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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647368/identification-and-characterization-of-the-leaf-specific-networks-of-inner-and-rosette-leaves-in-brassica-rapa
#1
Man-Sun Kim, Seongmin Hong, Devaraj Sangeeth Prasath, Subin Im, Jeong-Rae Kim, Yong Pyo Lim
Inner and rosette leaves of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) have different characteristics in terms of nutritional value, appearance, taste, color and texture. Many researchers have utilized differentially expressed genes for exploring the difference between inner and rosette leaves of Brassica rapa. The functional characteristics of a gene, however, is determined by complex interactions between genes. Hence, a noble network approach is required for elucidating such functional difference that is not captured by gene expression profiles alone...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647089/reverse-phase-protein-arrays-elucidate-mechanisms-of-action-and-phenotypic-response-in-2d-and-3d-models
#2
REVIEW
Michael Pawlak, Neil O Carragher
The development of new 2D and 3D phenotypic screening assays combined with high-throughput genomic and proteomic technologies are well placed to advance a new era of molecular pathway informed Phenotypic Drug Discovery. We describe the application of Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA) technology to elucidate the mechanism-of-action of small molecules at the post-translational pathway level. We propose that profiling of phenotypic hits and lead molecules in increasingly more complex 3D in vitro and ex vivo models at the post-translational pathway network level represents an effective strategy to both triage and progress the preclinical development of phenotypic screening hits...
March 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646692/specific-subcortical-structures-are-activated-during-seizure-induced-death-in-a-model-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep-a-manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#3
Srinivasa P Kommajosyula, Marcus E Randall, Thomas J Brozoski, Boris M Odintsov, Carl L Faingold
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major concern for patients with epilepsy. In most witnessed cases of SUDEP generalized seizures and respiratory failure preceded death, and pre-mortem neuroimaging studies in SUDEP patients observed changes in specific subcortical structures. Our study examined the role of subcortical structures in the DBA/1 mouse model of SUDEP using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). These mice exhibit acoustically-evoked generalized seizures leading to seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) that results in sudden death unless resuscitation is rapidly instituted...
May 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646471/decoding-early-myelopoiesis-from-dynamics-of-core-endogenous-network
#4
Hang Su, Gaowei Wang, Ruoshi Yuan, Junqiang Wang, Ying Tang, Ping Ao, Xiaomei Zhu
A decade ago mainstream molecular biologists regarded it impossible or biologically ill-motivated to understand the dynamics of complex biological phenomena, such as cancer genesis and progression, from a network perspective. Indeed, there are numerical difficulties even for those who were determined to explore along this direction. Undeterred, seven years ago a group of Chinese scientists started a program aiming to obtain quantitative connections between tumors and network dynamics. Many interesting results have been obtained...
May 29, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646349/modeling-pain-using-fmri-from-regions-to-biomarkers
#5
REVIEW
Marianne C Reddan, Tor D Wager
Pain is a subjective and complex phenomenon. Its complexity is related to its heterogeneity: multiple component processes, including sensation, affect, and cognition, contribute to pain experience and reporting. These components are likely to be encoded in distributed brain networks that interact to create pain experience and pain-related decision-making. Therefore, to understand pain, we must identify these networks and build models of these interactions that yield testable predictions about pain-related outcomes...
June 23, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646241/never-forget-a-name-white-matter-connectivity-predicts-person-memory
#6
Athanasia Metoki, Kylie H Alm, Yin Wang, Chi T Ngo, Ingrid R Olson
Through learning and practice, we can acquire numerous skills, ranging from the simple (whistling) to the complex (memorizing operettas in a foreign language). It has been proposed that complex learning requires a network of brain regions that interact with one another via white matter pathways. One candidate white matter pathway, the uncinate fasciculus (UF), has exhibited mixed results for this hypothesis: some studies have shown UF involvement across a range of memory tasks, while other studies report null results...
