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Max Falkenberg McGillivray, William Cheng, Nicholas S Peters, Kim Christensen
Mapping resolution has recently been identified as a key limitation in successfully locating the drivers of atrial fibrillation (AF). Using a simple cellular automata model of AF, we demonstrate a method by which re-entrant drivers can be located quickly and accurately using a collection of indirect electrogram measurements. The method proposed employs simple, out-of-the-box machine learning algorithms to correlate characteristic electrogram gradients with the displacement of an electrogram recording from a re-entrant driver...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Murali Krishna Enduri, Shivakumar Jolad
Dengue is a vector borne disease transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes carrying virus of different serotypes. Dengue exhibits complex spatial and temporal dynamics, influenced by various biological, human and environmental factors. In this work, we study the dengue spread for a single serotype (DENV-1) including statistical models of human mobility with exponential step length distribution, by using reaction-diffusion equations and Stochastic Cellular Automata (SCA) approach. We analyze the spatial and temporal spreading of the disease using parameters from field studies...
June 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Ruud Hortensius, Emily S Cross
Understanding the mechanisms and consequences of attributing socialness to artificial agents has important implications for how we can use technology to lead more productive and fulfilling lives. Here, we integrate recent findings on the factors that shape behavioral and brain mechanisms that support social interactions between humans and artificial agents. We review how visual features of an agent, as well as knowledge factors within the human observer, shape attributions across dimensions of socialness. We explore how anthropomorphism and dehumanization further influence how we perceive and interact with artificial agents...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Fatemeh Jahanishakib, Seyed Hamed Mirkarimi, Abdolrassoul Salmanmahiny, Fatemeh Poodat
Efficient land use management requires awareness of past changes, present actions, and plans for future developments. Part of these requirements is achieved using scenarios that describe a future situation and the course of changes. This research aims to link scenario results with spatially explicit and quantitative forecasting of land use development. To develop land use scenarios, SMIC PROB-EXPERT and MORPHOL methods were used. It revealed eight scenarios as the most probable. To apply the scenarios, we considered population growth rate and used a cellular automata-Markov chain (CA-MC) model to implement the quantified changes described by each scenario...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Temesgen Gashaw, Taffa Tulu, Mekuria Argaw, Abeyou W Worqlul
Understanding the hydrological response of a watershed to land use/land cover (LULC) changes is imperative for water resources management planning. The objective of this study was to analyze the hydrological impacts of LULC changes in the Andassa watershed for a period of 1985-2015 and to predict the LULC change impact on the hydrological status in year 2045. The hybrid land use classification technique for classifying Landsat images (1985, 2000 and 2015); Cellular-Automata Markov (CA-Markov) for prediction of the 2030 and 2045 LULC states; the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for hydrological modeling were employed in the analyses...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Abbas Dideban, Hashem Zeraatkar
Utilizing of supervisory control theory on the real systems in many modeling tools such as Petri Net (PN) becomes challenging in recent years due to the significant states in the automata models or uncontrollable events. The uncontrollable events initiate the forbidden states which might be removed by employing some linear constraints. Although there are many methods which have been proposed to reduce these constraints, enforcing them to a large-scale system is very difficult and complicated. This paper proposes a new method for controller synthesis based on PN modeling...
April 30, 2018: ISA Transactions
Xiaowei Li, Min Zhao, Yan Xing, Han-Le Zhang, Lei Li, Seok-Tae Kim, Xin Zhou, Qiong-Hua Wang
This paper realizes an optical 3D images encryption and reconstruction by employing the geometric calibration algorithm to the monospectral synthetic aperture integral imaging system. This method has the simultaneous advantages of improving the quality of 3D images by eliminating the crosstalk from the unaligned cameras and increasing security of the multispectral 3D images encryption by importing the random generated maximum-length cellular automata into the Fresnel transform encoding algorithm. Furthermore, compared with the previous 3D images encryption methods of encrypting 3D multispectral information, the proposed method only encrypts monospectral data, which will greatly minimize the complexity...
April 30, 2018: Optics Express
Zahra Shaterzadeh-Yazdi, Barry C Sanders, Gino A DiLabio
Recent work has suggested that coupled silicon dangling bonds sharing an excess electron may serve as building blocks for quantum-cellular-automata cells and quantum computing schemes when constructed on hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces. In this work, we employ ab initio density-functional theory to examine the details associated with the coupling between two dangling bonds sharing one excess electron and arranged in various configurations on models of phosphorous-doped hydrogen-terminated silicon (100) surfaces...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
David Troupin, Yohay Carmel
Systematic conservation planning is a framework for optimally locating and prioritizing areas for conservation. An often-noted shortcoming of most conservation planning studies is that they do not address future uncertainty. The selection of protected areas that are intended to ensure the long-term persistence of biodiversity is often based on a snapshot of the current situation, ignoring processes such as climate change. Scenarios, in the sense of being accounts of plausible futures, can be utilized to identify conservation area portfolios that are robust to future uncertainty...
2018: PloS One
Jeaneth Machicao, Edilson A Corrêa, Gisele H B Miranda, Diego R Amancio, Odemir M Bruno
The authorship attribution is a problem of considerable practical and technical interest. Several methods have been designed to infer the authorship of disputed documents in multiple contexts. While traditional statistical methods based solely on word counts and related measurements have provided a simple, yet effective solution in particular cases; they are prone to manipulation. Recently, texts have been successfully modeled as networks, where words are represented by nodes linked according to textual similarity measurements...
