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Global empathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045458/individual-differences-in-responsivity-to-social-rewards-insights-from-two-eye-tracking-tasks
#1
Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Anthony Haffey, Loredana Canzano, Christopher P Taylor, Eugene McSorley
Humans generally prefer social over nonsocial stimuli from an early age. Reduced preference for social rewards has been observed in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). This preference has typically been noted in separate tasks that measure orienting toward and engaging with social stimuli. In this experiment, we used two eye-tracking tasks to index both of these aspects of social preference in in 77 typical adults. We used two measures, global effect and preferential looking time. The global effect task measures saccadic deviation toward a social stimulus (related to 'orienting'), while the preferential looking task records gaze duration bias toward social stimuli (relating to 'engaging')...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020562/a-question-of-social-justice-how-policies-of-profit-negate-engagement-of-developing-world-bioethicists-and-undermine-global-bioethics
#2
Subrata Chattopadhyay, Catherine Myser, Tiffany Moxham, Raymond De Vries
We identify the ways the policies of leading international bioethics journals limit the participation of researchers working in the resource-constrained settings of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the development of the field of bioethics. Lack of access to essential scholarly resources makes it extremely difficult, if not impossible, for many LMIC bioethicists to learn from, meaningfully engage in, and further contribute to the global bioethics discourse. Underrepresentation of LMIC perspectives in leading journals sustains the hegemony of Western bioethics, limits the presentation of diverse moral visions of life, health, and medicine, and undermines aspirations to create a truly "global" bioethics...
October 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949304/resilience-psychiatry-and-religion-from-public-and-global-mental-health-perspective-dialogue-and-cooperation-in-the-search-for-humanistic-self-compassionate-society-and-empathic-civilization
#3
Miro Jakovljevic
Psychiatry has increasingly devoted its attention to the role of religion and spirituality in mental health and illness. All religions offer explanations for meaning and purpose of life, involving rationales for the reality of human suffering and traumas related to natural disasters, war, civil violence, torture, etc. In many countries different religious organizations have funded and operated mental health services as well as supported better understanding, empathy and compassion among cultures. A rapprochement between psychiatry and religion has been predicated on their overlapping goals to promote individual and community resilience, growth, and well-being...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876500/on-the-integrity-of-functional-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-parkinson-s-disease-and-advanced-age-evidence-from-connectivity-based-single-subject-classification
#4
Rachel N Pläschke, Edna C Cieslik, Veronika I Müller, Felix Hoffstaedter, Anna Plachti, Deepthi P Varikuti, Mareike Goosses, Anne Latz, Svenja Caspers, Christiane Jockwitz, Susanne Moebus, Oliver Gruber, Claudia R Eickhoff, Kathrin Reetz, Julia Heller, Martin Südmeyer, Christian Mathys, Julian Caspers, Christian Grefkes, Tobias Kalenscher, Robert Langner, Simon B Eickhoff
Previous whole-brain functional connectivity studies achieved successful classifications of patients and healthy controls but only offered limited specificity as to affected brain systems. Here, we examined whether the connectivity patterns of functional systems affected in schizophrenia (SCZ), Parkinson's disease (PD), or normal aging equally translate into high classification accuracies for these conditions. We compared classification performance between pre-defined networks for each group and, for any given network, between groups...
September 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873419/gender-and-autistic-traits-modulate-implicit-motor-synchrony
#5
Miao Cheng, Masaharu Kato, Chia-Huei Tseng
Interpersonal motor synchrony during walking or dancing is universally observed across cultures, and this joint movement was modulated by physical and social parameters. However, human interactions are greatly shaped by our unique traits, and self-related factors are surprisingly little studied in the context of interpersonal motor synchrony. In this study, we investigated two such factors known to be highly associated with motor coordination: gender and autistic traits. We employed a real-world task extending our understanding beyond laboratory tasks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826509/infrastructural-intelligence-contemporary-entanglements-between-neuroscience-and-ai
#6
Johannes Bruder
In this chapter, I reflect on contemporary entanglements between artificial intelligence and the neurosciences by tracing the development of Google's recent DeepMind algorithms back to their roots in neuroscientific studies of episodic memory and imagination. Google promotes a new form of "infrastructural intelligence," which excels by constantly reassessing its cognitive architecture in exchange with a cloud of data that surrounds it, and exhibits putatively human capacities such as intuition. I argue that such (re)alignments of biological and artificial intelligence have been enabled by a paradigmatic infrastructuralization of the brain in contemporary neuroscience...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799002/intolerance-and-violence-against-doctors
#7
REVIEW
Meharban Singh
Intolerance and grouse against doctors is a global phenomenon but India seems to lead the world in violence against doctors. According to World Health Organization, about 8-38% healthcare workers suffer physical violence at some point in their careers. Many more are verbally abused or threatened. Public is almost behaving like health sector terrorists. The spate of increasing attacks on doctors by damaging their property and causing physical injury is not acceptable by any civilized society. The public is becoming increasingly intolerant to a large number of social issues because of poor governance and vote bank politics...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765659/-empathy-social-cognition-and-subjective-quality-of-life-in-schizophrenia
#8
M C Martín Contero, R Secades Villa, J J López Goñi, J Tirapu Ustarroz
BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with schizophrenia present empathy deficits that have been related to their poor psychosocial functioning. The objectives were: 1) analyse the relation between empathy, social cognition and quality of life in subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders; 2) eva¬luate these variables according to the severity of the features. METHODS: Forty-one patients, divided into two groups according to the level of severity, were included...