June 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646090/cellular-functions-of-wasp-family-proteins-at-a-glance
#7
REVIEW
Olga Alekhina, Ezra Burstein, Daniel D Billadeau
Proteins of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family function as nucleation-promoting factors for the ubiquitously expressed Arp2/3 complex, which drives the generation of branched actin filaments. Arp2/3-generated actin regulates diverse cellular processes, including the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia, endocytosis and/or phagocytosis at the plasma membrane, and the generation of cargo-laden vesicles from organelles including the Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the endo-lysosomal network...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645956/exploring-the-components-of-physician-volunteer-engagement-a-qualitative-investigation-of-a-national-canadian-simulation-based-training-programme
#8
Aimee J Sarti, Stephanie Sutherland, Angele Landriault, Kirk DesRosier, Susan Brien, Pierre Cardinal
OBJECTIVES: Conceptual clarity on physician volunteer engagement is lacking in the medical literature. The aim of this study was to present a conceptual framework to describe the elements which influence physician volunteer engagement and to explore volunteer engagement within a national educational programme. SETTING: The context for this study was the Acute Critical Events Simulation (ACES) programme in Canada, which has successfully evolved into a national educational programme, driven by physician volunteers...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645845/the-feature-weighted-receptive-field-an-interpretable-encoding-model-for-complex-feature-spaces
#9
REVIEW
Ghislain St-Yves, Thomas Naselaris
We introduce the feature-weighted receptive field (fwRF), an encoding model designed to balance expressiveness, interpretability and scalability. The fwRFis organized around the notion of a feature map-a transformation of visual stimuli into visual features that preserves the topology of visual space (but not necessarily the native resolution of the stimulus). The key assumption of the fwRFmodel is that activity in each voxel encodes variation in a spatially localized region across multiple feature maps. This region is fixed for all feature maps; however, the contribution of each feature map to voxel activity is weighted...
June 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645514/bcl-xl-deamidation-and-cancer-charting-the-fame-trajectories-of-legitimate-child-and-hidden-siblings
#10
REVIEW
Florian Beaumatin, Mohamad El Dhaybi, Claude Bobo, Mireille Verdier, Muriel Priault
Bcl-2 family proteins control programmed cell death through a complex network of interactions within and outside of this family, that are modulated by post-translational modifications (PTM). Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic member of this family, is overexpressed in a number of cancers, plays an important role in tumorigenesis and is correlated with drug resistance. Bcl-xL is susceptible to a number of different PTMs. Here, we focus on deamidation. We will first provide an overview of protein deamidation. We will then review how the apoptotic and autophagic functions of Bcl-xL are modified by this PTM, and how this impacts on its oncogenic properties...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645217/microtubule-organizing-centers
#11
Jingchao Wu, Anna Akhmanova
The organization of microtubule networks is crucial for controlling chromosome segregation during cell division, positioning, and transport of different organelles and for cell polarity and morphogenesis. The geometry of microtubule arrays strongly depends on the localization and activity of the sites where microtubules are nucleated and where their minus ends are anchored. Such sites are often clustered into structures known as microtubule-organizing centers, which include the centrosomes in animals and spindle pole bodies in fungi...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645179/system-wide-analysis-of-short-term-response-to-high-temperature-in-pinus-radiata
#12
Mónica Escandón, Luis Valledor, Jesús Pascual, Gloria Pinto, María Jesús Cañal, Mónica Meijón
Pinus radiata seedlings, the most widely planted pine species in the world, were exposed to temperatures within a range mimicking future scenarios based on current models of heat increase. The short-term heat response in P. radiata was studied in detail by exploring the metabolome, proteome and targeted transcriptome. The use of complementary mass spectrometry techniques, GC-MS and LC-Orbitrap-MS, together with novel bioinformatics tools allowed the reliable quantification of 2,075 metabolites and 901 protein groups...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644902/sirt6-alters-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#13
Eitan Okun, Daniel Marton, Daniel Cohen, Kathleen Griffioen, Yariv Kanfi, Tomer Illouz, Ravit Madar, Haim Y Cohen
Sirtuins are pleiotropic NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases involved in metabolism, DNA damage repair, inflammation and stress resistance. SIRT6, a member of the sirtuin family, regulates the process of normal aging and increases the lifespan of male mice over-expressing Sirt6 by 15%. Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons within the hippocampus of adult mammals, involves several complex stages including stem cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and network integration. During aging, the number of newly generated neurons continuously declines, and this is correlated with a decline in neuronal plasticity and cognitive behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644856/estimating-psychopathological-networks-be-careful-what-you-wish-for
#14
Sacha Epskamp, Joost Kruis, Maarten Marsman
