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Complex networks

Yu-Jun Zheng, Xiao-Han Zhou, Wei-Guo Sheng, Yu Xue, Sheng-Yong Chen
Recently telecom fraud has become a serious problem especially in developing countries such as China. At present, it can be very difficult to coordinate different agencies to prevent fraud completely. In this paper we study how to detect large transfers that are sent from victims deceived by fraudsters at the receiving bank. We propose a new generative adversarial network (GAN) based model to calculate for each large transfer a probability that it is fraudulent, such that the bank can take appropriate measures to prevent potential fraudsters to take the money if the probability exceeds a threshold...
March 5, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Raul J Mondragon, Jacopo Iacovacci, Ginestra Bianconi
Multiplex networks describe a large number of complex social, biological and transportation networks where a set of nodes is connected by links of different nature and connotation. Here we uncover the rich community structure of multiplex networks by associating a community to each multilink where the multilinks characterize the connections existing between any two nodes of the multiplex network. Our community detection method reveals the rich interplay between the mesoscale structure of the multiplex networks and their multiplexity...
2018: PloS One
Duona Zhang, Wenrui Ding, Baochang Zhang, Chunyu Xie, Hongguang Li, Chunhui Liu, Jungong Han
Deep learning has recently attracted much attention due to its excellent performance in processing audio, image, and video data. However, few studies are devoted to the field of automatic modulation classification (AMC). It is one of the most well-known research topics in communication signal recognition and remains challenging for traditional methods due to complex disturbance from other sources. This paper proposes a heterogeneous deep model fusion (HDMF) method to solve the problem in a unified framework...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Teresa Małecka-Massalska, Aleksandra Majdan
Chronic inflammatory status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to metabolic changes has an effect on body composition. Up to two thirds of patients may be affected by the loss of body cell mass and, thereby, malnutrition including its most severe form - cachexia. Among patients with RA and malnutrition, the total body weight is not reduced and the muscle loss is partially compensated by an increase in body fat. The excess of visceral and trunk adipose tissue is the main factor of increased prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in RA patients...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Peter Schnauber, Johannes Schall, Samir Bounouar, Theresa Höhne, Suk-In Park, Geun-Hwan Ryu, Tobias Heindel, Sven Burger, Jin Dong Song, Sven Rodt, Stephan Reitzenstein
The development of multi-node quantum optical circuits has attracted great attention in recent years. In particular, interfacing quantum-light sources, gates and detectors on a single chip is highly desirable for the realization of large networks. In this context, fabrication techniques that enable the deterministic integration of pre-selected quantum-light emitters into nanophotonic elements play a key role when moving forward to circuits containing multiple emitters. Here, we present the deterministic integration of an InAs quantum dot into a 50/50 multi-mode interference beamsplitter via in-situ electron beam lithography...
March 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Elizabeth Florez, Nancy Acelas, Frank Ramírez, Cacier Hadad, Albeiro Restrepo
A staggering structural diversity for the microsolvation of F- with up to six water molecules is uncovered in this work. Given the structural variety and the proximity in energy among several local minima, we show here that in order to match available experimental data, statistical averages over contributing structures are needed, rather than assigning experimental values to isolated structures. Our results suggest that the formal charge in F- is strong enough as to induce partial and total dissociation of water molecules and to alter the nature of the surrounding network of water to water hydrogen bonds...
March 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Erdem Kucukal, Jane A Little, Umut A Gurkan
Non-adherence and deformability are the key intrinsic biomechanical features of the red blood cell (RBC), which allow it to tightly squeeze and pass through even the narrowest of microcirculatory networks. Blockage of microcirculatory flow, also known as vaso-occlusion, is a consequence of abnormal cellular adhesion to the vascular endothelium. In sickle cell disease (SCD), an inherited anaemia, even though RBCs have been shown to be heterogeneous in adhesiveness and deformability, this has not been studied in the context of physiologically relevant dynamic shear gradients at the microscale...
