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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298530/quantifying-the-driving-factors-for-language-shift-in-a-bilingual-region
#1
Katharina Prochazka, Gero Vogl
Many of the world's around 6,000 languages are in danger of disappearing as people give up use of a minority language in favor of the majority language in a process called language shift. Language shift can be monitored on a large scale through the use of mathematical models by way of differential equations, for example, reaction-diffusion equations. Here, we use a different approach: we propose a model for language dynamics based on the principles of cellular automata/agent-based modeling and combine it with very detailed empirical data...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269523/hybrid-automata-models-of-cardiac-ventricular-electrophysiology-for-real-time-computational-applications
#2
Sidharta Andalam, Harshavardhan Ramanna, Avinash Malik, Parthasarathi Roop, Nitish Patel, Mark L Trew
Virtual heart models have been proposed for closed loop validation of safety-critical embedded medical devices, such as pacemakers. These models must react in real-time to off-the-shelf medical devices. Real-time performance can be obtained by implementing models in computer hardware, and methods of compiling classes of Hybrid Automata (HA) onto FPGA have been developed. Models of ventricular cardiac cell electrophysiology have been described using HA which capture the complex nonlinear behavior of biological systems...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269518/whole-heart-modeling-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-electrical-wave-conduction-and-propagation
#3
Hui Yang, Yun Chen, Fabio M Leonelli
Cardiac electrical activities are varying in both space and time. Human heart consists of a fractal network of muscle cells, Purkinje fibers, arteries and veins. Whole-heart modeling of electrical wave conduction and propagation involves a greater level of complexity. Our previous work developed a computer model of the anatomically realistic heart and simulated the electrical conduction with the use of cellular automata. However, simplistic assumptions and rules limit its ability to provide an accurate approximation of real-world dynamics on the complex heart surface, due to sensitive dependence of nonlinear dynamical systems on initial conditions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243720/extracting-cellular-automaton-rules-from-physical-langevin-equation-models-for-single-and-collective-cell-migration
#4
J M Nava-Sedeño, H Hatzikirou, F Peruani, A Deutsch
Cellular automata (CA) are discrete time, space, and state models which are extensively used for modeling biological phenomena. CA are "on-lattice" models with low computational demands. In particular, lattice-gas cellular automata (LGCA) have been introduced as models of single and collective cell migration. The interaction rule dictates the behavior of a cellular automaton model and is critical to the model's biological relevance. The LGCA model's interaction rule has been typically chosen phenomenologically...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241829/real-time-qrs-complex-detection-using-dfa-and-regular-grammar
#5
Salah Hamdi, Asma Ben Abdallah, Mohamed Hedi Bedoui
BACKGROUND: The sequence of Q, R, and S peaks (QRS) complex detection is a crucial procedure in electrocardiogram (ECG) processing and analysis. We propose a novel approach for QRS complex detection based on the deterministic finite automata with the addition of some constraints. This paper confirms that regular grammar is useful for extracting QRS complexes and interpreting normalized ECG signals. A QRS is assimilated to a pair of adjacent peaks which meet certain criteria of standard deviation and duration...
February 28, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227778/hybrid-automata-models-of-cardiac-ventricular-electrophysiology-for-real-time-computational-applications
#6
Sidharta Andalam, Harshavardhan Ramanna, Avinash Malik, Parthasarathi Roop, Nitish Patel, Mark L Trew, Sidharta Andalam, Harshavardhan Ramanna, Avinash Malik, Parthasarathi Roop, Nitish Patel, Mark L Trew, Nitish Patel, Avinash Malik, Parthasarathi Roop, Harshavardhan Ramanna, Mark L Trew, Sidharta Andalam
Virtual heart models have been proposed for closed loop validation of safety-critical embedded medical devices, such as pacemakers. These models must react in real-time to off-the-shelf medical devices. Real-time performance can be obtained by implementing models in computer hardware, and methods of compiling classes of Hybrid Automata (HA) onto FPGA have been developed. Models of ventricular cardiac cell electrophysiology have been described using HA which capture the complex nonlinear behavior of biological systems...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227773/whole-heart-modeling-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-electrical-wave-conduction-and-propagation
#7
Hui Yang, Yun Chen, Fabio M Leonelli, Hui Yang, Yun Chen, Fabio M Leonelli, Hui Yang, Fabio M Leonelli, Yun Chen
Cardiac electrical activities are varying in both space and time. Human heart consists of a fractal network of muscle cells, Purkinje fibers, arteries and veins. Whole-heart modeling of electrical wave conduction and propagation involves a greater level of complexity. Our previous work developed a computer model of the anatomically realistic heart and simulated the electrical conduction with the use of cellular automata. However, simplistic assumptions and rules limit its ability to provide an accurate approximation of real-world dynamics on the complex heart surface, due to sensitive dependence of nonlinear dynamical systems on initial conditions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214530/automaton-model-of-protein-dynamics-of-conformational-and-functional-states
#8
REVIEW
Andrei Khrennikov, Ekaterina Yurova
In this conceptual paper we propose to explore the analogy between ontic/epistemic description of quantum phenomena and interrelation between dynamics of conformational and functional states of proteins. Another new idea is to apply theory of automata to model the latter dynamics. In our model protein's behavior is modeled with the aid of two dynamical systems, ontic and epistemic, which describe evolution of conformational and functional states of proteins, respectively. The epistemic automaton is constructed from the ontic automaton on the basis of functional (observational) equivalence relation on the space of ontic states...
