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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639815/a-multivariate-meta-analysis-of-motivational-interviewing-process-and-outcome
#1
Brian T Pace, Aaron Dembe, Christina S Soma, Scott A Baldwin, David C Atkins, Zac E Imel
Motivational interviewing (MI) theory proposes a process whereby a set of therapist behaviors has direct effects on client outcomes and indirect effects through in-session processes (e.g., client change talk). Despite clear empirical support for the efficacy of MI across settings, the results of studies evaluating proposed links between MI process and outcome have been less clear. In the present study, we used a series of multivariate meta-analyses to test whether there are differential relationships between specific MI-consistent and MI-inconsistent therapist behaviors, MI therapist global ratings, client change language, and clinical outcomes...
June 22, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580896/local-versus-global-perceptual-scope-empathic-concern-and-helping-preferences-in-multiple-victim-situations
#2
Luis Oceja, Eric Stocks, Tamara Ambrona, Belén López-Pérez, Pilar Carrera
Previous research on the one-among-others effect has shown that inducing empathic concern towards a victim presented alongside with a small number of other victims enhances (a) the perception of this set of victims as separate and different individuals (instead of as a group), and (b) the preference to help them individually (rather than collectively). We propose that inducing a local (vs. global) perceptual scope increases (vs. lessens) these two outcomes. In this work, participants first reported their perception of an ad that showed a victim depicted as one-among-others and, afterwards, were unexpectedly asked to indicate their preference for giving the victims either "individualized", "collective", or "equal" assistance...
June 5, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578849/effectiveness-of-training-final-year-undergraduate-nutritionists-in-motivational-interviewing
#3
Trevor N Simper, Jeff D Breckon, Karen Kilner
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of a motivational interviewing (MI) training programme on trainee nutritionists. METHODS: A repeated measures design was applied to assess clinician behaviours in a 'helping' conversation. Participants were 32 nutrition students, assessed at baseline and one-month follow-up. RESULTS: The training significantly reduced the use of closed questions and MI non-adherent behaviours (MINA) (P for both=<0.001)...
May 13, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475943/psychometric-properties-of-the-motivational-interviewing-treatment-integrity-coding-system-4-2-with-jail-inmates
#4
Mandy D Owens, Lauren N Rowell, Theresa Moyers
Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based approach shown to be helpful for a variety of behaviors across many populations. Treatment fidelity is an important tool for understanding how and with whom MI may be most helpful. The Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity coding system was recently updated to incorporate new developments in the research and theory of MI, including the relational and technical hypotheses of MI (MITI 4.2). To date, no studies have examined the MITI 4.2 with forensic populations...
April 27, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447622/modern-clinical-research-on-lsd
#5
REVIEW
Matthias E Liechti
All modern clinical studies using the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in healthy subjects or patients in the last 25 years are reviewed herein. There were five recent studies in healthy participants and one in patients. In a controlled setting, LSD acutely induced bliss, audiovisual synesthesia, altered meaning of perceptions, derealization, depersonalization, and mystical experiences. These subjective effects of LSD were mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor. LSD increased feelings of closeness to others, openness, trust, and suggestibility...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399473/innovation-in-preregistration-midwifery-education-web-based-interactive-storytelling-learning
#6
Mandie Scamell, Thomas Hanley
BACKGROUND: through a critical description of the implementation of a web based interactive storytelling learning activity introduced into an undergraduate, preregistration midwifery education programme, this paper will explore how low-cost, low-fidelity online storytelling, designed using Moodle, can be used to enhance students' understanding of compassion and empathy in practice. SAMPLE: cross sectional sample of first year undergraduate Midwifery students (n111) METHOD: drawing from both research and audit data collected in an Higher Education Institution in London England, the paper presents the case for using web based technology to create a sustainable model for midwifery education...
March 27, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370335/challenges-faced-by-physicians-when-discussing-the-type-2-diabetes-diagnosis-with-patients-insights-from-a-cross-national-study-introdia-%C3%A2
#7
M Capehorn, W H Polonsky, S Edelman, A Belton, S Down, V Gamerman, F Nagel, J Lee, A Alzaid
AIMS: To investigate physicians' recalled experiences of their conversations with patients at diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes, because physician-patient communication at that time may influence the patient's subsequent self-care and outcomes. METHODS: As part of a large cross-national study of physician-patient communication during early treatment of Type 2 diabetes (IntroDia(®) ), we conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians treating people with Type 2 diabetes in 26 countries across Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, North America and Oceania...