March 20, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Dobromir A Kalchevski, Vesselin Petrov, Alia Tadjer, Artur Nenov
A combined theoretical/experimental study of the photoreactivity of two flavylium-derived chalcones, 2,4,4'-trihydroxychalcone and 2,4'-dihydroxychalcone, at the multiconfigurational wavefunction level of theory (CASSCF//CASPT2) in vacuo and in an implicit solvent (water, treated as a polarisable continuum) and by means of linear absorption spectroscopy is presented. The photosensitivity of flavium salts is expressed in the ability of their chalcone form to undergo a cis-trans isomerisation which has found application in logical networks...
March 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mohan P Joshi, Chifumbe Chintu, Mirfin Mpundu, Dan Kibuule, Oliver Hazemba, Tenaw Andualem, Martha Embrey, Bayobuya Phulu, Heran Gerba
The multi-faceted complexities of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) require consistent action, a multidisciplinary approach, and long-term political commitment. Building coalitions can amplify stakeholder efforts to carry out effective AMR prevention and control strategies. We have developed and implemented an approach to help local stakeholders kick-start the coalition-building process. The five-step process is to (1) mobilise support, (2) understand the local situation, (3) develop an action plan, (4) implement the plan, and (5) monitor and evaluate...
March 20, 2018: Global Public Health
Nicole A Hynson, Kiana L Frank, Rosanna A Alegado, Anthony S Amend, Mohammad Arif, Gordon M Bennett, Andrea J Jani, Matthew C I Medeiros, Yuriy Mileyko, Craig E Nelson, Nhu H Nguyen, Olivia D Nigro, Sladjana Prisic, Sangwoo Shin, Daisuke Takagi, Samuel T Wilson, Joanne Y Yew
Despite increasing acknowledgment that microorganisms underpin the healthy functioning of basically all multicellular life, few cross-disciplinary teams address the diversity and function of microbiota across organisms and ecosystems. Our newly formed consortium of junior faculty spanning fields such as ecology and geoscience to mathematics and molecular biology from the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa aims to fill this gap. We are united in our mutual interest in advancing a new paradigm for biology that incorporates our modern understanding of the importance of microorganisms...
March 2018: MSystems
Ján Antolík, Andrew P Davison
Two trends have been unfolding in computational neuroscience during the last decade. First, a shift of focus to increasingly complex and heterogeneous neural network models, with a concomitant increase in the level of collaboration within the field (whether direct or in the form of building on top of existing tools and results). Second, a general trend in science toward more open communication, both internally, with other potential scientific collaborators, and externally, with the wider public. This multi-faceted development toward more integrative approaches and more intense communication within and outside of the field poses major new challenges for modelers, as currently there is a severe lack of tools to help with automatic communication and sharing of all aspects of a simulation workflow to the rest of the community...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Qiuyi Zhang, Mary E Northridge, Zhu Jin, Sara S Metcalf
Increased lifespans and population growth have resulted in an older U.S. society that must reckon with the complex oral health needs that arise as adults age. Understanding accessibility to screening and treatment facilities for older adults is necessary in order to provide them with preventive and restorative services. This study uses an agent-based model to examine the accessibility of screening and treatment facilities via transportation networks for older adults living in the neighborhoods of northern Manhattan, New York City...