July 28, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759973/reduced-empathy-scores-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-non-motor-symptom-associated-with-advanced-disease-stages
#9
Nele Schmidt, Laura Paschen, Günther Deuschl, Karsten Witt
BACKGROUND: Empathy describes the ability to infer and share emotional experiences of other people and is a central component of normal social functioning. Impaired empathy might be a non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To examine empathic abilities and their relationship to clinical and cognitive functioning in PD patients. METHODS: Empathy was measured in 75 non-demented PD patients and 34 age-matched healthy controls using a German version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752829/empathic-attitudes-among-nursing-students-a-preliminary-study
#10
Paola Ferri, Sergio Rovesti, Nunzio Panzera, Luigi Marcheselli, Alessia Bari, Rosaria Di Lorenzo
BACKGROUND AND AIM: An empathic approach is fundamental for therapeutic relationship between nurse and patient. According to some researchers, female nursing students show higher empathic attitude in comparison with males, but both show a decline in empathy level as their studies progress. This preliminary study evaluated the self-reported emotional empathy level among undergraduate students at first and second year of nursing 3-year course. METHOD: To assess empathy level, the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) was administered to all students enrolled in the 2015/16 academic year (N=142), at the beginning of first year (T0) and at mid-point of second year (T1) of nursing course...
July 18, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689203/global-application-of-the-assessment-of-communication-skills-of-paediatric-endocrinology-fellows-in-the-management-of-differences-in-sex-development-using-the-espe-e-learning-org-portal
#11
Laura J C Kranenburg, Sam T H Reerds, Martine Cools, Julie Alderson, Miriam Muscarella, Ellie Magrite, Martijn Kuiper, Shereen Abdelgaffar, Antonio Balsamo, Raja Brauner, Jean Pierre Chanoine, Asma Deeb, Patricia Fechner, Alina German, Paul Martin Holterhus, Anders Juul, Berenice B Mendonca, Kristen Neville, Anna Nordenstrom, Wilma Oostdijk, Rodolfo A Rey, Meilan M Rutter, Nalini Shah, Xiaoping Luo, Kalinka Grijpink, Stenvert L S Drop
BACKGROUND: Information sharing in chronic conditions such as disorders of/differences in sex development (DSD) is essential for a comprehensive understanding by parents and patients. We report on a qualitative analysis of communication skills of fellows undergoing training in paediatric endocrinology. Guidelines are created for the assessment of communication between health professionals and individuals with DSD and their parents. METHODS: Paediatric endocrinology fellows worldwide were invited to study two interactive online cases (www...
2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639815/a-multivariate-meta-analysis-of-motivational-interviewing-process-and-outcome
#12
Brian T Pace, Aaron Dembe, Christina S Soma, Scott A Baldwin, David C Atkins, Zac E Imel
Motivational interviewing (MI) theory proposes a process whereby a set of therapist behaviors has direct effects on client outcomes and indirect effects through in-session processes (e.g., client change talk). Despite clear empirical support for the efficacy of MI across settings, the results of studies evaluating proposed links between MI process and outcome have been less clear. In the present study, we used a series of multivariate meta-analyses to test whether there are differential relationships between specific MI-consistent and MI-inconsistent therapist behaviors, MI therapist global ratings, client change language, and clinical outcomes...
August 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580896/local-versus-global-perceptual-scope-empathic-concern-and-helping-preferences-in-multiple-victim-situations
#13
Luis Oceja, Eric Stocks, Tamara Ambrona, Belén López-Pérez, Pilar Carrera
Previous research on the one-among-others effect has shown that inducing empathic concern towards a victim presented alongside with a small number of other victims enhances (a) the perception of this set of victims as separate and different individuals (instead of as a group), and (b) the preference to help them individually (rather than collectively). We propose that inducing a local (vs. global) perceptual scope increases (vs. lessens) these two outcomes. In this work, participants first reported their perception of an ad that showed a victim depicted as one-among-others and, afterwards, were unexpectedly asked to indicate their preference for giving the victims either "individualized", "collective", or "equal" assistance...
