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Jeffrey E Stokes
OBJECTIVES: Social relations can influence well-being throughout the life course. Integration in one's community may serve as a source of social support whereas negative interactions such as day-to-day discrimination can be psychosocial stressors, particularly for neurotic persons. Yet social connectedness may vary in importance across the age range. Individuals trim their social networks in later life to optimize emotional well-being, but older adults may also be at heightened risk of social isolation...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Tao Jiang, Hao Hong, Can Liu, Wei-Tao Liu, Kaihui Liu, Shiwei Wu
Interactions between elementary excitations, such as carriers, phonons and plasmons, are critical for understanding the optical and electronic properties of materials. The significance of these interactions is more prominent in low-dimensional materials and can dominate their physical properties due to the enhanced interactions between these excitations. One-dimensional single-walled carbon nanotubes provide an ideal system for studying such interactions due to their perfect physical structures and rich electronic properties...
March 15, 2018: Nano Letters
Jun Zhang, Alexander Sandberg, Audun Konsmo, Xiongyu Wu, Sofie Nyström, K Peter Nilsson, Peter Konradsson, Harry LeVine, Mikael Lindgren, Per Hammarström
We revisited the Congo red analogue 2,5-bis(4'-hydroxy-3'-carboxy-styryl)benzene (X-34) to develop this highly fluorescent amyloid dye for imaging Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology comprising Aβ and Tau fibrils. A selection of ligands with distinct optical properties were synthesized by replacing the central benzene unit of X-34, with other heterocyclic moieties. Full photophysical characterization was performed determining absorbance and fluorescence spectra, Stokes shift, quantum yield and fluorescence lifetimes...
March 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Sushanta Kumar Pal, P Senthilkumaran
The dependence of fringe contrast on the state of polarization (SOP) can be altered when more than two beams interfere, and it is possible to achieve high contrast fringes. We use a six-pinhole interferometer, in which a judicious choice (but not unique) of SOPs for the interfering beams is made to realize the lattice of C points at intensity nulls. These dark C points occur due to overlapping of singularities. These are not simply a minor variation of bright C points, in which the intensity dims to zero, but are poorly understood, unusual objects in their own right...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Shogo Amemori, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Marcus Leo Böhm, James Xiao, Uyen Huynh, Tomoki Oyama, Kenji Kaneko, Akshay Rao, Nobuhiro Yanai, Nobuo Kimizuka
Hybrid materials consisting of semiconductor nanocrystals and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were prepared for the first time to achieve photon upconversion based on triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC) in the solid-state, which allowed TTA-UC with large anti-Stokes shifts in the visible and near-infrared regions.
March 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Collin D Edington, Wen Li Kelly Chen, Emily Geishecker, Timothy Kassis, Luis R Soenksen, Brij M Bhushan, Duncan Freake, Jared Kirschner, Christian Maass, Nikolaos Tsamandouras, Jorge Valdez, Christi D Cook, Tom Parent, Stephen Snyder, Jiajie Yu, Emily Suter, Michael Shockley, Jason Velazquez, Jeremy J Velazquez, Linda Stockdale, Julia P Papps, Iris Lee, Nicholas Vann, Mario Gamboa, Matthew E LaBarge, Zhe Zhong, Xin Wang, Laurie A Boyer, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Rebecca L Carrier, Catherine Communal, Steven R Tannenbaum, Cynthia L Stokes, David J Hughes, Gaurav Rohatgi, David L Trumper, Murat Cirit, Linda G Griffith
Microphysiological systems (MPSs) are in vitro models that capture facets of in vivo organ function through use of specialized culture microenvironments, including 3D matrices and microperfusion. Here, we report an approach to co-culture multiple different MPSs linked together physiologically on re-useable, open-system microfluidic platforms that are compatible with the quantitative study of a range of compounds, including lipophilic drugs. We describe three different platform designs - "4-way", "7-way", and "10-way" - each accommodating a mixing chamber and up to 4, 7, or 10 MPSs...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Seung Joong Kim, Javier Fernandez-Martinez, Ilona Nudelman, Yi Shi, Wenzhu Zhang, Barak Raveh, Thurston Herricks, Brian D Slaughter, Joanna A Hogan, Paula Upla, Ilan E Chemmama, Riccardo Pellarin, Ignacia Echeverria, Manjunatha Shivaraju, Azraa S Chaudhury, Junjie Wang, Rosemary Williams, Jay R Unruh, Charles H Greenberg, Erica Y Jacobs, Zhiheng Yu, M Jason de la Cruz, Roxana Mironska, David L Stokes, John D Aitchison, Martin F Jarrold, Jennifer L Gerton, Steven J Ludtke, Christopher W Akey, Brian T Chait, Andrej Sali, Michael P Rout
