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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936370/episodic-future-thinking-involving-the-nonsmoking-self-can-induce-lower-discounting-and-cigarette-consumption
#1
Wen-Bin Chiou, Wen-Hsiung Wu
OBJECTIVE: Building on recent advances showing that the engagement in episodic future thinking (EFT) rather than semantic future thinking (SFT) can induce individuals to delay gratification and that activation of the ideal self may promote goal attainment, we tested whether imagining life events after smoking cessation led to lower discounting and reduced smoking. METHOD: Ninety smokers (21 women, 69 men) with intentions to quit or reduce smoking were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions: EFT, SFT, and control...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936062/on-the-antecedents-of-an-electrophysiological-signature-of-retrieval-mode
#2
Angharad N Williams, Lisa H Evans, Jane E Herron, Edward L Wilding
It has been proposed that people employ a common set of sustained operations (retrieval mode) when preparing to remember different kinds of episodic information. In two experiments, however, there was no evidence for the pattern of brain activity commonly assumed to index these operations. In both experiments event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded time-locked to alternating preparatory cues signalling that participants should prepare for different retrieval tasks. One cue signalled episodic retrieval: remember the location where the object was presented in a prior study phase...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936001/computerized-analysis-of-verbal-fluency-normative-data-and-the-effects-of-repeated-testing-simulated-malingering-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
David L Woods, John M Wyma, Timothy J Herron, E William Yund
In verbal fluency (VF) tests, subjects articulate words in a specified category during a short test period (typically 60 s). Verbal fluency tests are widely used to study language development and to evaluate memory retrieval in neuropsychiatric disorders. Performance is usually measured as the total number of correct words retrieved. Here, we describe the properties of a computerized VF (C-VF) test that tallies correct words and repetitions while providing additional lexical measures of word frequency, syllable count, and typicality...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933029/drifting-through-basic-subprocesses-of-reading-a-hierarchical-diffusion-model-analysis-of-age-effects-on-visual-word-recognition
#4
Eva Froehlich, Johanna Liebig, Johannes C Ziegler, Mario Braun, Ulman Lindenberger, Hauke R Heekeren, Arthur M Jacobs
Reading is one of the most popular leisure activities and it is routinely performed by most individuals even in old age. Successful reading enables older people to master and actively participate in everyday life and maintain functional independence. Yet, reading comprises a multitude of subprocesses and it is undoubtedly one of the most complex accomplishments of the human brain. Not surprisingly, findings of age-related effects on word recognition and reading have been partly contradictory and are often confined to only one of four central reading subprocesses, i...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932908/lifewatch-greece-data-services-discovering-biodiversity-data-using-semantic-web-technologies
#5
Nikos Minadakis, Yannis Marketakis, Martin Doerr, Chryssoula Bekiari, Panagiotis Papadakos, Alexandros Gougousis, Nicolas Bailly, Christos Arvanitidis
BACKGROUND: Biodiversity data is characterized by its cross-disciplinary character, the extremely broad range of data types and structures, and the variety of semantic concepts that it encompasses. Furthermore there is a plethora of different data sources providing resources for the same piece of information in a heterogeneous way. Even if we restrict our attention to Greek biodiversity domain, it is easy to see that biodiversity data remains unconnected and widely distributed among different sources...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932823/hereditary-dentine-dysplasias-terminology-in-the-context-of-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#6
M Chetty, T Roberts, L X G Stephen, P Beighton
Hereditary dentine dysplasias (HDD) such as dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) and dentine dysplasia (DD) are a group of genetic conditions characterised by an abnormal dentine structure due to disturbances in the formation, composition, or organisation of the dentine matrix. Either the primary or both primary and secondary dentition are affected to varying degrees. These disorders result from mutations in the genes encoding the major protein constituents of dentine, notably collagens and phosphoproteins. The clinical and radiological features of the hereditary dentine dysplasias (HDD) are relevant to clinical dentistry, in particular osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) which is a well-known heterogeneous genetic disorder...
December 9, 2016: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931265/increased-caspase-6-activity-in-the-human-anterior-olfactory-nuclei-of-the-olfactory-bulb-is-associated-with-cognitive-impairment
#7
Benedicte Foveau, Steffen Albrecht, David A Bennett, José A Correa, Andrea C LeBlanc
Abnormally elevated hippocampal Caspase-6 (Casp6) activity is intimately associated with age-related cognitive impairment in humans and in mice. In humans, these high levels of Casp6 activity are initially localized in the entorhinal cortex, the area of the brain first affected by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, according to Braak staging. The reason for the high vulnerability of entorhinal cortex neurons to neurofibrillary tangle pathology and Casp6 activity is unknown. Casp6 activity is involved in axonal degeneration, therefore, one possibility to explain increased vulnerability of the entorhinal cortex neurons would be that the afferent neurons of the olfactory bulb, some of which project their axons to the entorhinal cortex, are equally degenerating...
