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Rebecca Jürgens, Julia Fischer, Annekathrin Schacht
Emotional expressions provide strong signals in social interactions and can function as emotion inducers in a perceiver. Although speech provides one of the most important channels for human communication, its physiological correlates, such as activations of the autonomous nervous system (ANS) while listening to spoken utterances, have received far less attention than in other domains of emotion processing. Our study aimed at filling this gap by investigating autonomic activation in response to spoken utterances that were embedded into larger semantic contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Natalia Mitrofanova, Marit Westergaard
This paper focuses on the acquisition of locative prepositional phrases in L1 Norwegian. We report on two production experiments with children acquiring Norwegian as their first language and compare the results to similar experiments conducted with Russian children. The results of the experiments show that Norwegian children at age 2 regularly produce locative utterances lacking overt prepositions, with the rate of preposition omission decreasing significantly by age 3. Furthermore, our results suggest that phonologically strong and semantically unambiguous locative items appear earlier in Norwegian children's utterances than their phonologically weak and semantically ambiguous counterparts...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Child Language
Graham Pluck
The concept of intelligence as a measurable trait of intellectual function continues to be an important issue in psychology. Traditionally, a core field of differential psychology and widely employed in applied settings, it is also important in various research fields. Here, I describe development of a new assessment of general intelligence of adults that has no language component and can be administered in about 10 minutes. A total sample of 176 adult participants, from various settings, was assessed with a set of matrix tasks that involved either visuospatial (fluid) or semantic (crystallized) reasoning...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Bruno Henrique Fiorin, Elizabete Regina Araújo de Oliveira, Rita Simone Lopes Moreira, Bráulio Luna Filho
From the evaluation of the factors that affect quality of life (QOL) it is possible to plan interventions that lead to the improved well-being of patients. The scope of this study was to conduct the cross-cultural adaptation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS) questionnaire to the Portuguese language, seeking the necessary semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalence. The theoretical framework of Guillemin, Bombardier and Beaton was used, fulfilling the following steps: translation, back translation, evaluation of the authors, peer review and pre-testing...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Alcina Juliana Soares Barros, Stefania Pigatto Teche, Aline Rodrigues, Charlie Severo, Raquel Saldanha, Ana Margareth Bassols, Carolina Padoan, Camila Costa, Pricilla Laskoski, Diego Rebouças, Cristina Pessi, Glaydcianne Bezerra, Simone Hauck, Claudio Eizirik
OBJECTIVE: This article concerns the translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and apparent validation of the Trauma and Attachment Belief Scale (TABS), an instrument used to assess the psychological effects of traumatic life experiences and vicarious trauma. METHODS: This study involved literature review and evaluation of conceptual and item equivalences involving expert discussion groups focused on the existence and pertinence of the underlying theoretical concepts and corresponding items in a Brazilian context...
March 8, 2018: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Claude Alain, Yi Du, Lori J Bernstein, Thijs Barten, Karen Banai
The brain networks supporting speech identification and comprehension under difficult listening conditions are not well specified. The networks hypothesized to underlie effortful listening include regions responsible for executive control. We conducted meta-analyses of auditory neuroimaging studies to determine whether a common activation pattern of the frontal lobe supports effortful listening under different speech manipulations. Fifty-three functional neuroimaging studies investigating speech perception were divided into three independent Activation Likelihood Estimate analyses based on the type of speech manipulation paradigm used: Speech-in-noise (SIN, 16 studies, involving 224 participants); spectrally degraded speech using filtering techniques (15 studies involving 270 participants); and linguistic complexity (i...
March 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Lâle Battal Merlet, Alain Blanchet, Hazlin Lockman, Milena Kostova
The objective of this electrophysiological study was to investigate the processing of semantic coherence during encoding in relation to episodic memory processes promoted at test, in schizophrenia patients, by using the N400 paradigm. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy participants undertook a recognition memory task. The stimuli consisted of pairs of words either semantically related or unrelated to a given category name (context). During encoding, both groups exhibited an N400 external semantic coherence effect...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Jie Zhang, Xuehu Wei, Sangma Xie, Zhen Zhou, Desheng Shang, Renjie Ji, Yamei Yu, Fangping He, Yue Du, Xiangming Ye, Benyan Luo
In the dual-route language model, the dorsal pathway is known for sound-to-motor mapping, but the role of the ventral stream is controversial. With the goal of enhancing our understanding of language models, this study investigated the diffusion characteristics of candidate tracts in aphasic patients. We evaluated 14 subacute aphasic patients post-stroke and 11 healthy controls with language assessment and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping found multiple linguistic associations for the ventral stream, while automated fiber quantification (AFQ) showed, via reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity with increased radial diffusivity (all corrected p  < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yi-Tzu Chang, Hsiang-Yu Chen, Yuan-Chieh Huang, Wan-Yu Shih, Hsiao-Lung Chan, Ping-Yi Wu, Ling-Fu Meng, Chen-Chi Chen, Ching-I Wang
BACKGROUND: Action semantics have been investigated in relation to context violation but remain less examined in relation to the meaning of gestures. In the present study, we examined tool-gesture incongruity by event-related potentials (ERPs) and hypothesized that the component N400, a neural index which has been widely used in both linguistic and action semantic congruence, is significant for conditions of incongruence. METHODS: Twenty participants performed a tool-gesture judgment task, in which they were asked to judge whether the tool-gesture pairs were correct or incorrect, for the purpose of conveying functional expression of the tools...