2018: PloS One
Israr Bin M Ibrahim, Ramana M Pidaparti, Kevin R Ward
Ventilation-induced lung injury is a common problem faced by patients with respiratory problems who require mechanical ventilation (MV). This injury may lead to a greater chance of developing or exacerbating the acute respiratory distress syndrome which further complicates the therapeutic use of MV. The chain of events begins with the MV initiating an immune response that leads to inflammation induced tissue material alteration (stiffening) and eventually the loss of lung resistance. It is clear from this sequence of events that the phenomenon of ventilation induced injury is multi-scale by nature and, hence, requires holistic analysis involving simulations and informatics...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Pingyu Nan, Darragh M Walsh, Kerry A Landman, Barry D Hughes
Motivated by in vitro time-lapse images of ovarian cancer spheroids inducing mesothelial cell clearance, the traditional agent-based model of cell migration, based on simple volume exclusion, was extended to include the possibility that a cell seeking to move into an occupied location may push the resident cell, and any cells neighbouring it, out of the way to occupy that location. In traditional discrete models of motile cells with volume exclusion such a move would be aborted. We introduce a new shoving mechanism which allows cells to choose the direction to shove cells that expends the least amount of shoving effort (to account for the likely resistance of cells to being pushed)...
2018: PloS One
Eunjung Kim, Jae-Young Kim, Matthew A Smith, Eric B Haura, Alexander R A Anderson
During the last decade, our understanding of cancer cell signaling networks has significantly improved, leading to the development of various targeted therapies that have elicited profound but, unfortunately, short-lived responses. This is, in part, due to the fact that these targeted therapies ignore context and average out heterogeneity. Here, we present a mathematical framework that addresses the impact of signaling heterogeneity on targeted therapy outcomes. We employ a simplified oncogenic rat sarcoma (RAS)-driven mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT) signaling pathway in lung cancer as an experimental model system and develop a network model of the pathway...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
Behnaz Moradabadi, Mohammad Reza Meybodi
This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action...
February 2018: Chaos
E Estevez-Rams, D Estevez-Moya, B Aragón-Fernández
A recently introduced model of coupled nonlinear oscillators in a ring is revisited in terms of its information processing capabilities. The use of Lempel-Ziv based entropic measures allows to study thoroughly the complex patterns appearing in the system for different values of the control parameters. Such behaviors, resembling cellular automata, have been characterized both spatially and temporally. Information distance is used to study the stability of the system to perturbations in the initial conditions and in the control parameters...
February 2018: Chaos
Rifat Sipahi, Günther K H Zupanc
Neural stem and progenitor cells isolated from the central nervous system form, under specific culture conditions, clonal cell clusters known as neurospheres. The neurosphere assay has proven to be a powerful in vitro system to study the behavior of such cells and the development of their progeny. However, the theory of neurosphere growth has remained poorly understood. To overcome this limitation, we have, in the present paper, developed a cellular automata model, with which we examined the effects of proliferative potential, contact inhibition, cell death, and clearance of dead cells on growth rate, final size, and composition of neurospheres...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Takeshi Osawa, Kazuhisa Yamasaki, Ken Tabuchi, Akira Yoshioka, Mayura B Takada
Detecting dispersal pathways is important both for understanding species range expansion and for managing nuisance species. However, direct detection is difficult. Here, we propose detecting these crucial pathways using a virtual ecology approach, simulating species dynamics using models, and virtual observations. As a case study, we developed a dispersal model based on cellular automata for the pest insect Stenotus rubrovittatus and simulated its expansion. We tested models for species expansion based on four landscape parameters as candidate pathways; these are river density, road density, area of paddy fields, and area of abandoned farmland, and validated their accuracy...
February 23, 2018: Ambio
Zhenwei Yao
Various lattice gas automata have been proposed in the past decades to simulate physics and address a host of problems on collective dynamics arising in diverse fields. In this work, we employ the lattice gas model defined on the sphere to investigate the curvature-driven dynamic structures and analyze the statistical behaviors in equilibrium. Under the simple propagation and collision rules, we show that the uniform collective movement of the particles on the sphere is geometrically frustrated, leading to several nonequilibrium dynamic structures not found in the planar lattice, such as the emergent bubble and vortex structures...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Richard J Carter, Karoline Wiesner, Stephen Mann
As a step towards understanding pre-evolutionary organization in non-genetic systems, we develop a model to investigate the emergence and dynamics of proto-autopoietic networks in an interacting population of simple information processing entities (automata). Our simulations indicate that dynamically stable strongly connected networks of mutually producing communication channels emerge under specific environmental conditions. We refer to these distinct organizational steady states as information niches In each case, we measure the information content by the Shannon entropy, and determine the fitness landscape, robustness and transition pathways for information niches subjected to intermittent environmental perturbations under non-evolutionary conditions...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Tao Zhang, Lei Li, Shi-Hong Lu, Hai Gong, Yun-Xin Wu
Asymmetrical shear rolling with velocity asymmetry and geometry asymmetry is beneficial to enlarge deformation and refine grain size at the center of the thick plate compared to conventional symmetrical rolling. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) plays a vital role in grain refinement during hot deformation. Finite element models (FEM) coupled with microstructure evolution models and cellular automata models (CA) are established to study the microstructure evolution of plate during asymmetrical shear rolling. The results show that a larger DRX fraction and a smaller average grain size can be obtained at the lower layer of the plate...
January 17, 2018: Materials
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