Network models, in which psychopathological disorders are conceptualized as a complex interplay of psychological and biological components, have become increasingly popular in the recent psychopathological literature (Borsboom, et. al., 2011). These network models often contain significant numbers of unknown parameters, yet the sample sizes available in psychological research are limited. As such, general assumptions about the true network are introduced to reduce the number of free parameters. Incorporating these assumptions, however, means that the resulting network will lead to reflect the particular structure assumed by the estimation method-a crucial and often ignored aspect of psychopathological networks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644841/low-dimensional-spike-rate-models-derived-from-networks-of-adaptive-integrate-and-fire-neurons-comparison-and-implementation
#15
Moritz Augustin, Josef Ladenbauer, Fabian Baumann, Klaus Obermayer
The spiking activity of single neurons can be well described by a nonlinear integrate-and-fire model that includes somatic adaptation. When exposed to fluctuating inputs sparsely coupled populations of these model neurons exhibit stochastic collective dynamics that can be effectively characterized using the Fokker-Planck equation. This approach, however, leads to a model with an infinite-dimensional state space and non-standard boundary conditions. Here we derive from that description four simple models for the spike rate dynamics in terms of low-dimensional ordinary differential equations using two different reduction techniques: one uses the spectral decomposition of the Fokker-Planck operator, the other is based on a cascade of two linear filters and a nonlinearity, which are determined from the Fokker-Planck equation and semi-analytically approximated...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644436/the-lats1-and-lats2-tumor-suppressors-beyond-the-hippo-pathway
#16
REVIEW
Noa Furth, Yael Aylon
Proper cellular functionality and homeostasis are maintained by the convergent integration of various signaling cascades, which enable cells to respond to internal and external changes. The Dbf2-related kinases LATS1 and LATS2 (LATS) have emerged as central regulators of cell fate, by modulating the functions of numerous oncogenic or tumor suppressive effectors, including the canonical Hippo effectors YAP/TAZ, the Aurora mitotic kinase family, estrogen signaling and the tumor suppressive transcription factor p53...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644201/insular-epilepsy-semiology-and-noninvasive-investigations
#17
Sami Obaid, Younes Zerouali, Dang Khoa Nguyen
In this review, authors discuss the semiology and noninvasive investigations of insular epilepsy, an underrecognized type of epilepsy, which may mimic other focal epilepsies. In line with the various functions of the insula and its widespread network of connections, insular epilepsy may feature a variety of early ictal manifestations from somatosensory, visceral, olfactory, gustatory, or vestibular manifestations. Depending on propagation pathways, insular seizures may also include altered consciousness, dystonic posturing, complex motor behaviors, and even autonomic features...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644030/a-plc-%C3%AE-1-feedback-pathway-regulates-lck-substrate-phosphorylation-at-the-t-cell-receptor-and-slp-76-complex
#18
Judson Belmont, Tao Gu, Ashley Marie Mudd, Arthur R Salomon
Phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC-γ1) occupies a critically important position in the T cell signaling pathway. While its functions as a regulator of both Ca2+ signaling and PKC-family kinases are well characterized, PLC-γ1's role in the regulation of early T cell receptor signaling events is incompletely understood. Activation of the T cell receptor leads to the formation of a signalosome complex between SLP-76, LAT, PLC-γ1, Itk, and Vav1. Recent studies have revealed the existence of both positive and negative feedback pathways from SLP-76 to the apical kinase in the pathway, Lck...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644004/the-intricate-effects-of-alpha-amino-and-lysine-modifications-on-arginine-methylation-on-the-n-terminal-tail-of-histone-h4
#19
Melody D Fulton, Jing Zhang, Maomao He, Meng-Chiao Ho, Y George Zheng
Chemical modifications on the DNA and nucleosomal histones tightly control the gene transcription program in eukaryotic cells. The "histone code" hypothesis proposes that the frequency, combination, and location of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on the core histones compose a complex network of epigenetic regulation. Currently, there are at least 23 different types and over 450 histone PTMs discovered, and the PTMs on lysine and arginine residues account for a crucial part of the histone code. Although significant progress has been achieved in recent years, the molecular basis for the histone code is far from being fully understood...
June 23, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643527/supporting-occupational-therapists-implementing-a-capacity-building-model-in-schools
#20
Nancy A Pollock, Leah Dix, Sandra Sahagian Whalen, Wenonah N Campbell, Cheryl A Missiuna
BACKGROUND: Adopting a new model of clinical practice is complex. Professional development programs based on best-practice principles may facilitate this process. PURPOSE: This paper describes the development and evaluation of a multifaceted professional development program designed to support school-based occupational therapists to deliver a capacity-building model of service. METHOD: Twenty-two therapists participated in the program; completed pre-post evaluations of knowledge, skills, and beliefs; evaluated specific components of the training program; and participated in focus groups...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D'ergothérapie
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