December 8, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931245/brain-activation-in-frontotemporal-and-alzheimer-s-dementia-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#8
Florian G Metzger, Betti Schopp, Florian B Haeussinger, Katja Dehnen, Matthis Synofzik, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is an increasingly studied disease, the underlying functional impairments on a neurobiological level of which have not been fully understood. Patients with the behavioral-subtype frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are particularly challenging for clinical measurements such as functional imaging due to their behavioral symptoms. Here, an alternative imaging method, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), is introduced to measure task-related cortical brain activation based on blood oxygenation...
December 8, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930808/searching-the-mouse-genome-informatics-mgi-resources-for-information-on-mouse-biology-from-genotype-to-phenotype
#9
David R Shaw
The Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) resource provides the research community with access to information on the genetics, genomics, and biology of the laboratory mouse. Core data in MGI include gene characterization and function, phenotype and disease model descriptions, DNA and protein sequence data, gene expression data, vertebrate homologies, SNPs, mapping data, and links to other bioinformatics databases. Semantic integration is supported through the use of standardized nomenclature, and through the use of controlled vocabularies such as the mouse Anatomical Dictionary, the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, and the Gene Ontologies...
December 8, 2016: Current Protocols in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930777/involvement-of-the-central-cognitive-mechanism-in-word-production-in-adults-who-stutter
#10
Pei-Tzu Tsai, Nan Bernstein Ratner
Purpose: The study examined whether semantic and phonological encoding processes were capacity demanding, involving the central cognitive mechanism, in adults who do and do not stutter (AWS and NS) to better understand the role of cognitive demand in linguistic processing and stuttering. We asked (a) whether the two linguistic processes in AWS are capacity demanding, which can temporally disrupt the processing of a concurrent nonlinguistic task, and (b) whether AWS and NS show similar patterns of temporal disruption in the two processes...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930664/reliable-analysis-of-single-unit-recordings-from-the-human-brain-under-noisy-conditions-tracking-neurons-over-hours
#11
Johannes Niediek, Jan Boström, Christian E Elger, Florian Mormann
Recording extracellulary from neurons in the brains of animals in vivo is among the most established experimental techniques in neuroscience, and has recently become feasible in humans. Many interesting scientific questions can be addressed only when extracellular recordings last several hours, and when individual neurons are tracked throughout the entire recording. Such questions regard, for example, neuronal mechanisms of learning and memory consolidation, and the generation of epileptic seizures. Several difficulties have so far limited the use of extracellular multi-hour recordings in neuroscience: Datasets become huge, and data are necessarily noisy in clinical recording environments...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930398/thinking-upstream-a-25-year-retrospective-and-conceptual-model-aimed-at-reducing-health-inequities
#12
Patricia G Butterfield
Thinking upstream was first introduced into the nursing vernacular in 1990 with the goal of advancing broad and context-rich perspectives of health. Initially invoked as conceptual framing language, upstream precepts were subsequently adopted and adapted by a generation of thoughtful nursing scholars. Their work reduced health inequities by redirecting actions further up etiologic pathways and by emphasizing economic, political, and environmental health determinants. US health care reform has fostered a much broader adoption of upstream language in policy documents...
