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Diogo Castro Vaz, Edouard Lesne, Anke Sander, Hiroshi Naganuma, Eric Jacquet, Jacobo Santamaria, Agnès Barthélémy, Manuel Bibes
The quasi 2D electron system (q2DES) that forms at the interface between LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) has attracted much attention from the oxide electronics community. One of its hallmark features is the existence of a critical LAO thickness of 4 unit-cells (uc) for interfacial conductivity to emerge. Although electrostatic mechanisms have been proposed in the past to describe the existence of this critical thickness, the importance of chemical defects has been recently accentuated. Here, we describe the growth of metal/LAO/STO heterostructures in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) cluster system combining pulsed laser deposition (to grow the LAO), magnetron sputtering (to grow the metal) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Xing Chen, Detlef Wolf, Juliane Siebourg-Polster, Christian Czech, Ulrike Bonati, Dirk Fischer, Omar Khwaja, Martin Strahm
Progressive and irreversible muscle atrophy characterizes Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and other similar muscle disorder diseases. Objective assessment of muscle functions is an essential and important, although challenging, prerequisite for successful clinical trials. Current clinical rating scales restrain the movement abnormalities to certain predefined coarse-grained individual items. The Kinect 3-D sensor has emerged as a low-cost and portable motion sensing technology used to capture and track people's movement in many medical and research fields...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chao Tian, Wei Zhang, Van Phuc Nguyen, Xueding Wang, Yannis M Paulus
Photoacoustic ocular imaging is an emerging ophthalmic imaging technology that can noninvasively visualize ocular tissue by converting light energy into sound waves and is currently under intensive investigation. However, most reported work to date is focused on the imaging of the posterior segment of the eyes of small animals, such as rats and mice, which poses challenges for clinical human translation due to small eyeball sizes. This manuscript describes a novel photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) dual-modality system for posterior segment imaging of the eyes of larger animals, such as rabbits...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ariel Finkielsztein, Lorraine Mascarenhas, Veronika Butin-Israeli, Ronen Sumagin
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil-derived microparticles (PMN)-MPs) are lipid bilayer, spherical microvesicles with sizes ranging from 50-1,000 nm in diameter. MPs are a newly evolving, important part of cell-to-cell communication and signaling machinery. Because of their size and the nature of their release, until recently MP existence was overlooked. However, with improved technology and analytical methods their function in health and disease is now emerging. The protocols presented here are aimed at isolating and characterizing PMN-MPs by flow cytometry and immunoblotting...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Xinyi Ding, Yuxiang Sun, Yanming Chen, Wanchuan Ding, Steven Emory, Tianhao Li, Zixing Xu, Ning Han, Jun Wang, Gang Ruan
Micellar nanocrystals (micelles with encapsulated nanocrystals) have become an emerging major class of nanobiomaterials. We describe a method of fabricating micellar nanocrystals based on combining top-down electrospray, bottom-up self-assembly, and solvent-based structure control. This method involves first using electrospray to generate uniform ultrafine liquid droplets, each of which functions as a micro-reactor in which self-assembly reaction occurs forming micellar nanocrystals, with the structures (micelle shape and nanocrystal encapsulation) controlled by the organic solvent used...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Julie H Hernandez, Mbadu Muanda, Mélissa Garcia, Grace Matawa
CONTEXT: Despite the commitment of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to expand the family planning method mix and increase access to services, awareness of emergency contraception is low among women, and the method remains underused and poorly integrated in family planning programming. METHODS: Data from 15 focus group discussions conducted in 2016 among women aged 15-35 were used to examine awareness and perceptions of, and attitudes toward, emergency contraceptives...
September 1, 2017: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Cicely Marston, Alicia Renedo, Gertrude Nsorma Nyaaba, Kazuyo Machiyama, Placide Tapsoba, John Cleland
CONTEXT: According to Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data, highly educated urban women in some West African countries simultaneously have low rates of both contraceptive use and fertility-suggesting that the DHS may not be capturing a complete picture of women's contraceptive practices. METHODS: Individual in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 48 women aged 18-49 in Accra, Ghana, who had at least a secondary education to explore their reproductive lives and relationships, and their views on and use of fertility regulation strategies...
