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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156216/covert-retrieval-in-working-memory-impacts-the-phenomenological-characteristics-remembered-during-episodic-memory
#1
Vanessa M Loaiza, Borislava M Borovanska
Much research has investigated the qualitative experience of retrieving events from episodic memory (EM). The present study investigated whether covert retrieval in WM increases the phenomenological characteristics that participants find memorable in EM using tasks that distract attention from the maintenance of memoranda (i.e., complex span; Experiment 1) relative to tasks that do not (i.e., short or long list lengths of simple span; Experiments 1 and 2). Participants rated the quality of the phonological, semantic, and temporal-contextual characteristics remembered during a delayed memory characteristics questionnaire (MCQ)...
November 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155996/hierarchical-attention-networks-for-information-extraction-from-cancer-pathology-reports
#2
Shang Gao, Michael T Young, John X Qiu, Hong-Jun Yoon, James B Christian, Paul A Fearn, Georgia D Tourassi, Arvind Ramanthan
Objective: We explored how a deep learning (DL) approach based on hierarchical attention networks (HANs) can improve model performance for multiple information extraction tasks from unstructured cancer pathology reports compared to conventional methods that do not sufficiently capture syntactic and semantic contexts from free-text documents. Materials and Methods: Data for our analyses were obtained from 942 deidentified pathology reports collected by the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154635/you-have-to-hear-this-using-tone-of-voice-to-motivate-others
#3
Netta Weinstein, Konstantina Zougkou, Silke Paulmann
The present studies explored the role of prosody in motivating others, and applied self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) to do so. Initial studies describe patterns of prosody that discriminate motivational speech. Autonomy support was expressed with lower intensity, slower speech rate and less voice energy in both motivationally laden and neutral (but motivationally primed) sentences. In a follow-up study, participants were able to recognize motivational prosody in semantically neutral sentences, suggesting prosody alone may carry motivational content...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154619/complementarity-in-false-memory-illusions
#4
C J Brainerd, V F Reyna
For some years, the DRM illusion has been the most widely studied form of false memory. The consensus theoretical interpretation is that the illusion is a reality reversal, in which certain new words (critical distractors) are remembered as though they are old list words rather than as what they are-new words that are similar to old ones. This reality-reversal interpretation is supported by compelling lines of evidence, but prior experiments are limited by the fact that their memory tests only asked whether test items were old...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154160/gender-identity-better-than-sex-explains-individual-differences-in-episodic-and-semantic-components-of-autobiographical-memory-and-future-thinking
#5
Laurie Compère, Eirini Rari, Thierry Gallarda, Adèle Assens, Marion Nys, Sandrine Coussinoux, Sébastien Machefaux, Pascale Piolino
A recently tested hypothesis suggests that inter-individual differences in episodic autobiographical memory (EAM) are better explained by individual identification of typical features of a gender identity than by sex. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by investigating sex and gender related differences not only in EAM but also during retrieval of more abstract self-knowledge (i.e., semantic autobiographical memory, SAM, and conceptual self, CS), and considering past and future perspectives. No sex-related differences were identified, but regardless of the sex, feminine gender identity was associated with clear differences in emotional aspects that were expressed in both episodic and more abstract forms of AM, and in the past and future perspectives, while masculine gender identity was associated with limited effects...
November 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154072/physiological-effects-of-viewing-fresh-red-roses
#6
Chorong Song, Miho Igarashi, Harumi Ikei, Yoshifumi Miyazaki
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to clarify the effects of viewing fresh roses on prefrontal cortex activity, autonomic nervous activity and subjective assessments of psychological relaxation. DESIGN: A crossover design, in which each experimental group crosses over from one treatment to another, was used. SETTING AND INTERVENTIONS: A total of 15 female university students (mean age 21.7±1.1years) viewed fresh roses for 3min; the control consisted of no experimental stimulus...