April 2018: Applied Geography
Yan Wang, Oliver Berkowitz, Jennifer Selinski, Yue Xu, Andreas Hartmann, James Whelan
In the last decade plant mitochondria have emerged as a target, sensor and initiator of signalling cascades to a variety of stress and adverse growth conditions. A combination of various 'omic profiling approaches combined with forward and reverse genetic studies have defined how mitochondria respond to stress and the signalling pathways and regulators of these responses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and -independent pathways, specific metabolites, complex I dysfunction, and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway have been proposed to date...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Sara Esteghlal, Mehrdad Niakousari, Seyed Mohammad Hashem Hosseini
The objective of current study was to examine the electrostatic interactions between gelatin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a function of pH and mixing ratio (MR) and to observe how the physical and mechanical properties of gelatin-CMC composite films are affected by these interactions. The interaction between biopolymers was studied using turbidometric analysis at different gelatin: CMC MRs and pH values. A reduction in pH and MR enhanced the electrostatic interactions; while, decreased the relative viscosity of mixed system...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Qiang Guo, Ian T Major, Gregg A Howe
Induced plant resistance depends on the production of specialized metabolites that repel attack by biotic aggressors and is often associated with reduced growth of vegetative tissues. Despite progress in understanding the signal transduction networks that control growth-defense tradeoffs, much remains to be learned about how growth rate is coordinated with changes in metabolism during growth-to-defense transitions. Here, we highlight recent advances in jasmonate research to suggest how a major branch of plant immunity is dynamically regulated to calibrate growth-defense balance with shifts in carbon availability...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Fabien Dal Maso, Bennet Desormeau, Marie-Hélène Boudrias, Marc Roig
A single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after practicing a visuo-motor tracking task has been shown to improve the long-term retention of this motor skill through an optimization of the memory consolidation process. The mechanisms underlying the time-dependent effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on motor memory consolidation, however, remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to determine the impact of a single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after motor skill practice on those mechanisms using electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG)...
March 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Nuno Couto, Sergio Caja Galán, Joana Maia, Maria Carolina Strano Moraes, Bruno Costa-Silva
Oncologic diseases do not behave as isolated entities. Instead, they are based on complex systemic networks involving cell-cell communication between cancerous and healthy cells of the host, which may either facilitate or prevent cancer progression. In addition to cell-cell contacts, cells communicate through secreted factors in a process modulated by ligand concentration, receptor availability and synergy amongst several signaling circuits. Of these secreted factors, exosomes, 30 to 150 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released by virtually all cells, have emerged as important cell-cell communication players both in physiological and pathological scenarios by being carriers of all the main biomolecules, including lipids, proteins, DNAs, messenger RNAs and microRNA, and performing intercellular transfer of components, locally and systemically...
March 16, 2018: Biochimie
Jared A Grummer, Mariana M Morando, Luciano J Avila, Jack W Sites, Adam D Leaché
Rapid evolutionary radiations are difficult to resolve because divergence events are nearly synchronous and gene flow among nascent species can be high, resulting in a phylogenetic "bush". Large datasets composed of sequence loci from across the genome can potentially help resolve some of these difficult phylogenetic problems. A suitable test case is the Liolaemus fitzingerii species group of lizards, which includes twelve species that are broadly distributed in Argentinean Patagonia. The species in the group have had a complex evolutionary history that has led to high morphological variation and unstable taxonomy...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Andrew J Gravelle, Alejandro G Marangoni
The structuring edible oils by nontraditional means has become a popular strategy for improving the lipid profile of food products while retaining the functionality of a crystalline triglyceride network. Although numerous oleogelator systems have now been identified, the polymer gelator ethylcellulose (EC) may present the greatest potential for applications in a diverse range of food systems which require unique physical attributes and structuring properties in the fat phase. The first portion of this chapter will provide a brief overview of oleogelation strategies, outline the basic physical characteristics of the polymer EC, and describe the mechanism of gelation and some basic physical characteristics of EC oleogels...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Zacharenia Nikitaki, Marcela Holá, Mattia Donà, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Ioannis Michalopoulos, Karel J Angelis, Alexandros G Georgakilas, Anca Macovei, Alma Balestrazzi
Eukaryotic genome surveillance is dependent on the multiple, highly coordinated network functions of the DNA damage response (DDR). Highlighted conserved features of DDR in plants and animals represent a challenging opportunity to develop novel interdisciplinary investigations aimed at expanding the sets of DNA damage biomarkers currently available for radiation exposure monitoring (REM) in environmental and biomedical applications. In this review, common and divergent features of the most relevant DDR players in animals and plants are described, including the intriguing example of the plant and animal kingdom-specific master regulators SOG1 (suppressor of gamma response) and p53...
January 2018: Mutation Research
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