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Bianca K Stöcker, Johannes Köster, Eli Zamir, Sven Rahmann
Protein interactions are fundamental building blocks of biochemical reaction systems underlying cellular functions. The complexity and functionality of these systems emerge not only from the protein interactions themselves but also from the dependencies between these interactions, as generated by allosteric effects or mutual exclusion due to steric hindrance. Therefore, formal models for integrating and utilizing information about interaction dependencies are of high interest. Here, we describe an approach for endowing protein networks with interaction dependencies using propositional logic, thereby obtaining constrained protein interaction networks ("constrained networks")...
April 20, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Xiaodong Lin, Yaqing Liu, Jiankang Deng, Yanlong Lyu, Pengcheng Qian, Yunfei Li, Shuo Wang
The integration of multiple DNA logic gates on a universal platform to implement advance logic functions is a critical challenge for DNA computing. Herein, a straightforward and powerful strategy in which a guanine-rich DNA sequence lighting up a silver nanocluster and fluorophore was developed to construct a library of logic gates on a simple DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs) platform. This library included basic logic gates, YES, AND, OR, INHIBIT, and XOR, which were further integrated into complex logic circuits to implement diverse advanced arithmetic/non-arithmetic functions including half-adder, half-subtractor, multiplexer, and demultiplexer...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Yun-Long Liu, Hai-Ping Wu, Qiang Zhou, Qin-Xin Song, Jian-Zhong Rui, Xiao-Xiang Guan, Guo-Hua Zhou, Bing-Jie Zou
A DNA logic sensor was constructed for gene mutation analysis based on a novel signal amplification cascade by controllably extending a hairpin-structured flap to bridge two invasive reactions. The detection limit was as low as 0.07 fM, and the analytical specificity is high enough to unambiguously pick up 0.02% mutants from a large amount of wild-type DNA. Gene mutations related to the personalized medicine of gefitinib, a typical tyrosine kinase inhibitor, were analyzed by the DNA logic sensor with only a 15 minute response time...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Linlin Yang, Xu Jing, Bowen An, Cheng He, Yang Yang, Chunying Duan
By synergistic combination of multicomponent self-assembly and template-directed approaches, triply interlocked metal organic catenanes that consist of two isolated chirally identical tetrahedrons were constructed and stabilized as thermodynamic minima. In the presence of suitable template anions, the structural conversion from the isolated tetrahedral conformers into locked catenanes occurred via the cleavage of an intrinsically reversible coordination bond in each of the tetrahedrons, followed by the reengineering and interlocking of two fragments with the regeneration of the broken coordination bonds...
January 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Robert D McIntosh
Dissociations in cognitive neuropsychology are often investigated at the level of the single-case, and formal criteria exist for the detection of dissociations, and their sub-classification into 'classical' and 'strong' types. These criteria require a patient to show a frank deficit on one task (for a classical dissociation) or both tasks (for a strong dissociation), and a significantly extreme difference between tasks. I propose that only the significant between-task difference is logically necessary, and that if this simple criterion is met, the patient should be said to show a dissociation...
March 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Luis A Sanchez-Perez, Luis P Sanchez-Fernandez, Adnan Shaout, Juan M Martinez-Hernandez, Maria J Alvarez-Noriega
BACKGROUND: Currently the most consistent, widely accepted and detailed instrument to rate Parkinson's disease (PD) is the Movement Disorder Society sponsored Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). However, the motor examination is based upon subjective human interpretation trying to capture a snapshot of PD status. Wearable sensors and machine learning have been broadly used to analyze PD motor disorder, but still most ratings and examinations lay outside MDS-UPDRS standards...