June 5, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578849/effectiveness-of-training-final-year-undergraduate-nutritionists-in-motivational-interviewing
#14
Trevor N Simper, Jeff D Breckon, Karen Kilner
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of a motivational interviewing (MI) training programme on trainee nutritionists. METHODS: A repeated measures design was applied to assess clinician behaviours in a 'helping' conversation. Participants were 32 nutrition students, assessed at baseline and one-month follow-up. RESULTS: The training significantly reduced the use of closed questions and MI non-adherent behaviours (MINA) (P for both=<0.001)...
May 13, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475943/psychometric-properties-of-the-motivational-interviewing-treatment-integrity-coding-system-4-2-with-jail-inmates
#15
Mandy D Owens, Lauren N Rowell, Theresa Moyers
Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based approach shown to be helpful for a variety of behaviors across many populations. Treatment fidelity is an important tool for understanding how and with whom MI may be most helpful. The Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity coding system was recently updated to incorporate new developments in the research and theory of MI, including the relational and technical hypotheses of MI (MITI 4.2). To date, no studies have examined the MITI 4.2 with forensic populations...
October 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447622/modern-clinical-research-on-lsd
#16
REVIEW
Matthias E Liechti
All modern clinical studies using the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in healthy subjects or patients in the last 25 years are reviewed herein. There were five recent studies in healthy participants and one in patients. In a controlled setting, LSD acutely induced bliss, audiovisual synesthesia, altered meaning of perceptions, derealization, depersonalization, and mystical experiences. These subjective effects of LSD were mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor. LSD increased feelings of closeness to others, openness, trust, and suggestibility...
October 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399473/innovation-in-preregistration-midwifery-education-web-based-interactive-storytelling-learning
#17
Mandie Scamell, Thomas Hanley
BACKGROUND: through a critical description of the implementation of a web based interactive storytelling learning activity introduced into an undergraduate, preregistration midwifery education programme, this paper will explore how low-cost, low-fidelity online storytelling, designed using Moodle, can be used to enhance students' understanding of compassion and empathy in practice. SAMPLE: cross sectional sample of first year undergraduate Midwifery students (n111) METHOD: drawing from both research and audit data collected in an Higher Education Institution in London England, the paper presents the case for using web based technology to create a sustainable model for midwifery education...
March 27, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370335/challenges-faced-by-physicians-when-discussing-the-type-2-diabetes-diagnosis-with-patients-insights-from-a-cross-national-study-introdia-%C3%A2
#18
M Capehorn, W H Polonsky, S Edelman, A Belton, S Down, V Gamerman, F Nagel, J Lee, A Alzaid
AIMS: To investigate physicians' recalled experiences of their conversations with patients at diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes, because physician-patient communication at that time may influence the patient's subsequent self-care and outcomes. METHODS: As part of a large cross-national study of physician-patient communication during early treatment of Type 2 diabetes (IntroDia(®) ), we conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians treating people with Type 2 diabetes in 26 countries across Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, North America and Oceania...
March 28, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240933/development-and-initial-evaluation-of-a-self-report-form-of-the-dsm-5-level-of-personality-functioning-scale
#19
Leslie C Morey
The DSM-5 presents an Alternative Model for Personality Disorder (AMPD) recommending the assessment of impairments in core personality functions as well as clinically relevant personality traits. Although a self-report assessment instrument has been provided corresponding to the trait model proposed in the AMPD, no comparable instrument provides a direct assessment of the specific indicators of core personality functions described in that model. The goal of this paper is to provide preliminary reliability and validity data for a measure that directly corresponds to core personality pathology as operationalized in the AMPD...
February 27, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156533/palliative-care-always-as-a-massive-open-online-course-mooc-to-build-primary-palliative-care-in-a-global-audience
#20
Kavitha Ramchandran, Joshua Fronk, Judy Passaglia, Kelly Bugos, Manuela Kogon, Lori Klein, Ellen Brown, Sandy Chan, Lynn Hutton, Grace Lyo, Kimberly Frost Sickler
123 Background: Primary palliative care (PC) is critical to improve access to PC from the point of diagnosis. Still, barriers exist to providing primary PC worldwide, including a lack of awareness, time, and training. Interactive online learning experiences can help overcome these. This project describes a massive open online course (MOOC)--Palliative Care Always--designed to build primary PC skills in a global audience. METHODS: A team of PC providers and online instructional experts developed 12 modules that included: patient scenes, brief lectures, empathy exercises, and Google Hangout discussions...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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