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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550803/discourse-in-action-parents-use-of-medical-and-social-models-to-resist-disability-stigma
#1
Bianca Manago, Jenny L Davis, Carla Goar
For parents of children with disabilities, stigmatization is part of everyday life. To resist the negative social and emotional consequences of stigma, parents both challenge and deflect social devaluations. Challenges work to upend the stigmatizing structure, while deflections maintain the interaction order. We examine how parents of children with disabilities deploy deflections and challenges, and how their stigma resistance strategies combine with available models of disability discourse. Disability discourse falls into two broad categories: medical and social...
May 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549867/integrated-testing-strategies-can-be-optimal-for-chemical-risk-classification
#2
Marko Raseta, Jon Pitchford, James Cussens, John Doe
There is an urgent need to refine strategies for testing the safety of chemical compounds. This need arises both from the financial and ethical costs of animal tests, but also from the opportunities presented by new in-vitro and in-silico alternatives. Here we explore the mathematical theory underpinning the formulation of optimal testing strategies in toxicology. We show how the costs and imprecisions of the various tests, and the variability in exposures and responses of individuals, can be assembled rationally to form a Markov Decision Problem...
May 23, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549678/use-of-mathematics-to-guide-target-selection-in-systems-pharmacology-application-to-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-rtk-pathways
#3
Neil Benson, Piet H van der Graaf, Lambertus A Peletier
A key element of the drug discovery process is target selection. Although the topic is subject to much discussion and experimental effort, there are no defined quantitative rules around optimal selection. Often 'rules of thumb', that have not been subject to rigorous exploration, are used. In this paper we explore the 'rule of thumb' notion that the molecule that initiates a pathway signal is the optimal target. Given the multi-factorial and complex nature of this question, we have simplified an example pathway to its logical minimum of two steps and used a mathematical model of this to explore the different options in the context of typical small and large molecule drugs...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549586/critical-role-of-hla-dr%C3%AE-binding-peptides-peripheral-flanking-residues-in-fully-protective-malaria-vaccine-development
#4
César Reyes, Rocío Rojas-Luna, Jorge Aza-Conde, Luisa Tabares, Manuel A Patarroyo, Manuel E Patarroyo
A vaccine candidate component must fit perfectly into the antigen presenting HLA-DRβ* molecule's groove (or canonical nonapeptide) peptide binding region (PBR) during antigen presentation for proper presentation to the T-cell receptor (TCR), conforming a specific and stable macromolecular complex and induce an appropriate immune response. Antigen's peripheral flanking residues (PFR, positions (p) -p2 and p10) must thus establish strong interactions with the HLA-DRβ* - TCR complex. These amino acids (aa) have specific physico-chemical characteristics enabling differentiation between non-protective but antibody-inducer (NPAI), short-lived protection inducer (SLPI) and long-lasting protection inducer (LLPI) peptides when used as an antimalarial vaccine component...
May 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548712/redox-enabled-ph-disabled-pyrazoline-ferrocene-two-input-inhibit-logic-gates
#5
Glenn J Scerri, Miriam Cini, Jonathan S Schembri, Paola Fontoura da Costa, Alex D Johnson, David C Magri
Pyrazoline-ferrocene conjugates with an 'electron-donor-spacer-fluorophore-receptor' format are demonstrated as two-input INHIBIT logic gates.
May 26, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548457/on-the-research-of-time-past-the-hunt-for-the-substrate-of-memory
#6
REVIEW
Bridget N Queenan, Tomás J Ryan, Michael S Gazzaniga, Charles R Gallistel
The search for memory is one of the oldest quests in written human history. For at least two millennia, we have tried to understand how we learn and remember. We have gradually converged on the brain and looked inside it to find the basis of knowledge, the trace of memory. The search for memory has been conducted on multiple levels, from the organ to the cell to the synapse, and has been distributed across disciplines with less chronological or intellectual overlap than one might hope. Frequently, the study of the mind and its memories has been severely restricted by technological or philosophical limitations...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547994/self-assembled-molecular-nanowires-for-high-performance-organic-transistors
#7
Luke R Fleet, James E Stott, Byron Villis, Salahud Din, Michele Serri, Gabriel Aeppli, Sandrine Heutz, Arokia Nathan
While organic semiconductors provide tantalising possibilities for low-cost, light-weight, flexible electronic devices, their current use in transistors - the fundamental building block - is rather limited as their speed and reliability is not competitive with their inorganic counterparts, and is simply too poor for many practical applications. Through self-assembly, highly ordered nanostructures can be prepared that have more competitive transport characteristics, but no simple, scalable method has been discovered that can produce devices based on such nanostructures...