February 15, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212971/should-countries-set-an-explicit-health-benefits-package-the-case-of-the-english-national-health-service
#9
Peter C Smith, Kalipso Chalkidou
BACKGROUND: A fundamental debate in the transition towards universal health coverage concerns whether to establish an explicit health benefits package to which all citizens are entitled, and the level of detail in which to specify that package. At one extreme, the treatments to be funded, and the circumstances in which patients qualify for the treatment, might be specified in great detail, and be entirely mandatory. This would make clinicians little more than automata, carrying out prescribed practice...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212103/simulation-of-healing-threshold-in-strain-induced-inflammation-through-a-discrete-informatics-model
#10
Israr Ibrahim, Sanjay Venkata Oruganti, Ramana Pidaparti
Respiratory diseases such as asthma and acute respiratory distress syndrome as well as acute lung injury involve inflammation at the cellular level. The inflammation process is very complex and is characterized by the emergence of cytokines along with other changes in cellular processes. Due to the complexity of the various constituents that makes up the inflammation dynamics, it is necessary to develop models that can complement experiments to fully understand inflammatory diseases. In this study, we developed a discrete informatics model based on cellular automata (CA) approach to investigate the influence of elastic field (stretch/strain) on the dynamics of inflammation and account for probabilistic adaptation based on statistical interpretation of existing experimental data...
February 15, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208435/mechanisms-of-jamming-in-the-nagel-schreckenberg-model-for-traffic-flow
#11
Henrik M Bette, Lars Habel, Thorsten Emig, Michael Schreckenberg
We study the Nagel-Schreckenberg cellular automata model for traffic flow by both simulations and analytical techniques. To better understand the nature of the jamming transition, we analyze the fraction of stopped cars P(v=0) as a function of the mean car density. We present a simple argument that yields an estimate for the free density where jamming occurs, and show satisfying agreement with simulation results. We demonstrate that the fraction of jammed cars P(v∈{0,1}) can be decomposed into the three factors (jamming rate, jam lifetime, and jam size) for which we derive, from random walk arguments, exponents that control their scaling close to the critical density...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192427/comparing-individual-based-approaches-to-modelling-the-self-organization-of-multicellular-tissues
#12
James M Osborne, Alexander G Fletcher, Joe M Pitt-Francis, Philip K Maini, David J Gavaghan
The coordinated behaviour of populations of cells plays a central role in tissue growth and renewal. Cells react to their microenvironment by modulating processes such as movement, growth and proliferation, and signalling. Alongside experimental studies, computational models offer a useful means by which to investigate these processes. To this end a variety of cell-based modelling approaches have been developed, ranging from lattice-based cellular automata to lattice-free models that treat cells as point-like particles or extended shapes...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155706/a-methodological-approach-for-using-high-level-petri-nets-to-model-the-immune-system-response
#13
Marzio Pennisi, Salvatore Cavalieri, Santo Motta, Francesco Pappalardo
BACKGROUND: Mathematical and computational models showed to be a very important support tool for the comprehension of the immune system response against pathogens. Models and simulations allowed to study the immune system behavior, to test biological hypotheses about diseases and infection dynamics, and to improve and optimize novel and existing drugs and vaccines. Continuous models, mainly based on differential equations, usually allow to qualitatively study the system but lack in description; conversely discrete models, such as agent based models and cellular automata, permit to describe in detail entities properties at the cost of losing most qualitative analyses...
