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Yousef Sakieh, Abdolrassoul Salmanmahiny, Seyed Hamed Mirkarimi
Continuous surface of urbanization suitability, as an input to many urban growth models (UGM), has a significant role on a proper calibration process. The present study evaluates and compares the simulation success of the Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC) model through multiple methods. For this, a series of mapping algorithms are applied ranging from empirical methods such as multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) to statistical algorithms without spatially explicit suitability mapping rules such as logistic regression (LR) and multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network and finally statistical and spatially explicit rule-based methods such as SLEUTH-Genetic Algorithm (SLEUTH-GA) model...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Bhoopal Rao Gangadari, Shaik Rafi Ahamed
In biomedical, data security is the most expensive resource for wireless body area network applications. Cryptographic algorithms are used in order to protect the information against unauthorised access. Advanced encryption standard (AES) cryptographic algorithm plays a vital role in telemedicine applications. The authors propose a novel approach for design of substitution bytes (S-Box) using second-order reversible one-dimensional cellular automata (RCA(2)) as a replacement to the classical look-up-table (LUT) based S-Box used in AES algorithm...
September 2016: Healthcare Technology Letters
Bhoopal Rao Gangadari, Shaik Rafi Ahamed
In this paper, we presented a novel approach of low energy consumption architecture of S-Box used in Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm using programmable second order reversible cellular automata (RCA (2)). The architecture entails a low power implementation with minimal delay overhead and the performance of proposed RCA (2) based S-Box in terms of security is evaluated using the cryptographic properties such as nonlinearity, correlation immunity bias, strict avalanche criteria, entropy and also found that the proposed architecture is secure enough for cryptographic applications...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Gelayol Nazari Golpayegani, Amir Homayoun Jafari, Nader Jafarnia Dabanloo
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, by the end of last year, about 37 million people throughout the world were diagnosed with AIDS and millions of people die each year from this disease. OBJECTIVE: To develop an appropriate model which depicts the mechanism of the dynamics involved in the interactions between HIV and immune system in peripheral bloodstream of HIV infected individuals by considering the phenomena of virus mutation and taking into account the role of latently infected cells in speared of infection and considering the effects of antiretroviral drugs and occurrence of drug resistance in our model in order to assess the results obtained from applying different therapeutic methods...
September 23, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Bilal Khan, Yuri Cantor, Kirk Dombrowski
We consider a synchronous Boolean organism consisting of N cells arranged in a circle, where each cell initially takes on an independently chosen Boolean value. During the lifetime of the organism, each cell updates its own value by responding to the presence (or absence) of diversity amongst its two neighbours' values. We show that if all cells eventually take a value of 0 (irrespective of their initial values) then the organism necessarily has a cell count that is a power of 2. In addition, the converse is also proved: if the number of cells in the organism is a proper power of 2, then no matter what the initial values of the cells are, eventually all cells take on a value of 0 and then cease to change further...
November 2015: Journal of Computer Science and Systems Biology
Mohammad Hosseini, Yu Jiang, Poliang Wu, Richard B Berlin, Shangping Ren, Lui Sha
There is a great divide between rural and urban areas, particularly in medical emergency care. Although medical best practice guidelines exist and are in hospital handbooks, they are often lengthy and difficult to apply clinically. The challenges are exaggerated for doctors in rural areas and emergency medical technicians (EMT) during patient transport. In this paper, we propose the concept of distributed executable medical best practice guidance systems to assist adherence to best practice from the time that a patient first presents at a rural hospital, through diagnosis and ambulance transfer to arrival and treatment at a regional tertiary hospital center...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Noemi Picco, Robert A Gatenby, Alexander R A Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been hypothesized to initiate and drive tumor growth and recurrence due to their self-renewal ability. If correct, this hypothesis implies that successful therapy must focus primarily on eradication of this CSC fraction. However, recent evidence suggests stemness is niche dependent and may represent one of many phenotypic states that can be accessed by many cancer genotypes when presented with specific environmental cues. A better understanding of the relationship of stemness to niche-related phenotypic plasticity could lead to alternative treatment strategies...
September 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
María Dolores Campiñez, Isidoro Caraballo, Maxim Puchkov, Martin Kuentz
The aim of the present work was to better understand the drug-release mechanism from sustained release matrices prepared with two new polyurethanes, using a novel in silico formulation tool based on 3-dimensional cellular automata. For this purpose, two polymers and theophylline as model drug were used to prepare binary matrix tablets. Each formulation was simulated in silico, and its release behavior was compared to the experimental drug release profiles. Furthermore, the polymer distributions in the tablets were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the changes produced by the tortuosity were quantified and verified using experimental data...
September 6, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Yongjiu Feng, Yan Liu
The world's coastal regions are experiencing rapid urbanization coupled with increased risk of ecological damage and storm surge related to global climate and sea level rising. This urban development issue is particularly important in China, where many emerging coastal cities are being developed. Lingang New City, southeast of Shanghai, is an excellent example of a coastal city that is increasingly vulnerable to environmental change. Sustainable urban development requires planning that classifies and allocates coastal lands using objective procedures that incorporate changing environmental conditions...
September 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Stefano Schivo, Jetse Scholma, Paul E van der Vet, Marcel Karperien, Janine N Post, Jaco van de Pol, Rom Langerak
BACKGROUND: Computational support is essential in order to reason on the dynamics of biological systems. We have developed the software tool ANIMO (Analysis of Networks with Interactive MOdeling) to provide such computational support and allow insight into the complex networks of signaling events occurring in living cells. ANIMO makes use of timed automata as an underlying model, thereby enabling analysis techniques from computer science like model checking. Biology experts are able to use ANIMO via a user interface specifically tailored for biological applications...