May 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546970/the-impact-of-mother-s-literacy-on-child-dental-caries-individual-data-or-aggregate-data-analysis
#8
Ali-Akbar Haghdoost, Hossein Hessari, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Maryam Rad, Arash Shahravan
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the impact of mother's literacy on child dental caries based on a national oral health survey in Iran and to investigate the possibility of ecological fallacy in aggregate data analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Existing data were from second national oral health survey that was carried out in 2004, which including 8725 6 years old participants. The association of mother's literacy with caries occurrence (DMF (Decayed, Missing, Filling) total score >0) of her child was assessed using individual data by logistic regression model...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546901/macrophages-as-effectors-of-acute-and-chronic-allograft-injury
#9
Yianzhu Liu, Malgorzata Kloc, Xian C Li
Organ transplants give a second chance of life to patients with end-stage organ failure. However, the immuno-logical barriers prove to be very challenging to overcome and graft rejection remains a major hurdle to long-term transplant survival. For decades, adaptive immunity has been the focus of studies, primarily based on the belief that T cells are necessary and sufficient for rejection. With better-developed immunosuppressive drugs and protocols that effectively control adaptive cells, innate immune cells have emerged as key effector cells in triggering graft injury and have therefore attracted much recent attention...
December 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544265/lasting-improvement-of-medication-overuse-headache-after-brief-intervention-a-long-term-follow-up-in-primary-care
#10
E S Kristoffersen, J Straand, M B Russell, C Lundqvist
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Withdrawal therapy improves the headache situation for many patients with medication-overuse headache (MOH), but relapses are common. The objective was to assess the long-term effectiveness of a general practitioner conducted brief intervention (BI) for MOH. METHODS: Sixty MOH patients initially participating in a blinded cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating BI versus business as usual (BAU) were followed up for 16 months. Follow-up was open after 6 months...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544207/application-of-linear-gradient-elution-in-countercurrent-chromatography-for-the-separation-of-triterpenoid-saponins-from-the-roots-of-pulsatilla-koreana-nakai
#11
Kyoung Jin Lee, Kwangho Song, Da Young Song, Yeong Shik Kim
A linear gradient elution method using countercurrent chromatography was developed for the separation of four triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Pulsatilla koreana Nakai, including hederacolchiside E, which is responsible for the neuroprotective activity of this plant. The target fraction was obtained by 80% methanol elution of solid phase column chromatography. The partition coefficients of the target compounds were very different, which means they are difficult to separate with a single biphasic solvent system...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544082/a-resource-of-potential-drug-targets-and-strategic-decision-making-for-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-pharmacotherapy
#12
REVIEW
Richard L Horner, Kevin P Grace, Andrew Wellman
There is currently no pharmacotherapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) but there is no principled a priori reason why there should not be one. This review identifies a rational decision-making strategy with the necessary logical underpinnings that any reasonable approach would be expected to navigate to develop a viable pharmacotherapy for OSA. The process first involves phenotyping an individual to quantify and characterize the critical predisposing factor(s) to their OSA pathogenesis and identify, a priori, if the patient is likely to benefit from a pharmacotherapy that targets those factors...
May 25, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543961/automated-low-contrast-pattern-recognition-algorithm-for-magnetic-resonance-image-quality-assessment
#13
Morgan Ehman, Zhonghao Bao, Scott A Stiving, Mallik Kasam, Dianna Lanners, Teresa Peterson, Renee Jonsgaard, Rickey Carter, Kiaran P McGee
PURPOSE: Low contrast (LC) detectability is a common test criterion for diagnostic radiologic quality control (QC) programs. Automation of this test is desirable in order to reduce human variability and to speed up analysis. However, automation is challenging due to the complexity of the human visual perception system and the ability to create algorithms that mimic this response. This paper describes the development and testing of an automated LC detection algorithm for use in the analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the American College of Radiology (ACR) QC phantom...