June 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Mahsa Dehghani Soufi, Taha Samad-Soltani, Samad Shams Vahdati, Peyman Rezaei-Hachesu
OBJECTIVES: Fast and accurate patient triage for the response process is a critical first step in emergency situations. This process is often performed using a paper-based mode, which intensifies workload and difficulty, wastes time, and is at risk of human errors. This study aims to design and evaluate a decision support system (DSS) to determine the triage level. METHODS: A combination of the Rule-Based Reasoning (RBR) and Fuzzy Logic Classifier (FLC) approaches were used to predict the triage level of patients according to the triage specialist's opinions and Emergency Severity Index (ESI) guidelines...
June 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Hanna Poikonen, Petri Toiviainen, Mari Tervaniemi
Expertise in music has been investigated for decades and the results have been applied not only in composition, performance and music education, but also in understanding brain plasticity in a larger context. Several studies have revealed a strong connection between auditory and motor processes and listening to and performing music, and music imagination. Recently, as a logical next step in music and movement, the cognitive and affective neurosciences have been directed towards expertise in dance. To understand the versatile and overlapping processes during artistic stimuli, such as music and dance, it is necessary to study them with continuous naturalistic stimuli...
2018: PloS One
Jing He, Shichen Li, Fang Liu, Hong Zheng, Xiang Yan, Yuting Xie, Xia Li, Zhiguang Zhou, Xiongzhao Zhu
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) type 1 diabetes is considered to be a risk factor for developing cognitive difficulties. The present study examined if Chinese children with T1DM differ in cognitive performance from healthy control (HC) children, and whether cognitive dysfunction is related to glycemic control. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, we administered cognitive tests, including general intelligence tests, to pediatric T1DM patients (N = 105) and HC participants (N = 90)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
Antonio Campos, Sergi Riera-Galindo, Joaquim Puigdollers, Marta Mas-Torrent
Solution-processed n-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are essential elements for developing large-area, low-cost, and all organic logic/complementary circuits. Nonetheless, the development of air-stable n-type organic semiconductors (OSC) lags behind their p-type counterparts. The trapping of electrons at the semiconductor-dielectric interface leads to a lower performance and operational stability. Herein we report printed small molecule n-type OFETs based on a blend with a binder polymer, which enhances the device stability due to the improvement of the semiconductor-dielectric interface quality and a self-encapsulation...
April 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yulin Zhang, Maoxian Zhao, Jionglong Su, Xiao Lu, Kebo Lv
A novel model for cascading failures in a directed logic network based on the degree strength at a node was proposed. The definitions of in-degree and out-degree strength of a node were initially reconsidered, and the load at a nonisolated node was proposed as the ratio of in-degree strength to out-degree strength of the node. The cascading failure model based on degree strength was applied to the logic network for three types of cancer including adenocarcinoma of lung, prostate cancer, and colon cancer based on their gene expression profiles...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Walaa Darwiche, Brigitte Gubler, Jean-Pierre Marolleau, Hussein Ghamlouch
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the clonal expansion of small mature-looking CD19+ CD23+ CD5+ B-cells that accumulate in the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid organs. To date, no consensus has been reached concerning the normal cellular counterpart of CLL B-cells and several B-cell types have been proposed. CLL B-cells have remarkable phenotypic and gene expression profile homogeneity. In recent years, the molecular and cellular biology of CLL has been enriched by seminal insights that are leading to a better understanding of the natural history of the disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lukas Keller, Mohanad K I Al Mamoori, Jonathan Pieper, Christian Gspan, Irina Stockem, Christian Schröder, Sven Barth, Robert Winkler, Harald Plank, Merlin Pohlit, Jens Müller, Michael Huth
By the fabrication of periodically arranged nanomagnetic systems it is possible to engineer novel physical properties by realizing artificial lattice geometries that are not accessible via natural crystallization or chemical synthesis. This has been accomplished with great success in two dimensions in the fields of artificial spin ice and magnetic logic devices, to name just two. Although first proposals have been made to advance into three dimensions (3D), established nanofabrication pathways based on electron beam lithography have not been adapted to obtain free-form 3D nanostructures...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hiroki Mashiko, Yuta Chisuga, Ikufumi Katayama, Katsuya Oguri, Hiroyuki Masuda, Jun Takeda, Hideki Gotoh