Nuclear pore complexes play central roles as gatekeepers of RNA and protein transport between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. However, their large size and dynamic nature have impeded a full structural and functional elucidation. Here we determined the structure of the entire 552-protein nuclear pore complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at sub-nanometre precision by satisfying a wide range of data relating to the molecular arrangement of its constituents. The nuclear pore complex incorporates sturdy diagonal columns and connector cables attached to these columns, imbuing the structure with strength and flexibility...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Nitin Agarwal, Georgios A Zenonos, Prateek Agarwal, Frank J Walch, Eileen Roach, Sandra J Stokes, Robert M Friedlander, Peter C Gerszten
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the neurosurgical population is still a matter of debate, as the risk-to-benefit ratio is not well defined. OBJECTIVE: To further evaluate the risk-to-benefit ratio of VTE prophylaxis (VTEP) for all neurosurgical procedures. METHODS: A prospective evaluation was performed after the initiation of a VTEP protocol for 11 436 patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures over 24 mo...
March 9, 2018: Neurosurgery
Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Apryl Susi, Theophil Stokes, Gregory Gorman, Christine Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association of 29 previously reported neonatal, perinatal and prenatal conditions and exposures with later diagnosis of ASD in a large sample of children followed over multiple years. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-cohort study was formed using the Military Health System database. Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for ASD between 2000 and 2013 and were matched 3:1 with controls on sex, date of birth, and enrollment time-frame...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Italo A Cavini, Claudia E Munte, Markus Beck Erlach, Thomas van Groen, Inga Kadish, Tao Zhang, Tamar Ziehm, Luitgard Nagel-Steger, Janine Kutzsche, Werner Kremer, Dieter Willbold, Hans Robert Kalbitzer
Pressure can shift the polymer-monomer equilibrium of Aβ, increasing pressure first leads to a release of Aβ-monomers, surprisingly at pressures higher than 180 MPa repolymerization is induced. By high pressure NMR spectroscopy, differences of partial molar volumes ΔV0 and compressibility factors Δβ' of polymerization were determined at different temperatures. The d-enantiomeric peptides RD2 and RD2D3 bind to monomeric Aβ with affinities substantially higher than those determined for fibril formation...
March 14, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
A S Varela-Stokes, S H Park, J V Stokes, N A Gavron, S I Lee, G M Moraru, S C Ricke
Our objective of this study was to explore the bacterial microbiome in fresh or fresh-frozen adult Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast ticks) using extracts enriched for microbial DNA. We collected 100 questing adult A. maculatum, surface disinfected them, and extracted DNA from individual ticks collected the same day or after storage at -80 °C. Because only extracts with microbial DNA concentrations above 2 ng/μL were considered suitable for individual analysis, we expected fewer samples to meet these requirements...
March 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Raewyn Johnson, Pauline Ansley, Fiona Doolan-Noble, Erin Turley, Tim Stokes
BACKGROUND New Zealand (NZ) has a high rate of breastfeeding initiation, declining sharply during the first six months. Although there is a range of support available to breastfeeding mothers, access can be problematic in rural areas. To extend the accessibility of breastfeeding support to rural women, a Primary Health Organisation established a breastfeeding peer supporters (BPS) programme (Mum4Mum - M4M). OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of the impact of the BPS training programme on participants, as well as understanding how they utilised the information, both personally and in their communities...
