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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943413/the-cortical-dynamics-of-speaking-lexical-and-phonological-knowledge-simultaneously-recruit-the-frontal-and-temporal-cortex-within-200%C3%A2-ms
#1
Kristof Strijkers, Albert Costa, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Language production models typically assume that retrieving a word for articulation is a sequential process with substantial functional delays between conceptual, lexical, phonological and motor processing, respectively. Nevertheless, explicit evidence contrasting the spatiotemporal dynamics between different word production components is scarce. Here, using anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography during overt meaningful speech production, we explore the speed with which lexico-semantic versus acoustic-articulatory information of a to-be-uttered word become first neurophysiologically manifest in the cerebral cortex...
September 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943127/the-interpretation-of-dream-meaning-resolving-ambiguity-using-latent-semantic-analysis-in-a-small-corpus-of-text
#2
Edgar Altszyler, Sidarta Ribeiro, Mariano Sigman, Diego Fernández Slezak
Computer-based dreams content analysis relies on word frequencies within predefined categories in order to identify different elements in text. As a complementary approach, we explored the capabilities and limitations of word-embedding techniques to identify word usage patterns among dream reports. These tools allow us to quantify words associations in text and to identify the meaning of target words. Word-embeddings have been extensively studied in large datasets, but only a few studies analyze semantic representations in small corpora...
September 21, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942127/examining-incidental-word-learning-during-reading-in-children-the-role-of-context
#3
Holly Joseph, Kate Nation
From mid-childhood onward, children learn hundreds of new words every year incidentally through reading. Yet little is known about this process and the circumstances in which vocabulary acquisition is maximized. We examined whether encountering novel words in semantically diverse, rather than semantically uniform, contexts led to better learning. Children aged 10 and 11years read sentences containing novel words while their eye movements were monitored. Results showed a reduction in reading times over exposure for all children, but especially for those with good reading comprehension...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940969/decoding-the-neural-representation-of-story-meanings-across-languages
#4
Morteza Dehghani, Reihane Boghrati, Kingson Man, Joe Hoover, Sarah I Gimbel, Ashish Vaswani, Jason D Zevin, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, Andrew S Gordon, Antonio Damasio, Jonas T Kaplan
Drawing from a common lexicon of semantic units, humans fashion narratives whose meaning transcends that of their individual utterances. However, while brain regions that represent lower-level semantic units, such as words and sentences, have been identified, questions remain about the neural representation of narrative comprehension, which involves inferring cumulative meaning. To address these questions, we exposed English, Mandarin, and Farsi native speakers to native language translations of the same stories during fMRI scanning...
September 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940045/a-neuronal-retuning-hypothesis-of-sentence-specificity-in-broca-s-area
#5
REVIEW
William G Matchin
It is clear that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) contributes in some fashion to sentence processing. While neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence support a domain-general working memory function, recent neuroimaging data show that particular subregions of the LIFG, particularly the pars triangularis (pTri), show selective activation for sentences relative to verbal working memory and cognitive control tasks. These data suggest a language-specific function rather than a domain-general one. To resolve this apparent conflict, I propose separating claims of domain-generality and specificity independently for computations and representations-a given brain region may respond to a specific representation while performing a general computation over that representation, one shared with other systems...