Lightwave-field-induced ultrafast electric dipole oscillation is promising for realizing petahertz (1015  Hz: PHz) signal processing in the future. In building the ultrahigh-clock-rate logic operation system, one of the major challenges will be petahertz electron manipulation accompanied with multiple frequencies. Here we study multi-petahertz interference with electronic dipole oscillations in alumina with chromium dopant (Cr:Al2 O3 ). An intense near-infrared lightwave-field induces multiple electric inter-band polarizations, which are characterized by Fourier transform extreme ultraviolet attosecond spectroscopy...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Lynn A Damitz
Facelift techniques widely vary with known individual surgeon modifications of and preference for particular techniques. This article provides an overview of the history of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS), the changes of aging related to the soft tissues of the face, and the history of facelift procedures, including techniques to address the SMAS. In addition, a description of past studies and literature analyzing techniques of facelift procedures, safety of interventions involving the SMAS, low, extended, and high SMAS techniques, and evaluations of patient satisfaction with facelift outcomes including use of the FACE-Q are discussed...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Danilo R Diedrichs, Javier A Gomez, Chun-Sing Huang, D Thomas Rutkowski, Rodica Curtu
The vertebrate unfolded protein response (UPR) is characterized by multiple interacting nodes among its three pathways, yet the logic underlying this regulatory complexity is unclear. To begin to address this issue, we created a computational model of the vertebrate UPR that was entrained upon and then validated against experimental data. As part of this validation, the model successfully predicted the phenotypes of cells with lesions in UPR signaling, including a surprising and previously unreported differential role for the eIF2α phosphatase GADD34 in exacerbating severe stress but ameliorating mild stress...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Manish Debnath, Rakesh Paul, Deepanjan Panda, Jyotirmayee Dash
Herein, we report a carbazole (Cz) ligand that displays distinct turn-on fluorescence signals upon interaction with human telomeric G-quadruplex ( h-TELO) and nuclease enzymes. Interestingly, Cz selectively binds and stabilizes the mixed hybrid topology of h-TELO G-quadruplex that withstands digestion by exonucleases and nuclease S1. The distinct fluorescence signatures of Cz-stabilized h-TELO with nucleases are used to design conceptually novel DNA devices for selectively detecting the enzymatic activity of DNase I as well as performing logic operations...
April 18, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Rachel S Dawson
Adolescence is a stressful time with a considerable amount of change, not only physically, with all the changes expected throughout puberty, but also emotionally, spiritually, and psychosocially. Teens are learning how to build and sustain relationships, learning boundaries in all areas of their lives, experimenting, as well as setting values that will sustain them throughout their lives. Home, school, various social settings, and places of worship all contribute to where adolescents learn what their values are, what they want their values to be, and how they start to make choices about their personal beliefs, which may not always align with their family values...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Vivian Hook, Christopher B Lietz, Sonia Podvin, Tomas Cajka, Oliver Fiehn
Neuropeptides are short peptides in the range of 3-40 residues that are secreted for cell-cell communication in neuroendocrine systems. In the nervous system, neuropeptides comprise the largest group of neurotransmitters. In the endocrine system, neuropeptides function as peptide hormones to coordinate intercellular signaling among target physiological systems. The diversity of neuropeptide functions is defined by their distinct primary sequences, peptide lengths, proteolytic processing of pro-neuropeptide precursors, and covalent modifications...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Shawn E Lupold
This mini-review article is part of a special issue dedicated to Donald S. Coffey, a pioneer translational research scientist, exemplary mentor, and leader in urologic and urologic oncology research. This article first briefly reflects on life and scientific lessons from Don Coffey. It then reviews the development of two prostate cancer targeting RNA aptamers, xPSM-A9 and xPSM-A10, through in vitro selection for aptamers that bind to the extracellular domain of the Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
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