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P Stokes, J Rimmer
BACKGROUND: Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) remains a difficult disease for the ENT specialist to manage. Affected patients often report recurrent epistaxis as the most debilitating symptom. The pathogenesis of the disease is due to genetic mutations affecting angiogenesis. For this reason, the anti-angiogenic therapy bevacizumab has gained popularity in the local treatment of epistaxis in patients with HHT. OBJECTIVE: A systematic review of the efficacy of bevacizumab in local treatment of epistaxis in patients with HHT based on epistaxis duration, frequency, severity and impact on quality of life...
November 22, 2017: Rhinology
Thomas Würthwein, Maximilian Brinkmann, Tim Hellwig, Carsten Fallnich
We present the simultaneous detection of the spectrum and the complete polarization state of a multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal with a fast division-of-amplitude spectro-polarimeter. The spectro-polarimeter is based on a commercial imaging spectrograph, a birefringent wedge prism, and a segmented polarizer. Compared to the standard rotating-retarder fixed-analyzer spectro-polarimeter, only a single measurement is required and an up to 21-fold reduced acquisition time is shown. The measured Stokes parameters allow us to differentiate between vibrational symmetries and to determine the depolarization ratio ρ by data post-processing...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Joseph E Thomaz, Heather E Bailey, Michael D Fayer
The structural dynamics of a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (CnmimNTf2, n = 2, 4, 6, 10: ethyl-Emim; butyl-Bmim; hexyl-Hmim; decyl-Dmim) room temperature ionic liquids confined in the pores of polyether sulfone (PES 200) membranes with an average pore size of ∼350 nm and in the bulk liquids were studied. Time correlated single photon counting measurements of the fluorescence of the fluorophore coumarin 153 (C153) were used to observe the time-dependent Stokes shift (solvation dynamics)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Trevor L Courtney, Alexis Bohlin, Brian D Patterson, Christopher J Kliewer
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is a sensitive technique for probing highly luminous flames in combustion applications to determine temperatures and species concentrations. CARS thermometry has been demonstrated for the vibrational Q-branch and pure-rotational S-branch of several small molecules. Practical advantages of pure-rotational CARS, such as multi-species detection, reduction of coherent line mixing and collisional narrowing even at high pressures, and the potential for more precise thermometry, have motivated experimental and theoretical advances in S-branch CARS of nitrogen (N2), for example, which is a dominant species in air-fed combustion processes...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Zhongyi Guo, Zixiang Li, Jingran Zhang, Kai Guo, Fei Shen, Qingfeng Zhou, Hongping Zhou
Here, we have reviewed some typical plasmonic structures based on Archimedes' spiral (AS) architectures, which can produce polarization-sensitive focusing phenomenon and generate plasmonic vortices (PVs) carrying controllable orbital angular momentum (OAM) because of the relation between the incident polarized states and the chiralities of the spiral structures. These features can be used to analyze different circular polarization states, which has been one of the rapidly developing researching topics in nanophotonics in recent years...
