: The stratified model of care has been an effective approach for the treatment of low back pain. However, the treatment of patients with low risk of psychosocial-factor involvement is unclear. The addition of the therapeutic alliance to a minimal intervention may be an option for the treatment of low back pain. This paper reports on the rationale, design and protocol for a randomized controlled trial with blind assessor to assess the effectiveness of the addition of therapeutic alliance with minimal intervention on pain and disability in patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain...
January 31, 2017: Trials
Judy M McDonald, Theresa W Gyorkos
Research excellence is the goal of all researchers. Conducting quality research with the ultimate aim of improving health is a shared goal among researchers in the global health domain. The competencies required for conducting and producing quality research in global health go far beyond the academic or scientific spheres. They incorporate aspects of research partnership, which places humility, empathy, and mutual respect at its core. Conducting quality respectful global health research requires an appropriate balance of operational readiness (i...
December 27, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Derek Yach
Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland's appointment as Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998 led to a stronger global focus on tobacco control, and eventually, all noncommunicable diseases (NCD) and mental health. Since the adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2003, global health has turned toward addressing all NCD. I pose 2 questions. 1) What lessons can we apply from the WHO FCTC development and implementation processes to broader aspects of NCD prevention and control? 2) In retrospect, what could we have done better? I also propose 3 lessons: 1) it takes a broad-based alliance to make progress; 2) visible and courageous leadership matters, and is aided by financial support; and 3) in developing the FCTC, WHO focused on a few messages: demonize industry, tax, and regulate tobacco...
December 2016: Global Heart
Suzet Tanya Lereya, Neil Humphrey, Praveetha Patalay, Miranda Wolpert, Jan R Böhnke, Amy Macdougall, Jessica Deighton
BACKGROUND: Policies, designed to promote resilience, and research, to understand the determinants and correlates of resilience, require reliable and valid measures to ensure data quality. The student resilience survey (SRS) covers a range of external supports and internal characteristics which can potentially be viewed as protective factors and can be crucial in exploring the mechanisms between protective factors and risk factors, and to design intervention and prevention strategies...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
C M Eddy, A E Cavanna, P C Hansen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that adults with Tourette syndrome (TS) can respond unconventionally on tasks involving social cognition. We therefore hypothesized that these patients would exhibit different neural responses to healthy controls in response to emotionally salient expressions of human eyes. METHOD: Twenty-five adults with TS and 25 matched healthy controls were scanned using fMRI during the standard version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task which requires mental state judgements, and a novel comparison version requiring judgements about age...
February 2017: Psychological Medicine
Lisa Jamieson, Julia Bradshaw, Herenia Lawrence, John Broughton, Kamilla Venner
OBJECTIVES: This paper assessed the fidelity of an early childhood caries MI intervention among Aboriginal mothers in South Australia. METHODS: Four MI-trained staff delivered the intervention and all interviews were recorded. A randomly selected subset (n = 164, 41.2%) were tested for MI fidelity using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) code 3.1.1. A further randomly selected 20 taped sessions were additionally scored by an external expert to assess external reliability...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Abd Moain Abu Dabrh, Mohammad Hassan Murad, Richard D Newcomb, William G Buchta, Mark W Steffen, Zhen Wang, Amanda K Lovett, Lawrence W Steinkraus
BACKGROUND: Communication skills and professionalism are two competencies in graduate medical education that are challenging to evaluate. We aimed to develop, test and validate a de novo instrument to evaluate these two competencies. METHODS: Using an Objective Standardized Clinical Examination (OSCE) based on a medication error scenario, we developed an assessment instrument that focuses on distinctive domains [context of discussion, communication and detection of error, management of error, empathy, use of electronic medical record (EMR) and electronic medical information resources (EMIR), and global rating]...
September 2, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Gil Rubinstein, Miriam Ethel Bentwich
This qualitative research examines the influence of animosity on physicians during clinical encounters and its ethical implications. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Israeli-Jewish physicians: four treated Syrians and six treated Palestinian terrorists/Hezbollah militants or Palestinian civilians. An interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to uncover main themes in these interviews. Whereas the majority of physicians stated they are obligated to treat any patient, physicians who treated Syrians exhibited stronger emotional expression and implicit empathy, while less referring to the presence of the Israeli-Arab conflict...
August 16, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
Chiara Crespi, Chiara Cerami, Alessandra Dodich, Nicola Canessa, Sandro Iannaccone, Massimo Corbo, Christian Lunetta, Andrea Falini, Stefano F Cappa
Impairments in the ability to recognize and attribute emotional states to others have been described in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and linked to the dysfunction of key nodes of the emotional empathy network. Microstructural correlates of such disorders are still unexplored. We investigated the white-matter substrates of emotional attribution deficits in a sample of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients without cognitive decline. Thirteen individuals with either probable or definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 14 healthy controls were enrolled in a Diffusion Tensor Imaging study and administered the Story-based Empathy Task, assessing the ability to attribute mental states to others (i...
2016: PloS One
Meisser Madera-Anaya, Lesbia Tirado-Amador, Farith González-Martínez
OBJECTIVE: To determine empathy levels and its relationship with sociodemographic, academic and family factors in nursing students. METHOD: Cross-sectional study, 196 nursing students were randomly selected at the University of Cartagena, Colombia. A questionnaire that asked about sociodemographic, family and academic factors and the Scale of Physician Empathy Jefferson-version S were applied. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to assess the normality assumption. t Student, ANOVA, Pearson test and simple linear regression were used to establish the relationship (p<0...