September 1, 2017: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Sanaa Al Najjar, Tamer Al Shaer
BACKGROUND: To meet the emerging needs of the increasing numbers of patients with non-communicable diseases and to provide optimum care with optimum contact time and minimum waiting time, as stated in UNRWA guidelines, the mobile phone text messaging system was implemented in UNRWA centres to remind patients of upcoming appointments and to thereby improve the quality of care for vulnerable patients and regulate the work load in the clinics for non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the causes for lack of adherence to the appointment system at UNRWA centres...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Mohammed K El-Habil
BACKGROUND: Acute poisoning is a major public health problem worldwide and a common cause of patient admissions to emergency departments and intensive care units. The aim of this study was to assess the acute poisoning cases admitted to three hospitals in the Gaza Strip and to assess the need for a poison control and drug information centre in the Gaza Strip. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with acute poisoning between 2010 and 2015 at the emergency departments of Al-Shifa Hospital, European Gaza Hospital, and Al-Nassr Paediatric Hospital in the Gaza Strip were included in this retrospective study...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Majdi Ashour
BACKGROUND: People living in the Gaza Strip have experienced a protracted political conflict and extreme socioeconomic adversity since 1948. Economic conditions have deteriorated markedly since the onset of the Palestinian Intifada in 1987 and have been exacerbated by the economic siege after 2006. The health system in the Gaza Strip has faced additional challenges. The aim of this study was to assess how Palestinian households in the Gaza Strip experienced health care services during this period of political turmoil, socioeconomic adversity, and challenges to health services...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Abeer A Nasir, Razan Salah, Abla Sayyed Ahmad, Samah Abu Hijleh, Sa'eed Abu Kattab, Alia Al Kurd, Rawan Al Sharif, Raed Amro, Ahmad Khatib, Hana' Mousa, Walaa Shamasnah, Khammisa Shqerat, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Hamm is an Arabic word that is used to express suffering. Idioms of distress are communicated differently in different contexts and cultures. Understanding idioms of distress and symptoms can help in diagnosis and lead to socioculturally sensitive health care. METHODS: In this qualitative study, we did semi-structured interviews with men and women of all age groups. Questions focused on the definition, causes, and consequences of Hamm. Responses were analysed by reading and re-reading interview transcripts until themes and subthemes emerged...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Angélique Rousseau, Stéphanie La Carbona, Aurélien Dumètre, Lucy J Robertson, Gilles Gargala, Sandie Escotte-Binet, Loïc Favennec, Isabelle Villena, Cédric Gérard, Dominique Aubert
Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoan parasites that have been highlighted as emerging foodborne pathogens by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. According to the European Food Safety Authority, 4786 foodborne and waterborne outbreaks were reported in Europe in 2016, of which 0.4% were attributed to parasites including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Trichinella. Until 2016, no standardized methods were available to detect Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma (oo)cysts in food...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Kaigang Li, Elizabeth Ochoa, Federico E Vaca, Bruce Simons-Morton
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and covariates among emerging adults of riding with an impaired peer or older adult driver (RWI) because of marijuana (MJ), alcohol (ALC), or illicit drugs (ID). METHOD: Data were from Waves 4 (W4, N = 2,085) and 5 (W5, N = 2,116) of the NEXT Generation Health Study, collected in 2013-2014, 1 and 2 years after high school. W5 RWI was specified for substance-specific impaired peer and older adult (peer/older adult) drivers...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Robin Room, Norman Giesbrecht, Thomas K Greenfield
The emergent and growing body of research on alcohol's harm to others (AHTO), or secondhand effects of drinking, has important implications for prevention, intervention, and policy. Those victimized by other drinkers tend to favor effective alcohol policies more than their nonvictimized peers, but often a community's impulse will be to combat AHTO by targeting and stigmatizing individual heavy drinkers, rather than taking a public health approach to reducing harm. Here we discuss opportunities and challenges in selecting ways of reducing AHTO...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Holly P O'Rourke, David P MacKinnon
OBJECTIVE: Mediation models are used in prevention and intervention research to assess the mechanisms by which interventions influence outcomes. However, researchers may not investigate mediators in the absence of intervention effects on the primary outcome variable. There is emerging evidence that in some situations, tests of mediated effects can be statistically significant when the total intervention effect is not statistically significant. In addition, there are important conceptual and practical reasons for investigating mediation when the intervention effect is nonsignificant...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Thomas F Babor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Nguyen To Anh, Le Nguyen Truc Nhu, Hoang Minh Tu Van, Nguyen Thi Thu Hong, Tran Tan Thanh, Vu Thi Ty Hang, Nguyen Thi Han Ny, Lam Anh Nguyet, Tran Thi Lan Phuong, Le Nguyen Thanh Nhan, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Truong Huu Khanh, Ha Manh Tuan, Ho Lu Viet, Nguyen Tran Nam, Do Chau Viet, Phan Tu Qui, Bridget Wills, Sarawathy Sabanathan, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Louise Thwaites, H Rogier van Doorn, Guy Thwaites, Maia A Rabaa, Le Van Tan
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health issue in Asia and has global pandemic potential. Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was detected in 514/2,230 (23%) of HFMD patients admitted to 3 major hospitals in southern Vietnam during 2011-2015. Of these patients, 93 (18%) had severe HFMD. Phylogenetic analysis of 98 genome sequences revealed they belonged to cluster A and had been circulating in Vietnam for 2 years before emergence. CV-A6 movement among localities within Vietnam occurred frequently, whereas viral movement across international borders appeared rare...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia, Romain Volle, Marie-Line Joffret, Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Ionela Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ousmane Kebe, Michael R Wiley, Manasi Majumdar, Etienne Simon-Loriere, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Gustavo Palacios, Javier Martin, Francis Delpeyroux, Kader Ndiaye, Maël Bessaud
We analyzed whole-genome sequences of 8 enterovirus A71 isolates (EV-A71). We confirm the circulation of genogroup C and the new genogroup E in West Africa. Our analysis demonstrates wide geographic circulation and describes genetic exchanges between EV-A71 and autochthonous EV-A that might contribute to the emergence of pathogenic lineages.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Denis Kolbasov, Ilya Titov, Sodnom Tsybanov, Andrey Gogin, Alexander Malogolovkin
African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Juarez P Dias, Maria da Conceição N Costa, Gubio Soares Campos, Enny S Paixão, Marcio S Natividade, Florisneide R Barreto, Martha Suely C Itaparica, Cristina Goes, Francisca L S Oliveira, Eloisa B Santana, Neusa S J Silva, Carlos A A Brito, Laura C Rodrigues, Silvia Inez Sardi, Ramon C Saavedra, Maria Glória Teixeira
Chikungunya has had a substantial impact on public health because of the magnitude of its epidemics and its highly debilitating symptoms. We estimated the seroprevalence, proportion of symptomatic cases, and proportion of chronic form of disease after introduction of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2 cities in Brazil. We conducted the population-based study through household interviews and serologic surveys during October-December 2015. In Feira de Santana, we conducted a serologic survey of 385 persons; 57.1% were CHIKV-positive...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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