November 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
Song Zhang, Zheng Liu, Yong-Liang Liu, Yu-Ling Wang, Tao Liu, Xiang-Bin Cui
OBJECTIVES: China has the world's largest population and the stroke has become the leading cause of death in recent years. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between hypertension, family history of stroke, diabetes mellitus, obesity and stroke among middle-aged and older farmers of western China. A population-based study was conducted from June 2014 to April 2015 in Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces. METHODS: Twenty thousand five hundred twenty-five Chinese middle-aged and older farmers (≥40 years) were recruited to the Qinling-Daba Mountains Region Stroke Study...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Yogesh Gawale, Lydia Rhyman, Mohamed I Elzagheid, Ponnadurai Ramasami, Nagaiyan Sekar
Density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory computations were used to understand the electronic and photophysical parameters of NIR β-thiophene-fused BF2-azadipyrromethene dyes. The computed data are in good agreement with those obtained experimentally and they provide insights into the origin of red shifted optical spectra compared to the parent aza-BODIPY, low Stokes shift, non-linear optical responses and quantitative description of the singlet-triplet energy gap. The resultant decrease in the HOMO - LUMO energy gap is responsible for the red shift...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
Jie-Ren Deng, Wing-Cheung Chan, Nathanael Chun-Him Lai, Bin Yang, Chui-Shan Tsang, Ben Chi-Bun Ko, Sharon Lai-Fung Chan, Man-Kin Wong
A new photosensitizer-free visible light-mediated gold-catalysed cis-difunctionalization reaction is developed. The reaction was chemoselective towards silyl-substituted alkynes with excellent regioselectivity and good functional group compatibility, giving a series of silyl-substituted quinolizinium derivatives as products. The newly synthesized fluorescent quinolizinium compounds, named JR-Fluor-1, possessed tunable emission properties and large Stokes shifts. With unique photophysical properties, the fluorophores have been applied in photooxidative amidations as efficient photocatalysts and cellular imaging with switchable subcellular localization properties...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Wing-Fu Lai, Andrey L Rogach, Wing-Tak Wong
Due to their large anti-Stokes shifts, sharp emission spectra and long excited-state lifetimes, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have attracted an increasing amount of research interests, and have shown great potential for enhancing the practical utility of gene therapy, whose versatility has been limited by existing gene delivery technologies that are basically mono-functional in nature. Despite this, up to now in-depth analysis of the development of UCNPs for gene delivery has been scant in the literature, even though there has been an upsurge of reviews on the chemistry of UCNPs and their applications in bioimaging and drug delivery...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Johanna C Meyer, Natalie Schellack, Jacobus Stokes, Ruth Lancaster, Helecine Zeeman, Douglas Defty, Brian Godman, Gavin Steel
Introduction: South Africa has an appreciable burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases as well as high maternal, neonatal, and child morbidity. In recent years there have been significant strides with improving the public health system, and addressing current inequalities, with the right to health a constitutional provision in South Africa. Initiatives include the introduction of National Health Insurance, programmes to enhance access to medicines for patients with chronic diseases, as well as activities to improve care in hospitals, including improving pharmacovigilance...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Bolong Huang, Mingzi Sun, Alan William Dougherty, Hao Dong, Yue-Jiao Xu, Ling-Dong Sun, Chun-Hua Yan
Unravelling upconversion (UC) energy transfer mechanisms is significant for designing novel efficient anti-Stokes phosphors. We have studied the correlation of different lanthanide dopants within Er(3+)-self-sensitized core@shell upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). Here, our focus will be on high-concentration dopants that are able to sufficiently produce the clustering effect, especially within the interplay between Er(3+) and Yb(3+). We demonstrate that whatever the amount of the self-sensitizer (e.g., Er(3+)), abnormal absorption enhancement will occur as long as Yb(3+) clusters are present...
November 21, 2017: Nanoscale
R George, M A Stokes
Clinical impressions suggest a different sexual profile between individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Little is presently known about the demographics of sexual orientation in ASD. Sexual Orientation was surveyed using the Sell Scale of Sexual Orientation in an international online sample of individuals with ASD (N = 309, M = 90, F= 219), aged (M = 32.30 years, SD = 11.93) and this was compared to sexual orientation of typically-developing individuals (N = 310, M = 84, F= 226), aged (M = 29...
November 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Jeremiah J Johnson, Andrea C Loeffert, Jennifer Stokes, Robert P Olympia, Harry Bramley, Steven D Hicks
Importance: Approximately one-third of children who experience a concussion develop prolonged concussion symptoms. To our knowledge, there are currently no objective or easily administered tests for predicting prolonged concussion symptoms. Several studies have identified alterations in epigenetic molecules known as microRNAs (miRNAs) following traumatic brain injury. No studies have examined whether miRNA expression can detect prolonged concussion symptoms. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of salivary miRNAs for identifying children with concussion who are at risk for prolonged symptoms...