September 22, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939446/next-generation-terminology-infrastructure-to-support-interprofessional-care-planning
#6
Sarah Collins, Stephanie Klinkenberg-Ramirez, Kira Tsivkin, Perry L Mar, Dina Iskhakova, Hari Nandigam, Lipika Samal, Roberto A Rocha
OBJECTIVE: Develop a prototype of an interprofessional terminology and information model infrastructure that can enable care planning applications to facilitate patient-centered care, learn care plan linkages and associations, provide decision support, and enable automated, prospective analytics. DESIGN: The study steps included a 3 step approach: 1) Process model and clinical scenario development, and 2) Requirements analysis, and 3) Development and validation of information and terminology models...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938912/semantic-annotation-in-biomedicine-the-current-landscape
#7
REVIEW
Jelena Jovanović, Ebrahim Bagheri
The abundance and unstructured nature of biomedical texts, be it clinical or research content, impose significant challenges for the effective and efficient use of information and knowledge stored in such texts. Annotation of biomedical documents with machine intelligible semantics facilitates advanced, semantics-based text management, curation, indexing, and search. This paper focuses on annotation of biomedical entity mentions with concepts from relevant biomedical knowledge bases such as UMLS. As a result, the meaning of those mentions is unambiguously and explicitly defined, and thus made readily available for automated processing...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938902/large-scale-online-semantic-indexing-of-biomedical-articles-via-an-ensemble-of-multi-label-classification-models
#8
Yannis Papanikolaou, Grigorios Tsoumakas, Manos Laliotis, Nikos Markantonatos, Ioannis Vlahavas
BACKGROUND: In this paper we present the approach that we employed to deal with large scale multi-label semantic indexing of biomedical papers. This work was mainly implemented within the context of the BioASQ challenge (2013-2017), a challenge concerned with biomedical semantic indexing and question answering. METHODS: Our main contribution is a MUlti-Label Ensemble method (MULE) that incorporates a McNemar statistical significance test in order to validate the combination of the constituent machine learning algorithms...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937305/core-vocabulary-in-the-narratives-of-bilingual-children-with-and-without-language-impairment
#9
Prarthana Shivabasappa, Elizabeth D Peña, Lisa M Bedore
PURPOSE: Children with primary language impairment (PLI) demonstrate deficits in morphosyntax and vocabulary. We studied how these deficits may manifest in the core vocabulary use of bilingual children with PLI. METHOD: Thirty bilingual children with and without PLI who were matched pairwise (experimental group) narrated two Spanish and two English stories in kindergarten and first grade. Core vocabulary was derived from the 30 most frequently used words in the stories of 65 and 37 typically developing (TD) first graders (normative group) for Spanish and English, respectively...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935617/the-adverse-drug-reactions-from-patient-reports-in-social-media-project-five-major-challenges-to-overcome-to-operationalize-analysis-and-efficiently-support-pharmacovigilance-process
#10
Cedric Bousquet, Badisse Dahamna, Sylvie Guillemin-Lanne, Stefan J Darmoni, Carole Faviez, Charles Huot, Sandrine Katsahian, Vincent Leroux, Suzanne Pereira, Christophe Richard, Stéphane Schück, Julien Souvignet, Agnès Lillo-Le Louët, Nathalie Texier
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Classical Pharmacovigilance process is limited by underreporting which justifies the current interest in new knowledge sources such as social media. The Adverse Drug Reactions from Patient Reports in Social Media (ADR-PRISM) project aims to extract ADRs reported by patients in these media. We identified 5 major challenges to overcome to operationalize the analysis of patient posts: (1) variable quality of information on social media, (2) guarantee of data privacy, (3) response to pharmacovigilance expert expectations, (4) identification of relevant information within Web pages, and (5) robust and evolutive architecture...
September 21, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933902/individual-differences-in-verbal-working-memory-underlie-a-tradeoff-between-semantic-and-structural-processing-difficulty-during-language-comprehension-an-erp-investigation
#11
Albert E Kim, Leif Oines, Akira Miyake
This study investigated the processes reflected in the widely observed N400 and P600 event-related potential (ERP) effects and tested the hypothesis that the N400 and P600 effects are functionally linked in a tradeoff relationship, constrained in part by individual differences in cognitive ability. Sixty participants read sentences, and ERP effects of semantic anomaly, relative to plausible words, were calculated for each participant. Results suggested qualitatively different ERP patterns across participants: Some individuals generated N400-dominated effects, whereas others generated P600-dominated effects, for the same stimuli...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933895/individual-variability-in-the-semantic-processing-of-english-compound-words
#12
Daniel Schmidtke, Julie A Van Dyke, Victor Kuperman
Semantic transparency effects during compound word recognition provide critical insight into the organization of semantic knowledge and the nature of semantic processing. The past 25 years of psycholinguistic research on compound semantic transparency has produced discrepant effects, leaving the existence and nature of its influence unresolved. In the present study, we examined the influence of semantic transparency and individual reading experience on eye-movement behavior during sentence reading. Eye-movement data were collected from 138 non-college-bound 16- to 26-year-old speakers of English in a sentence-reading task representing a total of 455 different compound words...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932600/abnormal-n400-semantic-priming-effect-may-reflect-psychopathological-processes-in-schizophrenia-a-twin-study
#13
Anuradha Sharma, Heinrich Sauer, Holger Hill, Claudia Kaufmann, Stephan Bender, Matthias Weisbrod
OBJECTIVE: Activation of semantic networks is indexed by the N400 effect. We used a twin study design to investigate whether N400 effect abnormalities reflect genetic/trait liability or are related to psychopathological processes in schizophrenia. METHODS: We employed robust linear regression to compare N400 and behavioral priming effects across 36 monozygotic twin pairs (6 pairs concordant for schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, 11 discordant pairs, and 19 healthy control pairs) performing a lexical decision task...