December 22, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144874/tailoring-a-non-path-dependent-model-for-environmental-risk-management-and-polycentric-urban-land-use-planning
#14
Yousef Sakieh, Abdolrassoul Salmanmahiny, Seyed Hamed Mirkarimi
This study attempts to develop a non-path-dependent model for environmental risk management and polycentric urban land-use planning in Gorgan Township area, Iran. Applying three suitability layers of environmental risk (soil erosion, flood risk, fire risk, and land susceptibility), urbanization potential, and integrated surface (environmental risk plus urbanization potential layers), a non-path-dependent Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC) model was configured to execute three scenarios of polycentric urban growth allocation...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137248/multidisciplinary-insight-into-clonal-expansion-of-htlv-1-infected-cells-in-adult-t-cell-leukemia-via-modeling-by-deterministic-finite-automata-coupled-with-high-throughput-sequencing
#15
Amir Farmanbar, Sanaz Firouzi, Sung-Joon Park, Kenta Nakai, Kaoru Uchimaru, Toshiki Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Clonal expansion of leukemic cells leads to onset of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive lymphoid malignancy with a very poor prognosis. Infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is the direct cause of ATL onset, and integration of HTLV-1 into the human genome is essential for clonal expansion of leukemic cells. Therefore, monitoring clonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected cells via isolation of integration sites assists in analyzing infected individuals from early infection to the final stage of ATL development...
January 31, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127665/influence-of-nutrient-availability-and-quorum-sensing-on-the-formation-of-metabolically-inactive-microcolonies-within-structurally-heterogeneous-bacterial-biofilms-an-individual-based-3d-cellular-automata-model
#16
Lakshmi Machineni, Anil Rajapantul, Vandana Nandamuri, Parag D Pawar
The resistance of bacterial biofilms to antibiotic treatment has been attributed to the emergence of structurally heterogeneous microenvironments containing metabolically inactive cell populations. In this study, we use a three-dimensional individual-based cellular automata model to investigate the influence of nutrient availability and quorum sensing on microbial heterogeneity in growing biofilms. Mature biofilms exhibited at least three structurally distinct strata: a high-volume, homogeneous region sandwiched between two compact sections of high heterogeneity...
January 26, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119551/lamb-s-problem-on-random-mass-density-fields-with-fractal-and-hurst-effects
#17
V V Nishawala, M Ostoja-Starzewski, M J Leamy, E Porcu
This paper reports on a generalization of Lamb's problem to a linear elastic, infinite half-space with random fields (RFs) of mass density, subject to a normal line load. Both, uncorrelated and correlated (with fractal and Hurst characteristics) RFs without any weak noise restrictions, are proposed. Cellular automata (CA) is used to simulate the wave propagation. CA is a local computational method which, for rectangular discretization of spatial domain, is equivalent to applying the finite difference method to the governing equations of classical elasticity...
December 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113996/novel-discretized-weak-estimators-based-on-the-principles-of-the-stochastic-search-on-the-line-problem
#18
Anis Yazidi, Basantkumar John Oommen
Generally speaking, research in the field of estimation involves designing strong estimators, i.e., those which converge with probability 1, as the number of samples increases indefinitely. But when the underlying distribution is nonstationary, one should rather seek for weak estimators, i.e., those which can unlearn when the distribution has changed. One such estimator, the so-called stochastic learning weak estimator (SLWE) was based on the principles of continuous stochastic learning automata (LA). A problem that has been unsolved has been that of designing such weak estimators in the context of systems with finite memory, which is what we investigate here...
September 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113570/on-solving-the-problem-of-identifying-unreliable-sensors-without-a-knowledge-of-the-ground-truth-the-case-of-stochastic-environments
#19
Anis Yazidi, B John Oommen, Morten Goodwin
The purpose of this paper is to propose a solution to an extremely pertinent problem, namely, that of identifying unreliable sensors (in a domain of reliable and unreliable ones) without any knowledge of the ground truth. This fascinating paradox can be formulated in simple terms as trying to identify stochastic liars without any additional information about the truth. Though apparently impossible, we will show that it is feasible to solve the problem, a claim that is counter-intuitive in and of itself. One aspect of our contribution is to show how redundancy can be introduced, and how it can be effectively utilized in resolving this paradox...
April 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113244/stem-cell-plasticity-and-niche-dynamics-in-cancer-progression
#20
Noemi Picco, Robert A Gatenby, Alexander R A Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been hypothesized to initiate and drive tumor growth and recurrence due to their self-renewal ability. If correct, this hypothesis implies that successful therapy must focus primarily on eradication of this CSC fraction. However, recent evidence suggests stemness is niche dependent and may represent one of many phenotypic states that can be accessed by many cancer genotypes when presented with specific environmental cues. A better understanding of the relationship of stemness to niche-related phenotypic plasticity could lead to alternative treatment strategies...
September 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
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