November 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
K Mergenthaler, N Anttu, N Vainorius, M Aghaeipour, S Lehmann, M T Borgström, L Samuelson, M-E Pistol
It has recently been found that anti-Stokes photoluminescence can be observed in degenerately n-doped indium phosphide nanowires, when exciting directly into the electron gas. This anti-Stokes mechanism has not been observed before and allows the study of carrier relaxation and recombination using standard photoluminescence techniques. It is important to know if this anti-Stokes photoluminescence also occurs in bulk semiconductors as well as its relation to carrier recombination and relaxation. Here we show that similar anti-Stokes photoluminescence can indeed be observed in degenerately doped bulk indium phosphide and gallium arsenide and is caused by minority carriers scattering to high momenta by phonons...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
Anthony J Hickey, David A Edwards
Pharmaceutical aerosols are used to treat many pulmonary diseases. The use of low density powders has proven useful to support efficient drug delivery. Measurements must account for the low density, spherical particle features contributing to aerodynamic behavior. Ideally, the aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) is measured experimentally. Without formal measurement of APSD, calculations may be performed using surrogate measures such as bulk or tapped density and dynamic shape factor in Stokes' equation...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
William A Stokes, David C Binder, Bernard L Jones, Ayman J Oweida, Arthur K Liu, Chad G Rusthoven, Sana D Karam
BACKGROUND: Patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBM) have been excluded from trials evaluating immunotherapy in melanoma. As such, immunotherapy's role in MBM is poorly understood, particularly in combination with radiotherapy. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with MBM receiving brain radiotherapy. They were classified according to immunotherapy receipt. Multivariate Cox regression was performed to identify factors associated with survival...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Ke-Yu Xing, Juan Peng, Dao-Feng Liu, Li-Ming Hu, Chun Wang, Guo-Qiang Li, Gang-Gang Zhang, Zhen Huang, Song Cheng, Fang-Fei Zhu, Na-Mei Liu, Wei-Hua Lai
Colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (ICA) has poor sensitivity when used for Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) detection. Eu (III)-doped polystyrene nanoparticle (EuNP) has a large range of stokes shift, long decay time, and wide excitation spectrum and narrow emission spectra. EuNP has been used as novel probe in ICA to improve sensitivity. In this study, carboxyl-modified EuNPs were prepared with different linkers. ICA based on EuNP, EuNP-6 carbon chain (CC) complex, EuNP-200CC complex, EuNP-1000CC complex, and EuNP-streptavidin (EuNP-SA) complex were systematically compared for the detection of E...
January 15, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Weixin Zhu, Weihong Qiu, Ailan Lu
Cerebral stroke is a kind of acute cerebrovascular disease with high incidence, morbidity and disability. Treatments against various types of cerebral stroke are limited at preventive measurements due to the lack of effective therapeutic method. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of cryptotanshinone (CPT) on cerebral stroke, and investigate the possible mechanism involved in order to develop a novel therapy against stoke. The phosphoinositide 3‑kinase membrane translocation of cerebral stroke rats pretreated with CPT at various concentrations were measured, as well as the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Kaiyuan Yang, Chen Lu, Xiaodan Zhao, Ryo Kawamura
Frictional drag force on an object in Stokes flow follows a linear relationship with the velocity of translation and a translational drag coefficient. This drag coefficient is related to the size, shape, and orientation of the object. For rod-like objects, analytical solutions of the drag coefficients have been proposed based on three rough approximations of the rod geometry, namely the bead model, ellipsoid model, and cylinder model. These theories all agree that translational drag coefficients of rod-like objects are functions of the rod length and aspect ratio, but differ among one another on the correction factor terms in the equations...
2017: PloS One
Zhidong Wang, Kuizu Su, Tong Shu, Weihong Wang
It is widely known that the accumulation of solid matter forming a cake layer on the membrane surface is one of the major limitations of the filtration performance in submerged membrane bioreactors (SMBR). This study is focused on the influence of the cake porosity of different particle microscopic packed structures on the filtration performance of hollow fiber systems. An integrated model based on the finite element method to simulate numerically the flow in an SMBR is presented. The model coupled the Navier-Stokes and Darcy Brinkman equations to simulate a complete filtration run...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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