2017: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932108/cognitive-and-behavioral-evaluation-of-nutritional-interventions-in-rodent-models-of-brain-aging-and-dementia
#14
REVIEW
Devin Wahl, Sean Cp Coogan, Samantha M Solon-Biet, Rafael de Cabo, James B Haran, David Raubenheimer, Victoria C Cogger, Mark P Mattson, Stephen J Simpson, David G Le Couteur
Evaluation of behavior and cognition in rodent models underpins mechanistic and interventional studies of brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases, especially dementia. Commonly used tests include Morris water maze, Barnes maze, object recognition, fear conditioning, radial arm water maze, and Y maze. Each of these tests reflects some aspects of human memory including episodic memory, recognition memory, semantic memory, spatial memory, and emotional memory. Although most interventional studies in rodent models of dementia have focused on pharmacological agents, there are an increasing number of studies that have evaluated nutritional interventions including caloric restriction, intermittent fasting, and manipulation of macronutrients...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931422/pibas-fedsparql-a-web-based-platform-for-integration-and-exploration-of-bioinformatics-datasets
#15
Marija Djokic-Petrovic, Vladimir Cvjetkovic, Jeremy Yang, Marko Zivanovic, David J Wild
BACKGROUND: There are a huge variety of data sources relevant to chemical, biological and pharmacological research, but these data sources are highly siloed and cannot be queried together in a straightforward way. Semantic technologies offer the ability to create links and mappings across datasets and manage them as a single, linked network so that searching can be carried out across datasets, independently of the source. We have developed an application called PIBAS FedSPARQL that uses semantic technologies to allow researchers to carry out such searching across a vast array of data sources...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930751/dementia-predicting-cognitive-risk-score-and-its-correlation-with-cortical-thickness-in-parkinson-disease
#16
Byoung Seok Ye, Seun Jeon, Jee Hyun Ham, Jae Jung Lee, Jong Min Lee, Hye Sun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H Sohn
BACKGROUND: We developed a risk score system to predict risks of developing dementia in individual Parkinson disease (PD) patients using baseline neuropsychological tests. METHODS: A total of 216 nondemented PD patients underwent a baseline neuropsychological evaluation and were followed up for a mean of 2.7 (±1.1) years. Univariate Cox regression models controlled for age, gender, and education selected neuropsychological tests individually predicting dementia risk...
September 21, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930169/comparison-of-physiological-and-psychological-relaxation-using-measurements-of-heart-rate-variability-prefrontal-cortex-activity-and-subjective-indexes-after-completing-tasks-with-and-without-foliage-plants
#17
Sin-Ae Park, Chorong Song, Yun-Ah Oh, Yoshifumi Miyazaki, Ki-Cheol Son
The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS)...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929028/fish-ontology-framework-for-taxonomy-based-fish-recognition
#18
Najib M Ali, Haris A Khan, Amy Y-Hui Then, Chong Ving Ching, Manas Gaur, Sarinder Kaur Dhillon
Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO), an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928685/how-children-become-sensitive-to-the-morphological-structure-of-the-words-that-they-read
#19
S H Deacon, Kathryn A Francis
Background: We tested the predictions of models of word reading development as to the effects of repeated exposure on reading of derived words. Aim: Our goal was to examine the impacts of variables that quantify different aspects of this exposure: base frequency, family frequency, and family size. Methods and Samples: In Experiment 1, we asked 75 children in Grades 3 and 5 to read derived words with low surface frequencies (e.g., questionable) that varied in base frequency, family frequency, and family size...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928348/cross-cultural-adaptation-of-jefferson-scale-of-empathy-health-professions-students-version-an-experience-with-developing-the-tamil-translation
#20
Kathiresan Jeyashree, Soundappan Kathirvel, Muthu K Prathibha
BACKGROUND: Empathy is a key cognitive attribute among healthcare professionals that fosters better patient- healthcare provider relationships. The Jefferson scale of empathy (JSE) measures self-rated empathy among various groups of healthcare professionals-health professionals, medical students and health professions students (HPS). The authors present the experience in translating the JSE-HPS version into an Indian regional language with insights into the issues faced in every step...
May 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
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