June 2017: Journal of Primary Health Care
Chunxiao Cai, Long Ma, Juan Li, Hui Guo, Kui Liu, Hengxin Sun, Jiangrui Gao
The continuous-variable (CV) orbital angular momentum (OAM) entanglement is very different to the traditional quadrature entanglement. The Stokes-operators directly reflect the character of OAM light. Here, we report the first direct experimental demonstration the Stokes-operator entanglement of continuous-variable OAM entanglement. Generated by transforming quadrature entanglement in the HG01 mode onto the orbital Stokes-operator basis, the entanglement is measured in the Stokes-operator basis using a self-designed detection scheme...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Ling Cao, Shou-Fei Gao, Zhi-Gang Peng, Xiao-Cong Wang, Ying-Ying Wang, Pu Wang
We demonstrate a 2.8 μm gas Raman laser in a methane-filled hollow-core negative-curvature fiber with average power of 113 mW, pulse energy of 113 μJ and estimated peak power of 9.5 MW. Raman quantum efficiency of 40% has been reached from the pump source at 1.064 μm to the 2nd order vibrational Stokes at 2.812 μm using 1.8 MPa methane gas. To our knowledge, this is the first high peak power fiber-based gas Raman laser in mid-infrared region and a range of applications in supercontinuum generation, laser surgery, molecular tracing and gas detection are in prospect...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Jinyan Dong, Lei Zhang, Huawei Jiang, Xuezong Yang, Weiwei Pan, Shuzhen Cui, Xijia Gu, Yan Feng
An up to 8th order cascaded Raman random fiber laser with high spectral purity is achieved with the pumping of a narrow linewidth amplified spontaneous emission source. The spectral purity is over 90% for all the 8 Stokes orders. The highest output power is 6.9 W at 1691.6 nm with an optical conversion efficiency of 21% from 1062.0 nm. As a comparison, with conventional FBG-based fiber oscillator as pump source, only 47% spectral purity is achieved at 8th order. The temporal stability of the pump laser is proved to play a key role, because the time fluctuation of pump laser is transferred directly to Raman outputs and results in power distribution among different Stokes orders...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
E C Welch, S Ya Tochitsky, J J Pigeon, C Joshi
A new method for a long-wave infrared (LWIR), picosecond difference frequency generation (DFG) source using one near-infrared laser and a Raman shifter is experimentally tested and characterized. The signal seed for DFG is a Stokes pulse generated via transient stimulated Raman scattering in a nonlinear medium with a Raman frequency in the 2-20 µm range. A study of the dynamics of the transient Raman regime in liquid C6 D6 has shown that the efficiency of Stokes production can be increased and the central wavelength can be controlled by chirping the pump pulse in order to compensate for chirping caused by self-phase modulation...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Richard Salazar
INTRODUCTION: Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a prion disease characterized by rapidly progressive dementia, ataxia and myoclonus. Atypical phenotype masquerading as stroke, movement disorders or autoimmune encephalitis have been described. Here, I report a probable case of sCJD with an atypical presentation associated with anti-Zic4 antibody and review the literature of neuronal antibodies in CJD. CASE REPORT: A 70 year-old gentleman is admitted with a 2-month history of recurrent stroke-like symptoms associated with behavioral disturbances, gait ataxia and rapidly progressive dementia...
March 5, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Mohie E M Zayed, Reda M El-Shishtawy, Shaaban A Elroby, Khalid O Al-Footy, Zahra M Al-Amshany
A set of different donor-π-acceptor compounds having dicyanovinyl as the acceptor and aryl moieties as donors were synthesized by Knoevenagel condensation. The UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectra were investigated in different solvents. The optical band gab energy (Eg) was linearly correlated with the Hammett resonance effect of the donor to reveal that the higher the value of Hammett resonance effect of a donor, the lower the Eg of the molecule. The photophysical data revealed that compounds M4-M6 are typical molecular rotors with fluorescence due to twisted intramolecular charge transfer...
March 9, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Clare A Stokes, Alison M Condliffe
Defining features of chronic airway diseases include abnormal and persistent inflammatory processes, impaired airway epithelial integrity and function, and increased susceptibility to recurrent respiratory infections. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) are lipid kinases, which contribute to multiple physiological and pathological processes within the airway, with abnormal PI3K signalling contributing to the pathogenesis of several respiratory diseases. Consequently, the potential benefit of targeting PI3K isoforms has received considerable attention, being viewed as a viable therapeutic option in inflammatory and infectious lung disorders...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Ali Bavali, Parviz Parvin, Mohammad Tavassoli, Mohammad Reza Mohebbifar
Angular dependence of the intensity and the emissive wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence emission in hybrid media (fluorophores+nanoparticles) are investigated using various TiO2 densities as guest nanoscatterers in the ethanolic solutions of the host Rd6G and coumarin 4 (C4) molecules. It is shown that the intensity of the scattered photons varies in terms of the detection angle. When the nanoscatterer density increases at a certain excitation energy, the angular anisotropy enhances. While the emissive wavelength exhibits the spectral shift in terms of the angular variation for Rd6G fluorophores, it remains invariant for C4-based suspension...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
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