December 6, 2016: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929336/absence-of-sublexical-representations-in-late-learning-signers-a-statistical-critique-of-lieberman-et-al-2015
#13
Anne Pier Salverda
Lieberman, Borovsky, Hatrak, and Mayberry (2015) used a modified version of the visual-world paradigm to examine the real-time processing of signs in American Sign Language. They examined the activation of phonological and semantic competitors in native signers and late-learning signers and concluded that their results provide evidence that the mental lexicon of late learners is organized differently from that of native signers. In particular, they claimed that late-learning signers, in contrast to native signers, do not activate phonological competitors during the real-time recognition of spoken words...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929326/a-joint-investigation-of-semantic-facilitation-and-semantic-interference-in-continuous-naming
#14
Michele Scaltritti, Francesca Peressotti, Eduardo Navarrete
When speakers name multiple semantically related items, opposing effects can be found. Semantic facilitation is found when naming 2 semantically related items in a row. In contrast, semantic interference is found when speakers name semantically related items separated by 1 or more intervening unrelated items. This latter form of interference is cumulative, as it increases as a function of the number of related items that have been named beforehand. Semantic facilitation has therefore been envisaged as a product of transient and fast-decaying activation of related representations, whereas semantic interference has been linked to longer-lasting changes in the connections between semantic and lexical representations...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927232/publication-of-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-experimental-data-with-semantic-web-technology-and-the-application-thereof-to-biomedical-research-of-proteins
#15
Masashi Yokochi, Naohiro Kobayashi, Eldon L Ulrich, Akira R Kinjo, Takeshi Iwata, Yannis E Ioannidis, Miron Livny, John L Markley, Haruki Nakamura, Chojiro Kojima, Toshimichi Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data for biological macromolecules archived at the BioMagResBank (BMRB) provide a rich resource of biophysical information at atomic resolution. The NMR data archived in NMR-STAR ASCII format have been implemented in a relational database. However, it is still fairly difficult for users to retrieve data from the NMR-STAR files or the relational database in association with data from other biological databases. FINDINGS: To enhance the interoperability of the BMRB database, we present a full conversion of BMRB entries to two standard structured data formats, XML and RDF, as common open representations of the NMR-STAR data...
May 5, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926440/fatigue-with-up-vs-downregulated-brain-arousal-should-not-be-confused
#16
U Hegerl, C Ulke
Fatigue is considered to be an important and frequent factor in motivation problems. However, this term lacks clinical and pathophysiological validity. Semantic precision has to be improved. Lack of drive and tiredness with increased sleepiness as observed in fatigue in the context of inflammatory and immunological processes (hypoaroused fatigue) has to be separated from inhibition of drive and tiredness with prolonged sleep onset latency as observed in major depression (hyperaroused fatigue). Subjective experiences as reported by patients, as well as clinical, behavioral, and neurobiological findings support the validity and importance of this distinction...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925605/large-scale-sparse-learning-from-noisy-tags-for-semantic-segmentation
#17
Aoxue Li, Zhiwu Lu, Liwei Wang, Peng Han, Ji-Rong Wen
In this paper, we present a large-scale sparse learning (LSSL) approach to solve the challenging task of semantic segmentation of images with noisy tags. Different from the traditional strongly supervised methods that exploit pixel-level labels for semantic segmentation, we make use of much weaker supervision (i.e., noisy tags of images) and then formulate the task of semantic segmentation as a weakly supervised learning (WSL) problem from the view point of noise reduction of superpixel labels. By learning the data manifolds, we transform the WSL problem into an LSSL problem...
December 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925590/modality-invariant-image-classification-based-on-modality-uniqueness-and-dictionary-learning
#18
Seungryong Kim, Rui Cai, Kihong Park, Sunok Kim, Kwanghoon Sohn
We present a unified framework for image classification of image sets taken under varying modality conditions. Our method is motivated by a key observation that the image feature distribution is simultaneously influenced by the semantic-class and the modality category label, which limits the performance of conventional methods for that task. With this insight, we introduce modality uniqueness as a discriminative weight that divides each modality cluster from all other clusters. By leveraging the modality uniqueness, our framework is formulated as unsupervised modality clustering and classifier learning based on modality-invariant similarity kernel...
December 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924453/functional-dedifferentiation-and-reduced-task-related-deactivations-underlie-the-age-related-decline-of-prospective-memory
#19
Julie Gonneaud, Grégory Lecouvey, Mathilde Groussard, Malo Gaubert, Brigitte Landeau, Florence Mézenge, Vincent de La Sayette, Francis Eustache, Béatrice Desgranges, Géraldine Rauchs
Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to execute an intention at the appropriate moment in the future, which can be performed either at the appearance of an event (event-based, EBPM) or after a certain amount of time (time-based, TBPM). PM is generally impaired during aging but the cerebral substrates of this decline have been little investigated. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we investigated the neural bases of PM in 20 young and 20 healthy older adults. They were proposed a task of semantic categorisation of pictures (ongoing task)...
December 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924010/dna-data-bank-of-japan
#20
Jun Mashima, Yuichi Kodama, Takatomo Fujisawa, Toshiaki Katayama, Yoshihiro Okuda, Eli Kaminuma, Osamu Ogasawara, Kousaku Okubo, Yasukazu Nakamura, Toshihisa Takagi
The DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) (http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) has been providing public data services for thirty years (since 1987). We are collecting nucleotide sequence data from researchers as a member of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC, http://www.insdc.org), in collaboration with the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). The DDBJ Center also services Japanese Genotype-phenotype Archive (JGA), with the National Bioscience Database Center to collect human-subjected data from Japanese researchers...
October 24, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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