March 28, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240933/development-and-initial-evaluation-of-a-self-report-form-of-the-dsm-5-level-of-personality-functioning-scale
#8
Leslie C Morey
The DSM-5 presents an Alternative Model for Personality Disorder (AMPD) recommending the assessment of impairments in core personality functions as well as clinically relevant personality traits. Although a self-report assessment instrument has been provided corresponding to the trait model proposed in the AMPD, no comparable instrument provides a direct assessment of the specific indicators of core personality functions described in that model. The goal of this paper is to provide preliminary reliability and validity data for a measure that directly corresponds to core personality pathology as operationalized in the AMPD...
February 27, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156533/palliative-care-always-as-a-massive-open-online-course-mooc-to-build-primary-palliative-care-in-a-global-audience
#9
Kavitha Ramchandran, Joshua Fronk, Judy Passaglia, Kelly Bugos, Manuela Kogon, Lori Klein, Ellen Brown, Sandy Chan, Lynn Hutton, Grace Lyo, Kimberly Frost Sickler
123 Background: Primary palliative care (PC) is critical to improve access to PC from the point of diagnosis. Still, barriers exist to providing primary PC worldwide, including a lack of awareness, time, and training. Interactive online learning experiences can help overcome these. This project describes a massive open online course (MOOC)--Palliative Care Always--designed to build primary PC skills in a global audience. METHODS: A team of PC providers and online instructional experts developed 12 modules that included: patient scenes, brief lectures, empathy exercises, and Google Hangout discussions...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143504/effectiveness-of-the-addition-of-therapeutic-alliance-with-minimal-intervention-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-chronic-nonspecific-low-back-pain-and-low-risk-of-involvement-of-psychosocial-factors-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial-talkback
#10
Felipe Ribeiro Cabral Fagundes, Caique de Melo do Espírito Santo, Francine Mendonça de Luna Teixeira, Thaís Vanelli Tonini, Cristina Maria Nunes Cabral
BACKGROUND: The stratified model of care has been an effective approach for the treatment of low back pain. However, the treatment of patients with low risk of psychosocial-factor involvement is unclear. The addition of the therapeutic alliance to a minimal intervention may be an option for the treatment of low back pain. This paper reports on the rationale, design and protocol for a randomized controlled trial with blind assessor to assess the effectiveness of the addition of therapeutic alliance with minimal intervention on pain and disability in patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain...
January 31, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026702/operational-readiness-for-conducting-global-health-research-abroad
#11
Judy M McDonald, Theresa W Gyorkos
Research excellence is the goal of all researchers. Conducting quality research with the ultimate aim of improving health is a shared goal among researchers in the global health domain. The competencies required for conducting and producing quality research in global health go far beyond the academic or scientific spheres. They incorporate aspects of research partnership, which places humility, empathy, and mutual respect at its core. Conducting quality respectful global health research requires an appropriate balance of operational readiness (i...
December 27, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938825/how-can-progress-on-global-tobacco-control-inform-progress-on-ncd
#12
REVIEW
Derek Yach
Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland's appointment as Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998 led to a stronger global focus on tobacco control, and eventually, all noncommunicable diseases (NCD) and mental health. Since the adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2003, global health has turned toward addressing all NCD. I pose 2 questions. 1) What lessons can we apply from the WHO FCTC development and implementation processes to broader aspects of NCD prevention and control? 2) In retrospect, what could we have done better? I also propose 3 lessons: 1) it takes a broad-based alliance to make progress; 2) visible and courageous leadership matters, and is aided by financial support; and 3) in developing the FCTC, WHO focused on a few messages: demonize industry, tax, and regulate tobacco...
December 2016: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822304/the-student-resilience-survey-psychometric-validation-and-associations-with-mental-health
#13
Suzet Tanya Lereya, Neil Humphrey, Praveetha Patalay, Miranda Wolpert, Jan R Böhnke, Amy Macdougall, Jessica Deighton
BACKGROUND: Policies, designed to promote resilience, and research, to understand the determinants and correlates of resilience, require reliable and valid measures to ensure data quality. The student resilience survey (SRS) covers a range of external supports and internal characteristics which can potentially be viewed as protective factors and can be crucial in exploring the mechanisms between protective factors and risk factors, and to design intervention and prevention strategies...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776574/empathy-and-aversion-the-neural-signature-of-mentalizing-in-tourette-syndrome
#14
C M Eddy, A E Cavanna, P C Hansen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that adults with Tourette syndrome (TS) can respond unconventionally on tasks involving social cognition. We therefore hypothesized that these patients would exhibit different neural responses to healthy controls in response to emotionally salient expressions of human eyes. METHOD: Twenty-five adults with TS and 25 matched healthy controls were scanned using fMRI during the standard version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task which requires mental state judgements, and a novel comparison version requiring judgements about age...