2016: BMC Systems Biology
Juan Modesto Clemente-Juan, Andrew Palii, Eugenio Coronado, Boris Tsukerblat
In this article, we focus on the electron-vibrational problem of the tetrameric mixed-valence (MV) complexes proposed for implementation as four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA).1 Although the adiabatic approximation explored in ref 2 is an appropriate tool for the qualitative analysis of the basic characteristics of mQCA, like vibronic trapping of the electrons encoding binary information and cell-cell response, it loses its accuracy providing moderate vibronic coupling and fails in the description of the discrete pattern of the vibronic levels...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Enrique P Blair, Steven A Corcelli, Craig S Lent
Molecular quantum-dot cellular automata is a computing paradigm in which digital information is encoded by the charge configuration of a mixed-valence molecule. General-purpose computing can be achieved by arranging these compounds on a substrate and exploiting intermolecular Coulombic coupling. The operation of such a device relies on nonequilibrium electron transfer (ET), whereby the time-varying electric field of one molecule induces an ET event in a neighboring molecule. The magnitude of the electric fields can be quite large because of close spatial proximity, and the induced ET rate is a measure of the nonequilibrium response of the molecule...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Xuefeng Gao, Brock J Sishc, Christopher B Nelson, Philip Hahnfeldt, Susan M Bailey, Lynn Hlatky
The enrichment of putative CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) breast stem cell populations following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) has been ascribed to their inherent radioresistance and an elevated frequency of symmetric division during repopulation. However, recent studies demonstrating radiation-induced phenotypic reprogramming (the transition of non-CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) cells into the CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) phenotype) as a potential mechanism of CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) cell enrichment have raised the question of whether a higher survival and increased self-renewal of existing CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) cells or induced reprogramming is an additional mode of enrichment...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Cristina Tîrnăucă, José L Montaña, Santiago Ontañón, Avelino J González, Luis M Pardo
Imagine an agent that performs tasks according to different strategies. The goal of Behavioral Recognition (BR) is to identify which of the available strategies is the one being used by the agent, by simply observing the agent's actions and the environmental conditions during a certain period of time. The goal of Behavioral Cloning (BC) is more ambitious. In this last case, the learner must be able to build a model of the behavior of the agent. In both settings, the only assumption is that the learner has access to a training set that contains instances of observed behavioral traces for each available strategy...
2016: Sensors
A C Heuskin, A I Osseiran, J Tang, S V Costes
UNLABELLED: Estimating cancer risk from space radiation has been an ongoing challenge for decades primarily because most of the reported epidemiological data on radiation-induced risks are derived from studies of atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to an acute dose of gamma rays instead of chronic high-LET cosmic radiation. In this study, we introduce a formalism using cellular automata to model the long-term effects of ionizing radiation in human breast for different radiation qualities...
July 2016: Radiation Research
Ali Newaz Bahar, Sajjad Waheed
The fundamental logical element of a quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) circuit is majority voter gate (MV). The efficiency of a QCA circuit is depends on the efficiency of the MV. This paper presents an efficient single layer five-input majority voter gate (MV5). The structure of proposed MV5 is very simple and easy to implement in any logical circuit. This proposed MV5 reduce number of cells and use conventional QCA cells. However, using MV5 a multilayer 1-bit full-adder (FA) is designed. The functional accuracy of the proposed MV5 and FA are confirmed by QCADesigner a well-known QCA layout design and verification tools...
2016: SpringerPlus
N Diaz, I Tischer
Cellular automata model identification is an important way of building simplified simulation models. In this study, we describe a generic architectural framework to ease the development process of new metaheuristic-based algorithms for cellular automata model identification in protein-folding trajectories. Our framework was developed by a methodology based on design patterns that allow an improved experience for new algorithms development. The usefulness of the proposed framework is demonstrated by the implementation of four algorithms, able to obtain extremely precise cellular automata models of the protein-folding process with a protein contact map representation...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Adrien Rougny, Christine Froidevaux, Laurence Calzone, Loïc Paulevé
BACKGROUND: Qualitative dynamics semantics provide a coarse-grain modeling of networks dynamics by abstracting away kinetic parameters. They allow to capture general features of systems dynamics, such as attractors or reachability properties, for which scalable analyses exist. The Systems Biology Graphical Notation Process Description language (SBGN-PD) has become a standard to represent reaction networks. However, no qualitative dynamics semantics taking into account all the main features available in SBGN-PD had been proposed so far...
2016: BMC Systems Biology
Fulya Akpinar, Bahar Inankur, John Yin
UNLABELLED: When viruses infect their host cells, they can make defective virus-like particles along with intact virus. Cells coinfected with virus and defective particles often exhibit interference with virus growth caused by the competition for resources by defective genomes. Recent reports of the coexistence and cotransmission of such defective interfering particles (DIPs) in vivo, across epidemiological length and time scales, suggest a role in viral pathogenesis, but it is not known how DIPs impact infection spread, even under controlled culture conditions...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
L Saucedo-Mora, T J Marrow
The problem of multi-scale modelling of damage development in a SiC ceramic fibre-reinforced SiC matrix ceramic composite tube is addressed, with the objective of demonstrating the ability of the finite-element microstructure meshfree (FEMME) model to introduce important aspects of the microstructure into a larger scale model of the component. These are particularly the location, orientation and geometry of significant porosity and the load-carrying capability and quasi-brittle failure behaviour of the fibre tows...
July 13, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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