December 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154028/listening-while-reading-promotes-word-learning-from-stories
#7
Alessandra Valentini, Jessie Ricketts, Rachel E Pye, Carmel Houston-Price
Reading and listening to stories fosters vocabulary development. Studies of single word learning suggest that new words are more likely to be learned when both their oral and written forms are provided, compared with when only one form is given. This study explored children's learning of phonological, orthographic, and semantic information about words encountered in a story context. A total of 71 children (8- and 9-year-olds) were exposed to a story containing novel words in one of three conditions: (a) listening, (b) reading, or (c) simultaneous listening and reading ("combined" condition)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153448/evidence-of-disturbances-of-deep-levels-of-semantic-cohesion-within-personal-narratives-in-schizophrenia
#8
Jon A Willits, Timothy Rubin, Michael N Jones, Kyle S Minor, Paul H Lysaker
Since initial conceptualizations, schizophrenia has been thought to involve core disturbances in the ability to form complex, integrated ideas. Although this has been studied in terms of formal thought disorder, the level of involvement of altered latent semantic structure is less clear. To explore this question, we compared the personal narratives of adults with schizophrenia (n=200) to those produced by an HIV+ sample (n=55) using selected indices from Coh-Metrix. Coh-Metrix is a software system designed to compute various language usage statistics from transcribed written and spoken language documents...
November 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151821/streamqre-modular-specification-and-efficient-evaluation-of-quantitative-queries-over-streaming-data
#9
Konstantinos Mamouras, Mukund Raghothaman, Rajeev Alur, Zachary G Ives, Sanjeev Khanna
Real-time decision making in emerging IoT applications typically relies on computing quantitative summaries of large data streams in an efficient and incremental manner. To simplify the task of programming the desired logic, we propose StreamQRE, which provides natural and high-level constructs for processing streaming data. Our language has a novel integration of linguistic constructs from two distinct programming paradigms: streaming extensions of relational query languages and quantitative extensions of regular expressions...
June 2017: Proc ACM SIGPLAN Conf Program Lang Des Implement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151558/-a-comparison-of-hospice-care-research-topics-between-korea-and-other-countries-using-text-network-analysis
#10
Eun Jun Park, Youngji Kim, Chan Sook Park
PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify and compare hospice care research topics between Korean and international nursing studies using text network analysis. METHODS: The study was conducted in four steps: 1) collecting abstracts of relevant journal articles, 2) extracting and cleaning keywords (semantic morphemes) from the abstracts, 3) developing co-occurrence matrices and text-networks of keywords, and 4) analyzing network-related measures including degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, and clustering using the NetMiner program...
October 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151094/glossolalia-and-aphasia-related-but-different-worlds
#11
Leila Chouiter, Jean-Marie Annoni
The word glossolalia, also referred to as "speaking in tongues," originates from the Greek "glossa" which means "language" and "Lalia" which means "speak." It simply means to talk language. On a linguistic perspective, glossolalia is characterized by almost no recognizable words or semantic content, apart from biblical words and phrases, with an overrepresentation of a small phonemes number, accelerated speech output, and modification of accents and melody. Its phonemic properties have been said to resemble those of the language(s) of the speaker...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150626/constructing-genetic-networks-using-biomedical-literature-and-rare-event-classification
#12
Amira Al-Aamri, Kamal Taha, Yousof Al-Hammadi, Maher Maalouf, Dirar Homouz
Text mining has become an important tool in bioinformatics research with the massive growth in the biomedical literature over the past decade. Mining the biomedical literature has resulted in an incredible number of computational algorithms that assist many bioinformatics researchers. In this paper, we present a text mining system called Gene Interaction Rare Event Miner (GIREM) that constructs gene-gene-interaction networks for human genome using information extracted from biomedical literature. GIREM identifies functionally related genes based on their co-occurrences in the abstracts of biomedical literature...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150618/lexical-processing-of-chinese-sub-character-components-semantic-activation-of-phonetic-radicals-as-revealed-by-the-stroop-effect
#13
Su-Ling Yeh, Wei-Lun Chou, Pokuan Ho
Most Chinese characters are compounds consisting of a semantic radical indicating semantic category and a phonetic radical cuing the pronunciation of the character. Controversy surrounds whether radicals also go through the same lexical processing as characters and, critically, whether phonetic radicals involve semantic activation since they can also be characters when standing alone. Here we examined these issues using the Stroop task whereby participants responded to the ink color of the character. The key finding was that Stroop effects were found when the character itself had a meaning unrelated to color, but contained a color name phonetic radical (e...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149658/evaluating-casama-contextualized-semantic-maps-for-summarization-of-lung-cancer-studies
#14
Jean I Garcia-Gathright, Nicholas J Matiasz, Carlos Adame, Karthik V Sarma, Lauren Sauer, Nova F Smedley, Marshall L Spiegel, Jennifer Strunck, Edward B Garon, Ricky K Taira, Denise R Aberle, Alex A T Bui
OBJECTIVE: It is crucial for clinicians to stay up to date on current literature in order to apply recent evidence to clinical decision making. Automatic summarization systems can help clinicians quickly view an aggregated summary of literature on a topic. Casama, a representation and summarization system based on "contextualized semantic maps," captures the findings of biomedical studies as well as the contexts associated with patient population and study design. This paper presents a user-oriented evaluation of Casama in comparison to a context-free representation, SemRep...