May 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543725/tutorial-for-the-structure-elucidation-of-small-molecules-by-means-of-the-lsd-software
#14
Jean-Marc Nuzillard, Bertrand Plainchont
Automatic structure elucidation of small molecules by means of the "Logic for Structure Elucidation" software (LSD) is introduced in the context of the automatic exploitation of chemical shift correlation data and with minimal input from chemical shift values. The first step in solving a structural problem by means of LSD is the extraction of pertinent data from the 1D and 2D spectra. This operation requires the labeling of the resonances and of their correlations; its reliability highly depends on the quality of the spectra...
May 24, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543668/artificial-enzyme-based-logic-operations-to-mimic-intracellular-enzyme-participated-redox-balance-system
#15
Yanyan Huang, Fang Pu, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu
Owning to the biocatalytic properties of artificial enzymes and the redox characteristic of glutathione, a colorimetric and resettable biological operation was successfully designed to mimic enzyme-participated redox balance in living systems. As one promising candidate of natural enzyme, artificial enzyme possesses many advantages and has been used in numerous fields. Similar to natural enzymes, communications are also present between different artificial enzymes. With the assistance of four artificial enzymes, three simple biological logic gates were fabricated to help us deepen the understanding of communications between artificial enzymes...
May 22, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542062/making-the-most-of-our-community-health-assessment-by-developing-a-framework-for-evaluation
#16
Margaret J Gutilla, Susan J Hewitt, Bruce Cooper
The Health District of Northern Larimer County is a special district delivering community health programs and services in Northern Colorado. Since 1995, we have conducted a community health assessment (CHA) every 3 years. In 2015, we looked at our CHA process to see whether improvements could be made. We gathered information to understand recommended processes and potential impacts of CHA. We then developed a logic model to describe our CHA process and intended outcomes. The model outlined our CHA activities and impacts and informed our evaluation questions...
July 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541589/developing-the-supporting-choice-observational-tool-scot-a-formative-assessment-tool-to-assist-nursing-home-staff-in-realizing-resident-choice
#17
Jennifer A Palmer, Victoria A Parker, James F Burgess, Dan Berlowitz, A Lynn Snow, Susan L Mitchell, Christine W Hartmann
Quality of care in nursing homes has begun to address the importance of resident choice in daily life, yet there are no published tools to teach nursing home staff how to offer such choice. In the current study, a formative assessment tool was developed that can provide staff with detailed and concrete feedback on how to realize resident choice. The tool was created and refined through 22 hours of ethnographic observation in two Veterans Health Administration Community Living Centers (CLCs), 22 hours of developmental testing in two CLCs, review by a modified Delphi panel, and use of an algorithm to assess its logical structure...
May 1, 2017: Research in Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541304/digital-logic-circuits-in-yeast-with-crispr-dcas9-nor-gates
#18
Miles W Gander, Justin D Vrana, William E Voje, James M Carothers, Eric Klavins
Natural genetic circuits enable cells to make sophisticated digital decisions. Building equally complex synthetic circuits in eukaryotes remains difficult, however, because commonly used components leak transcriptionally, do not arbitrarily interconnect or do not have digital responses. Here, we designed dCas9-Mxi1-based NOR gates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that allow arbitrary connectivity and large genetic circuits. Because we used the chromatin remodeller Mxi1, our gates showed minimal leak and digital responses...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540687/logical-reasoning-inferencing-on-microrna-data
#19
Jingsong Wang
Logical reasoning played an important role in artificial intelligence. Applying logical reasoning on microRNA data brings intelligence into data analysis. Here, we provide basic introduction about logic (especially propositional logic) and automated reasoning based on knowledge described in the form of logic rules. We also introduce tools that could be used for building automated reasoning systems with microRNA data.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540435/validation-of-the-child-hcahps-survey-to-measure-pediatric-inpatient-experience-of-care-in-flanders
#20
Luk Bruyneel, Ellen Coeckelberghs, Gunnar Buyse, Kristina Casteels, Barbara Lommers, Jo Vandersmissen, Johan Van Eldere, Chris Van Geet, Kris Vanhaecht
The recently developed Child HCAHPS provides a standard to measure US hospitals' performance on pediatric inpatient experiences of care. We field-tested Child HCAHPS in Belgium to instigate international comparison. In the development stage, forward/backward translation was conducted and patients assessed content validity index as excellent. The draft Flemish Child HCAHPS included 63 items: 38 items for five topics hypothesized to be similar to those proposed in the US (communication with parent, communication with child, attention to safety and comfort, hospital environment, and global rating), 10 screeners, a 14-item demographic and descriptive section, and one open-ended item...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
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