March 13, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Mengmeng Zhang, Wei Li, Qian Du
Convolutional neural network (CNN) is of great interest in machine learning and has demonstrated excellent performance in hyperspectral image classification. In this paper, we propose a classification framework, called diverse region-based CNN, which can encode semantic context-aware representation to obtain promising features. With merging a diverse set of discriminative appearance factors, the resulting CNN-based representation exhibits spatial-spectral context sensitivity that is essential for accurate pixel classification...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
James Winters, Simon Kirby, Kenny Smith
Aligning on a shared system of communication requires senders and receivers reach a balance between simplicity, where there is a pressure for compressed representations, and informativeness, where there is a pressure to be communicatively functional. We investigate the extent to which these two pressures are governed by contextual predictability: the amount of contextual information that a sender can estimate, and therefore exploit, in conveying their intended meaning. In particular, we test the claim that contextual predictability is causally related to signal autonomy: the degree to which a signal can be interpreted in isolation, without recourse to contextual information...
March 10, 2018: Cognition
M Britel, M Bourguignon, N Foray
PURPOSES: The term "radiosensitivity" appeared for the first time at the beginning of the 20th century, few years after the discovery of X-rays. Initially used by French and German radiologists, it illustrated the risk of radiation-induced (RI) skin reactions. From the 1950's, "radiosensitivity" was progressively found to describe other features of RI response such as RI cancers or cataracts. To date, such confusion may raise legal issues and complexify the message addressed to general public...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Jejo D Koola, Sharon E Davis, Omar Al-Nimri, Sharidan K Parr, Daniel Fabbri, Bradley A Malin, Samuel B Ho, Michael E Matheny
OBJECTIVE: Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS) is a devastating form of acute kidney injury (AKI) in advanced liver disease patients with high morbidity and mortality, but phenotyping algorithms have not yet been developed using large electronic health record (EHR) databases. We evaluated and compared multiple phenotyping methods to achieve an accurate algorithm for HRS identification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A national retrospective cohort of patients with cirrhosis and AKI admitted to 124 Veterans Affairs hospitals was assembled from electronic health record data collected from 2005 to 2013...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Burkhard Pleger, Dagmar Timmann
Lesion studies emphasize the role of the human cerebellum in a variety of cognitive processes. To date, most evidence comes from studies investigating language-related functions, such as verbal short-term/working memory, word generation, or linguistic/semantic predictions. This review summarizes brain imaging, non-invasive cerebellar stimulation and lesion studies in this field. Converging evidence suggests a cerebellar role in error processing and memory encoding although findings are partly contradictory...
March 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Anaëlle Camarda, Émilie Salvia, Julie Vidal, Benoit Weil, Nicolas Poirel, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst, Mathieu Cassotti
Decades of problem solving and creativity research have converged to show that the ability to generate new and useful ideas can be blocked or impeded by intuitive biases leading to mental fixations. The present study aimed at investigating the neural bases of the processes involved in overcoming fixation effects during creative idea generation. Using the AU task adapted for EEG recording, we examined whether participant's ability to provide original ideas was related to alpha power changes in both the frontal and temporo-parietal regions...
March 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Ruth L F Leong, Shirley Y J Koh, Jesisca Tandi, Michael W L Chee, June C Lo
Prospective memory is defined as remembering to do something at a particular moment in the future and may be modulated by sleep. Here, we investigated whether multiple nights of partial sleep deprivation would affect the successful retrieval of intentions. Fifty-nine adolescents (mean age ± SD: 16.1 ± 0.6 years) were instructed to remember to press specific keys in response to the target words presented during a semantic categorization task in the future. Their memory was tested after five nights of either 5-h (sleep restriction group) or 9-h time-in-bed (control group)...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Mohammed Alsuhaibani, Danushka Bollegala, Takanori Maehara, Ken-Ichi Kawarabayashi
Methods for representing the meaning of words in vector spaces purely using the information distributed in text corpora have proved to be very valuable in various text mining and natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, these methods still disregard the valuable semantic relational structure between words in co-occurring contexts. These beneficial semantic relational structures are contained in manually-created knowledge bases (KBs) such as ontologies and semantic lexicons, where the meanings of words are represented by defining the various relationships that exist among those words...
2018: PloS One
Jinbo Chen, Uwe Scholz, Ruonan Zhou, Matthias Lange
In order to access and filter content of life-science databases, full text search is a widely applied query interface. But its high flexibility and intuitiveness is paid for with potentially imprecise and incomplete query results. To reduce this drawback, query assistance systems suggest those combinations of keywords with the highest potential to match most of the relevant data records. Widespread approaches are syntactic query corrections that avoid misspelling and support expansion of words by suffixes and prefixes...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sira Sriswasdi, Supaksorn Thika, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, Marta Kubera, Michael Maes
Deficit schizophrenia is characterized by neurocognitive impairments and changes in the patterning of IgA/IgM responses to plasma tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). In the current study, supervised pattern recognition methods, including logistic regression analysis (LRA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), were used to examine whether deficit schizophrenia is a discrete diagnostic class with respect to Consortium To Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) tests and IgA/IgM responses to noxious (NOX) and generally more protective (PRO) TRYCATs...
March 11, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
R Guerrero, C Qin, O Oktay, C Bowles, L Chen, R Joules, R Wolz, M C Valdés-Hernández, D A Dickie, J Wardlaw, D Rueckert
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a feature of sporadic small vessel disease also frequently observed in magnetic resonance images (MRI) of healthy elderly subjects. The accurate assessment of WMH burden is of crucial importance for epidemiological studies to determine association between WMHs, cognitive and clinical data; their causes, and the effects of new treatments in randomized trials. The manual delineation of WMHs is a very tedious, costly and time consuming process, that needs to be carried out by an expert annotator (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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