February 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763436/fidelity-of-motivational-interviewing-in-an-early-childhood-caries-intervention-involving-indigenous-australian-mothers
#15
Lisa Jamieson, Julia Bradshaw, Herenia Lawrence, John Broughton, Kamilla Venner
OBJECTIVES: This paper assessed the fidelity of an early childhood caries MI intervention among Aboriginal mothers in South Australia. METHODS: Four MI-trained staff delivered the intervention and all interviews were recorded. A randomly selected subset (n = 164, 41.2%) were tested for MI fidelity using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) code 3.1.1. A further randomly selected 20 taped sessions were additionally scored by an external expert to assess external reliability...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589949/proficiency-in-identifying-managing-and-communicating-medical-errors-feasibility-and-validity-study-assessing-two-core-competencies
#16
Abd Moain Abu Dabrh, Mohammad Hassan Murad, Richard D Newcomb, William G Buchta, Mark W Steffen, Zhen Wang, Amanda K Lovett, Lawrence W Steinkraus
BACKGROUND: Communication skills and professionalism are two competencies in graduate medical education that are challenging to evaluate. We aimed to develop, test and validate a de novo instrument to evaluate these two competencies. METHODS: Using an Objective Standardized Clinical Examination (OSCE) based on a medication error scenario, we developed an assessment instrument that focuses on distinctive domains [context of discussion, communication and detection of error, management of error, empathy, use of electronic medical record (EMR) and electronic medical information resources (EMIR), and global rating]...
September 2, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527727/the-enemy-as-a-patient-what-can-be-learned-from-the-emotional-experience-of-physicians-and-why-does-it-matter-ethically
#17
Gil Rubinstein, Miriam Ethel Bentwich
This qualitative research examines the influence of animosity on physicians during clinical encounters and its ethical implications. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Israeli-Jewish physicians: four treated Syrians and six treated Palestinian terrorists/Hezbollah militants or Palestinian civilians. An interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to uncover main themes in these interviews. Whereas the majority of physicians stated they are obligated to treat any patient, physicians who treated Syrians exhibited stronger emotional expression and implicit empathy, while less referring to the presence of the Israeli-Arab conflict...
August 16, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513746/microstructural-correlates-of-emotional-attribution-impairment-in-non-demented-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Chiara Crespi, Chiara Cerami, Alessandra Dodich, Nicola Canessa, Sandro Iannaccone, Massimo Corbo, Christian Lunetta, Andrea Falini, Stefano F Cappa
Impairments in the ability to recognize and attribute emotional states to others have been described in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and linked to the dysfunction of key nodes of the emotional empathy network. Microstructural correlates of such disorders are still unexplored. We investigated the white-matter substrates of emotional attribution deficits in a sample of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients without cognitive decline. Thirteen individuals with either probable or definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 14 healthy controls were enrolled in a Diffusion Tensor Imaging study and administered the Story-based Empathy Task, assessing the ability to attribute mental states to others (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453491/-empathy-related-factors-in-nursing-students-of-the-cartagena-university
#19
Meisser Madera-Anaya, Lesbia Tirado-Amador, Farith González-Martínez
OBJECTIVE: To determine empathy levels and its relationship with sociodemographic, academic and family factors in nursing students. METHOD: Cross-sectional study, 196 nursing students were randomly selected at the University of Cartagena, Colombia. A questionnaire that asked about sociodemographic, family and academic factors and the Scale of Physician Empathy Jefferson-version S were applied. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to assess the normality assumption. t Student, ANOVA, Pearson test and simple linear regression were used to establish the relationship (p<0...
September 2016: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429215/progress-integrating-medical-humanities-into-medical-education-a-global-overview
#20
Stefani Pfeiffer, Yuchia Chen, Duujian Tsai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article reviews the most recent developments in integrating humanities into medical education. Global implications and future trends are illustrated. RECENT FINDINGS: The main concern of medical humanities education is teaching professionalism; one important aspect that has emerged is the goal of nurturing emotion through reflexivity. Relating effectively to all stakeholders and being sensitive to inequitable power dynamics are essential for professional social accountability in modern medical contexts...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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