September 2016: Enfermería Clínica
Stefani Pfeiffer, Yuchia Chen, Duujian Tsai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article reviews the most recent developments in integrating humanities into medical education. Global implications and future trends are illustrated. RECENT FINDINGS: The main concern of medical humanities education is teaching professionalism; one important aspect that has emerged is the goal of nurturing emotion through reflexivity. Relating effectively to all stakeholders and being sensitive to inequitable power dynamics are essential for professional social accountability in modern medical contexts...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Nadene Dermody, Stephanie Wong, Rebekah Ahmed, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, Muireann Irish
Loss of empathy is a core presenting feature of the behavioral-variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), resulting in socioemotional difficulties and behavioral transgressions. In contrast, interpersonal functioning remains relatively intact in Alzheimer's disease (AD), despite marked cognitive decline. The neural substrates mediating these patterns of loss and sparing in social functioning remain unclear, yet are relevant for our understanding of the social brain. We investigated cognitive versus affective aspects of empathy using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) in 25 AD and 24 bvFTD patients and contrasted their performance with 22 age- and education-matched controls...
May 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ben Mathews, Delphine Collin-Vézina
Child sexual abuse is a major global public health concern, affecting one in eight children and causing massive costs including depression, unwanted pregnancy, and HIV. The gravity of this global issue is reflected by the United Nations' new effort to respond to sexual abuse in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. The fundamental policy aims are to improve prevention, identification, and optimal responses to sexual abuse. As shown in our literature review, policymakers face difficult challenges because child sexual abuse is hidden, psychologically complex, and socially sensitive...
May 12, 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Christian S Kessler, Sophie Holler, Sebastian Joy, Anand Dhruva, Andreas Michalsen, Gustav Dobos, Holger Cramer
BACKGROUND: Vegetarian nutrition is gaining increasing public attention worldwide. While some studies have examined differences in motivations and personality traits between vegetarians and omnivores, only few studies have considered differences in motivations and personality traits between the 2 largest vegetarian subgroups: lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans. OBJECTIVES: To examine differences between lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans in the distribution patterns of motives, values, empathy, and personality profiles...
2016: Forschende Komplementärmedizin, Research in Complementary Medicine
Homayoun Amini, Alia Shakiba, Vandad Sharifi, Mandana Shirazi, Majid Sadeghi, Farid Abolhasani, Ahmad Hajebi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of the general practitioners (GPs) in a collaborative care (CC) program in Iran with a control group of GPs in the usual care by employing simulated patients. METHODS: Six trained simulated patients (SPs) made unannounced visits to 26 GP offices participating in the CC program and to 26 age and sex matched controls. The SPs role played five clinical scenarios of mental disorders and filled out checklists to evaluate the GPs' performance regarding interviewing, taking history, establishing rapport, showing empathy, and giving advice to patients...
September 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Olivier D R van Wulfften Palthe, Valentin Neuhaus, Stein J Janssen, Thierry G Guitton, David Ring
BACKGROUND: Burnout is common in professions such as medicine in which employees have frequent and often stressful interpersonal interactions where empathy and emotional control are important. Burnout can lead to decreased effectiveness at work, negative health outcomes, and less job satisfaction. A relationship between burnout and job satisfaction is established for several types of physicians but is less studied among surgeons who treat musculoskeletal conditions. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We asked: (1) For surgeons treating musculoskeletal conditions, what risk factors are associated with worse job dissatisfaction? (2) What risk factors are associated with burnout symptoms? METHODS: Two hundred ten (52% of all active members of the Science of Variation Group [SOVG]) surgeons who treat musculoskeletal conditions (94% orthopaedic surgeons and 6% trauma surgeons; in Europe, general trauma surgeons do most of the fracture surgery) completed the Global Job Satisfaction instrument, Shirom-Malamed Burnout Measure, and provided practice and surgeon characteristics...
August 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Michael D Wunderli, Matthias Vonmoos, Stefania M Niedecker, Lea M Hulka, Katrin H Preller, Markus R Baumgartner, Thomas Kraemer, Erich Seifritz, Michael P Schaub, Dominique Eich-Höchli, Boris B Quednow
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an important modulator of cognitive and social functioning in cocaine addiction but it is unclear whether ADHD symptoms and cocaine use display mutually aggravating interaction effects on cognition, social functioning, and depressive symptoms. Therefore, we investigated the interaction of cocaine use and adult ADHD on social and non-social cognition and depressive symptoms. METHODS: Twenty-four cocaine users with (CU+ADHD) and 30 without ADHD (CU-ADHD), 29 cocaine-naïve ADHD patients, and 40 cocaine-naïve healthy controls underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing including assessment of social cognition (cognitive/emotional empathy and Theory-of-Mind)...
June 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Anne C Krendl, Elizabeth A Kensinger
In the current study we examine how individual differences in older adults' global cognitive function impacts the extent to which their attitudes toward stigmatized individuals are malleable. Because prior research has elucidated the neural processes that are involved in evaluating stigmatized individuals who are responsible or not responsible for their condition, a cognitive neuroscience approach may be well-suited to answer this question. In the current study, 36 older and 17 young adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating images of homeless people who were described as being responsible or not responsible for their condition...
2016: PloS One
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