November 3, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147833/the-processing-costs-of-presupposition-accommodation
#15
Filippo Domaneschi, Simona Di Paola
The present study investigates the processing of presupposition accommodation. In particular, it concerns the processing costs and the time-course of accommodation as compared to presupposition satisfaction. Data collected in a self-paced word-by-word reading times experiment support three results. First, independently on the presupposition trigger in use, accommodation is costlier than satisfaction. Second, presupposition accommodation takes places immediately just as the trigger becomes available and proceeds incrementally during the sentence processing...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147832/wh-questions-universal-statements-and-free-choice-inferences-in-child-mandarin
#16
Haiquan Huang, Peng Zhou, Stephen Crain
This study investigated 5-year-old Mandarin-speaking children's comprehension of wh-questions, universal statements and free choice inferences. Previous research has found that Mandarin-speaking children assign a universal interpretation to sentences with a wh-word (e.g., shei 'who') followed by the adverbial quantifier dou 'all' (Zhou in Appl Psycholinguist 36:411-435, 2013). Children also compute free choice inferences in sentences that contain a modal verb in addition to a wh-word and dou (Zhou, in: Nakayama, Su, Huang (eds...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146995/gaba-concentrations-in-the-anterior-temporal-lobe-predict-human-semantic-processing
#17
JeYoung Jung, Stephen R Williams, Faezeh Sanaei Nezhad, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
There is now considerable convergent evidence from multiple methodologies and clinical studies that the human anterior temporal lobe (ATL) is a semantic representational hub. However, the neurochemical nature of the ATL in the semantic processing remains unclear. The current study investigated the neurochemical mechanism underlying semantic processing in the ATL. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure task-related blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes during sematic processing and resting-state GABA concentrations in the ATL...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146464/language-control-mechanisms-differ-for-native-languages-neuromagnetic-evidence-from-trilingual-language-switching
#18
Suzanne C A Hut, Päivi Helenius, Alina Leminen, Jyrki P Mäkelä, Minna Lehtonen
How does the brain process and control languages that are learned at a different age, when proficiency in all these languages is high? Early acquired strong languages are likely to have higher baseline activation levels than later learned less-dominant languages. However, it is still largely unknown how the activation levels of these different languages are controlled, and how interference from an irrelevant language is prevented. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study on language switching during auditory perception, early Finnish-Swedish bilinguals (N=18) who mastered English with high proficiency after childhood were presented with spoken words in each of the three languages, while performing a simple semantic categorisation task...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145421/radiographic-prediction-of-meningioma-grade-by-semantic-and-radiomic-features
#19
Thibaud P Coroller, Wenya Linda Bi, Elizabeth Huynh, Malak Abedalthagafi, Ayal A Aizer, Noah F Greenwald, Chintan Parmar, Vivek Narayan, Winona W Wu, Samuel Miranda de Moura, Saksham Gupta, Rameen Beroukhim, Patrick Y Wen, Ossama Al-Mefty, Ian F Dunn, Sandro Santagata, Brian M Alexander, Raymond Y Huang, Hugo J W L Aerts
OBJECTIVES: The clinical management of meningioma is guided by tumor grade and biological behavior. Currently, the assessment of tumor grade follows surgical resection and histopathologic review. Reliable techniques for pre-operative determination of tumor grade may enhance clinical decision-making. METHODS: A total of 175 meningioma patients (103 low-grade and 72 high-grade) with pre-operative contrast-enhanced T1-MRI were included. Fifteen radiomic (quantitative) and 10 semantic (qualitative) features were applied to quantify the imaging phenotype...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142060/sleep-increases-explicit-solutions-and-reduces-intuitive-judgments-of-semantic-coherence
#20
Thea Zander, Kirsten G Volz, Jan Born, Susanne Diekelmann
Sleep fosters the generation of explicit knowledge. Whether sleep also benefits implicit intuitive decisions about underlying patterns is unclear. We examined sleep's role in explicit and intuitive semantic coherence judgments. Participants encoded sets of three words and after a sleep or wake period were required to judge the potential convergence of these words on a common fourth associate. Compared with wakefulness, sleep increased the number of explicitly named common associates and decreased the number of intuitive judgments...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
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